3flickeringAs soon at the wind started blowing hard, the lights started flickering.wow.techradar.comAs I sat on the back porch, I saw some fireflies flickering in the grass and air.flickering- burning or shining in an irregular way
4expands The balloon expands as the boy blows air into it. A rubber band expands as you stretch it.m/Muscle_RubberBand2.jpgThe balloon expands as the boy blows air into it.previews/742/52337.JPGexpands- becomes larger
5propel propel- to cause to move forward The people aim to propel the ball down the street./item.htmlEach push the puppy made against the wagon would propel the wagon further across the lawn .propel- to cause to move forward
6gusty The gusty wind blew the leaves right off the tree. Up on deck the lady could feel the gusty breeze blowing against her face.The gusty wind blew the leaves right off the tree.gusty - blowing in strong sudden bursts
7reliableShe was shopping for a reliable car that would not break down on her.The safety patrol at our school are very reliable. They are always at their posts.../Images/safety.gifreliable- able to be depended on
8revolving doorsHe scratched his head as he watched the people get confused by the revolving doors.The store had revolving doors for the customers to come in and out of the buildingrevolving doors- plural of revolving door; a door at the front of a building that moves in a circle around a central point
9converts converts- changes something into something different If the school converts to using computers for one third of its paperwork, imagine the savings it would have.When the girl converts her trash into usable material, it saves space in the landfills.converts- changes something into something different
10currents currents- plural of current; a flow of electricity The new energy efficient light bulbs use the same currents that the old ones use.Currents flow easily through copper wire.images/Bare_cop...currents- plural of current; a flow of electricity
11fossil fuelsThe coal that is mined in Carbon, Utah is one of the nonrenewable fossil fuels.Most homes are heated with fossil fuels like oil, coal, and natural gas.firstrung.co.uk/ dbimgs/gas%20meter3.jpgfossil fuels- plural of fossil fuel; a fuel formed from the remains of plants and animals. Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels.
12economicalIt is more economical to recycle soda cans than to throw them away.He bought an economical car that wouldn’t cost a lot to run.economical- a good use of resources; not wasteful
13Focus Questions:How did people harness the power of the wind several hundred years ago?How do people harness the power of the wind today?
14Genre: Expository Text Expository text tells something. It contains facts about real people, things or events.The purpose of expository text is to share information with the reader in a straightforward way.The factual information can often be checked by referring to other sources such as science articles, reference books and newspapers
15Word Structure More renewable Most renewable heavier heaviest These lines contain comparatives and superlatives.Comparatives are adjectives or adverbs that compare one person, thing or action to another.Superlatives are adjectives or adverbs that compare one person, thing, or action to several others.
16More About Comparatives and Superlatives Comparatives are formed by adding -er to most short modifiers, or using the word more for longer modifiers.Superlatives are formed by adding -est to most short modifiers, or using the word most for longer modifiers.Do not use more and most with words that end with -er or -est.
17What are the changes? serious - more serious, most serious happy What changes were made to the base word to form the words heavier and heaviest ?The y in heavy was changed to an I, then the ending was added.serioushappy- more serious, most serious- happier, happiestHow would the comparative and superlative for each of these words be formed?Can you use the words in a sentence?
18What are the structures represented in the following words? villagersfloodeddiscoveredtryingsuffix -er, plural sinflectional ending -edprefix dis-, inflectional ending edinflectional ending -ingvillagefloodcovertryThe structure of the word villagers includes:villag - er- s which means people from a particular village.What are the words’ base words?
19What are the definitions? villagersfloodeddiscoveredtryingpeople from a particular villageoverflowing of water into dry landto be the first to observe or find something, to revealto attempt to do or accomplishCan you put the word in a sentence?
20Building BackgroundWhat do you know about windmills and how they work?What do you know about the history of windmills?Windmills have been used for centuries to capture wind energy and use it for many purposes. Today wind energy is used to produce electricity.What do you know about wind energy?What do you think would be some benefits and problems with using the wind as an energy source?
21Background Information Windmills are not harmful to the environment because they use a renewable resource - the wind - to produce energy.The energy from the windmills is used to power cities.Unlike fossil fuels wind power is not in limited in supply and it doesn’t threaten the environment by creating toxic fumes.
22Browse the SelectionWhat I KnowWhat I Want To KnowWhat I Learned
24Writing a Persuasive Letter Writing to persuade is different than when writing to inform or entertain.Your purpose is to change the readers mind about a way they think or feel about a topic.The writer tries to make the audience see a particular point of view or motivate them to take action.To do this the author has to grab and keep the attention of the readers.You will be writing a letter to the school principal this week to make an appeal on a school issue of your choosing.
25Organization of a Persuasive Argument states a viewpoint (the controlling idea)provides supporting arguments, or gives reasons in the form of facts and examples, and/or expert opinions that the reader should adopt or support a particular point of viewidentifies opposing argument and provide evidence that refutes itrestate the opinion or goal, summarize reasons, and if appropriate requests or urges action
26Techniques Used in Persuasive Writing Word Choicehyperbole (extreme exaggeration)repetitionemotional appealEmotional appeals include strong statements that create a certain feeling in the audience and intend to make them sympathetic to a point of view. They often appear as part of the conclusion.
27Your Assignment Today Choose your topic. Research using the Internet and other tools information to support your view on the topic.Use Skills Practice p.109 to plan your letter.
