flickering As soon at the wind started blowing hard, the lights started flickering. flickering- burning or shining in an irregular way As I sat on the back porch, I saw some fireflies flickering in the grass and air. wow.techradar.com
expands A rubber band expands as you stretch it. expands- becomes larger The balloon expands as the boy blows air into it. previews/742/52337.JPG m/Muscle_RubberBand2.jpg
propel The people aim to propel the ball down the street. propel- to cause to move forward Each push the puppy made against the wagon would propel the wagon further across the lawn /item.html l
gusty Up on deck the lady could feel the gusty breeze blowing against her face. gusty - blowing in strong sudden bursts The gusty wind blew the leaves right off the tree.
reliable She was shopping for a reliable car that would not break down on her. reliable- able to be depended on The safety patrol at our school are very reliable. They are always at their posts. content/uploads/2008/06/toyota-prius jpg
revolving doors He scratched his head as he watched the people get confused by the revolving doors. revolving doors- plural of revolving door; a door at the front of a building that moves in a circle around a central point The store had revolving doors for the customers to come in and out of the building photos/dandy.jpg webshots.com/ 63/6/95/46/ fXKBPA_p h.jpg
converts If the school converts to using computers for one third of its paperwork, imagine the savings it would have. converts- changes something into something different When the girl converts her trash into usable material, it saves space in the landfills.
currents The new energy efficient light bulbs use the same currents that the old ones use. currents- plural of current; a flow of electricity Currents flow easily through copper wire. images/Bare_cop...
fossil fuels The coal that is mined in Carbon, Utah is one of the nonrenewable fossil fuels. fossil fuels- plural of fossil fuel; a fuel formed from the remains of plants and animals. Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels. Most homes are heated with fossil fuels like oil, coal, and natural gas. firstrung.co.uk/ dbimgs/gas%20meter3.jpg
economical It is more economical to recycle soda cans than to throw them away. economical- a good use of resources; not wasteful He bought an economical car that wouldnt cost a lot to run. ecycleCenterTour_files/image004.jpg documentid=
Focus Questions: How did people harness the power of the wind several hundred years ago? How do people harness the power of the wind today?
Genre: Expository Text Expository text tells something. It contains facts about real people, things or events. The purpose of expository text is to share information with the reader in a straightforward way. The factual information can often be checked by referring to other sources such as science articles, reference books and newspapers
Word Structure More renewable Most renewable heavier heaviest These lines contain comparatives and superlatives. Comparatives are adjectives or adverbs that compare one person, thing or action to another. Superlatives are adjectives or adverbs that compare one person, thing, or action to several others.
More About Comparatives and Superlatives Comparatives are formed by adding -er to most short modifiers, or using the word more for longer modifiers. Superlatives are formed by adding -est to most short modifiers, or using the word most for longer modifiers. Do not use more and most with words that end with -er or -est.
What are the changes? serious happy What changes were made to the base word to form the words heavier and heaviest ? The y in heavy was changed to an I, then the ending was added. How would the comparative and superlative for each of these words be formed? - more serious, most serious - happier, happiest Can you use the words in a sentence?
What are the structures represented in the following words? villagers flooded discovered trying The structure of the word villagers includes: villag - er- s which means people from a particular village. What are the words base words? suffix -er, plural s inflectional ending -ed prefix dis-, inflectional ending ed inflectional ending -ing village flood cover try
What are the definitions? people from a particular village overflowing of water into dry land to be the first to observe or find something, to reveal to attempt to do or accomplish villagers flooded discovered trying Can you put the word in a sentence?
Building Background What do you know about windmills and how they work? What do you know about the history of windmills? Windmills have been used for centuries to capture wind energy and use it for many purposes. Today wind energy is used to produce electricity. What do you know about wind energy? What do you think would be some benefits and problems with using the wind as an energy source?
Background Information Windmills are not harmful to the environment because they use a renewable resource - the wind - to produce energy. The energy from the windmills is used to power cities. Unlike fossil fuels wind power is not in limited in supply and it doesnt threaten the environment by creating toxic fumes.
Browse the Selection What I KnowWhat I Want To Know What I Learned
Big Question How does energy effect your life?
Writing a Persuasive Letter Writing to persuade is different than when writing to inform or entertain. Your purpose is to change the readers mind about a way they think or feel about a topic. The writer tries to make the audience see a particular point of view or motivate them to take action. To do this the author has to grab and keep the attention of the readers. You will be writing a letter to the school principal this week to make an appeal on a school issue of your choosing.
Organization of a Persuasive Argument states a viewpoint (the controlling idea) provides supporting arguments, or gives reasons in the form of facts and examples, and/or expert opinions that the reader should adopt or support a particular point of view identifies opposing argument and provide evidence that refutes it restate the opinion or goal, summarize reasons, and if appropriate requests or urges action
Techniques Used in Persuasive Writing Word Choice hyperbole (extreme exaggeration) repetition emotional appeal Emotional appeals include strong statements that create a certain feeling in the audience and intend to make them sympathetic to a point of view. They often appear as part of the conclusion.
Your Assignment Today Choose your topic. Research using the Internet and other tools information to support your view on the topic. Use Skills Practice p.109 to plan your letter.
Spelling Words Prefix re- and Words with Greek Roots refurnish meter diameter reorganize reintroduce revisit chronic chronicle reaffirm barometer reinforce thermometer reformulate synchronize repurchase chronology regenerate centimeter chronological reapply
Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics The car made a right turn. Then it pulled into a parking lot. To change these two sentences into a compound sentence, you would write it like this. The car made a right turn, but then it pulled into a parking lot.
Compound Sentences Compound sentences consist of two or more independent clauses. The clauses should be connected by a semi colon or a comma, and a conjunction such as and, or, and but.
Here are a couple other examples of compound sentence. Wind powers wind turbines, and they produce electricity. Wind powers wind turbines; they produce electricity. Can you come up with a compound sentence on your own?
Vocabulary Quiz revolving doors converts currents fossil fuels economical changes something into something different a good use of resources, not wasteful fuels formed from the remains of plants and animals doors in front of a building that move in a circle around a central point flows of electricity
Vocabulary Quiz flickering expands propel gusty reliable becomes larger blowing in strong sudden bursts able to be depended on burning or shining in an irregular way to cause to move forward
Word Structure renewable revisit reconstruct replay These words have the prefix re- which means anew or again. The word renewable literally means able to be made new again. The prefix can also mean back or backwards as in recall, meaning to call something back again.
What are the base words? What are the definitions to the last three words? revisit - to stay with as a guest again reconstruct- to build again replay- to show a video clip again renewable revisit reconstruct replay new visit construct play
These words are derivatives of the Greek root chron which means time. anachronism chronicle synchronize chronological Learning and being able to identify basic Greek roots will help expand your vocabulary by providing hints to the basic meanings of words and to help you define difficult and unfamiliar words. Can you define the words? - something out of time, or in the wrong time period - record of historical events ordered according to the time they occurred - make things work at the same time - in order of time
Use the words in sentences. anachronism chronicle synchronize chronological
Comprehension Check Why do the Dutch use windmills? They use windmills to pump water back into the sea. How did people make flour before windmills? They turned millstones using water, human, or animal power. What are windmills used for? They can be used for many things, but today they are mostly used to make electricity. How has the use of wind changed over time? When the windmill was first invented, it was used to turn millstones and water pumps. When other engines were invented, people use wind energy less. Today people are turning back to wind energy for electricity.
Writing- Persuasive Letter Addressing Audience Needs Different readers have different needs. If a writer doesnt know what their reader knows, likes, and believes, its hard to grab their attention. It is important to provide reasons that will appeal to the reader, which in this case the principal.
Our school rules should be partly decided by the students, not only the teacher, school or district. 1)1. If students decide rules, students can play video games in class. 2)2. Studies show that when students are given more responsibilities their school performance improves. Which of these two reasons better addresses the needs of the principal? To what audience might the other reason apply?
Spelling Word Sort ology meter chron re- refurnish reorganize reintroduce revisit reaffirm reinforce reformulate repurchase reapply meter diameter barometer thermometer centimeter chronology chronological chronic chronicle synchronize chronology chronological
Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics dog, hero dogs, heroes A singular noun can be made plural by adding s or es. Here are some examples of regular plurals. rock rocks bench benches Can you come up with some other examples?
Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics leaf, country leaves, countries Sometimes nouns change the ending of the word before adding s or es. Change the singular noun into plural. city cities hamster hamsters blanket blankets bush bushes fox foxes park parks rose roses knife knives Write five sentences that include plurals.
The light from the candle was __________. What vocabulary word goes best in each sentence? flickering Wind was used to _________ ships long before windmills were invented. expands There was a ______ wind blowing across the summer prairie. gusty The car was very ______ in the cold winter months. reliable A balloon ___________ when air is blown into it. propel
The stores _______________ got stuck. People couldnt get out of the store. What vocabulary word goes best in each sentence? revolving door The underground cables bring the electric _____________ to the homes. currents Coal is one of the _____________ used to heat homes. fossil fuels Wind is an ___________ way to generate electrical power. economical The engine _________ water power to electricity.converts
Word Structure delicate rigorous simple kind more delicate, most delicate more rigorous most rigorous simpler, simplest kinder, kindest What is the comparative an superlative form of each word?
Word Structure delicately rigorously simply kindly more delicately, most delicately more rigorously, most rigorously more simply, most simply more kindly, most kindly Can you convert the words to adverbs by adding the correct suffixes? Then name the comparative and superlative form of each new word.
Meet the Author Gretchen Woelfle Why do you think the author is interested in windmills? She loves nature and wants to conserve it. Where does Woelfle live? She lives in California. Are there any wind turbines there? Yes there are many. Gretchen Gretchen Woelfle
Theme Connections Where is a good place to build a wind turbine? on top a hill or mountain Why did people stop building windmills during the 1800s? More reliable energy sources were discovered. Why is wind a good energy source? Wind doesnt produce pollution. What is one problem with using tornadoes as an energy source? A tornado is too powerful and dangerous to be controlled.
Writing in Formal Language Writing in formal language is one way to meet the needs of particular audiences. Formal language should be used when writing to an adult especially one you dont know. It should also be used when writing to get information, and much of the writing done in school such as reports. Formal language is serious, polite and carefully written. It contains no contractions, slang, or shortened words.
Now check your persuasive letter… Are the readers needs being addressed in your letter? What revisions do you need to make? Is there any informal language in your letter?
Prefix re- and Greek Roots meter- measure chron- time therm- heat ology- study or science of The prefix re- means again.
Spelling reintroduce reaffirm reorganize inflamed What are some other words that share the same base word as these words? Examples: introduction, affirmative, disorganized
Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics men geese Some nouns dont add s or es when forming plural nouns. Some change the vowel. moose salmon man goose moose salmon Some nouns stays the same in singular an plural forms. child person children people Irregular plurals change altogether.
I have seen a volcano. Before Adam sleeps, he brushes his tooth. Rewrite the sentences changing the singular nouns with plural nouns. I have seen volcanoes. Before Adam sleeps, he brushes his teeth. Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
Genre- Interview… Interviews… Shows exact words of a conversation Are labeled with speakers initials Footnotes are used to give the reader information that will help the reader understand the text or give the reader extra knowledge about a subject. Footnotes often identify the source of information given in text.
Think Link What is a CFL? It is a compact florescent light bulb. What are the three main fossil fuels? Oil, coal and natural gas In additional to being renewable energy sources, solar power and wind power produce little or pollution. Can you think of a reason that they might not be good energy sources? They are not as powerful or as readily available gas and coal.
Editing Your Persuasive Letter Editing is where you look for errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics. Make sure your letter is properly formatted. It needs a heading with date, inside address, salutation, body, closing and signature. Compound sentences can add variety to a writing. Have a classmate peer edit your letter. Make necessary changes to your letter based on editing checklist and peer advice.