28Spelling Words Prefix re- and Words with Greek Roots reinforcethermometerreformulatesynchronizerepurchasechronologyregeneratecentimeterchronologicalreapplyrefurnishmeterdiameterreorganizereintroducerevisitchronicchroniclereaffirmbarometer
29Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics The car made a right turn. Then it pulled into a parking lot.To change these two sentences into a compound sentence, you would write it like this.The car made a right turn, but then it pulled into a parking lot.
30Compound SentencesCompound sentences consist of two or more independent clauses.The clauses should be connected by a semi colon or a comma, and a conjunction such as and, or, and but.
31Here are a couple other examples of compound sentence. Wind powers wind turbines, and they produce electricity.Wind powers wind turbines; they produce electricity.Can you come up with a compound sentence on your own?
32Vocabulary Quiz a good use of resources, not wasteful changes something into something differenta good use of resources, not wastefulfuels formed from the remains of plants and animalsdoors in front of a building that move in a circle around a central pointflows of electricityrevolving doorsconvertscurrentsfossil fuelseconomical
33Vocabulary Quiz blowing in strong sudden bursts becomes largerblowing in strong sudden burstsable to be depended onburning or shining in an irregular wayto cause to move forwardflickeringexpandspropelgustyreliable
34Word Structure renewable revisit reconstruct replay These words have the prefix re- which means anew or again.The word renewable literally means able to be made new again.The prefix can also mean back or backwards as in recall, meaning to call something back again.
35What are the base words? renewable revisit reconstruct replay new What are the definitions to the last three words?revisit - to stay with as a guest againreconstruct- to build againreplay- to show a video clip again
36These words are derivatives of the Greek root chron which means time. something out of time, or in thewrong time periodrecord of historical events orderedaccording to the time they occurredmake things work at the same time- in order of timeanachronismchroniclesynchronizechronologicalLearning and being able to identify basic Greek roots will help expand your vocabulary by providing hints to the basic meanings of words and to help you define difficult and unfamiliar words.Can you define the words?
37Use the words in sentences. anachronismchroniclesynchronizechronological
38Comprehension Check Why do the Dutch use windmills? They use windmills to pump water back into the sea.How did people make flour before windmills?They turned millstones using water, human, or animal power.What are windmills used for?They can be used for many things, but today they are mostly used to make electricity.How has the use of wind changed over time?When the windmill was first invented, it was used to turn millstones and water pumps. When other engines were invented, people use wind energy less. Today people are turning back to wind energy for electricity.
39Writing- Persuasive Letter Addressing Audience NeedsDifferent readers have different needs. If a writer doesn’t know what their reader knows, likes, and believes, it’s hard to grab their attention. It is important to provide reasons that will appeal to the reader, which in this case the principal.
401. If students decide rules, students can play video games in class. Our school rules should be partly decided by the students, not only the teacher, school or district.1. If students decide rules, students can play video games in class.2. Studies show that when students are given more responsibilities their school performance improves.Which of these two reasons better addresses the needs of the principal?To what audience might the other reason apply?
41Spelling Word Sort ology meter chron re- refurnish reorganize reintroducerevisitreaffirmreinforcereformulaterepurchasereapplymeterdiameterbarometerthermometercentimeterchronicchroniclesynchronizechronologychronologicalchronologychronological
42Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics dog, herodogs, heroesA singular noun can be made plural by adding s or es.Here are some examples of regular plurals.rockrocksbenchbenchesCan you come up with some other examples?
43Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics leaf, countryleaves, countriesSometimes nouns change the ending of the word before adding s or es.Change the singular noun into plural.roserosesknifeknivesfoxfoxesparkparkscitycitieshamsterhamstersblanketblanketsbushbushesWrite five sentences that include plurals.
44What vocabulary word goes best in each sentence? The light from the candle was __________.flickeringA balloon ___________ when air is blown into it.expandspropelWind was used to _________ ships long before windmills were invented.There was a ______ wind blowing across the summer prairie.gustyThe car was very ______ in the cold winter months.reliable
45What vocabulary word goes best in each sentence? revolving doorThe store’s _______________ got stuck. People couldn’t get out of the store.The engine _________ water power to electricity.convertsThe underground cables bring the electric _____________ to the homes.currentsCoal is one of the _____________ used to heat homes.fossil fuelsWind is an ___________ way to generate electrical power.economical
46Word Structure delicate more delicate, most delicate rigorous What is the comparative an superlative form of each word?delicaterigoroussimplekindmore delicate, most delicatemore rigorousmost rigoroussimpler, simplestkinder, kindest
47Word Structure more delicately, most delicately Can you convert the words to adverbs by adding the correct suffixes? Then name the comparative and superlative form of each new word.delicatelyrigorouslysimplykindlymore delicately, most delicatelymore rigorously, most rigorouslymore simply, most simplymore kindly, most kindly
48Meet the Author Gretchen Woelfle Why do you think the author is interested in windmills?She loves nature and wants to conserve it.Where does Woelfle live?She lives in California.Are there any wind turbines there?Yes there are many.Gretchen WoelfleGretchen
49Theme Connections Where is a good place to build a wind turbine? on top a hill or mountainWhy did people stop building windmills during the 1800s?More reliable energy sources were discovered.Why is wind a good energy source?Wind doesn’t produce pollution.What is one problem with using tornadoes as an energy source?A tornado is too powerful and dangerous to be controlled.
50Writing in Formal Language Writing in formal language is one way to meet the needs of particular audiences.Formal language should be used when writing to an adult especially one you don’t know.It should also be used when writing to get information, and much of the writing done in school such as reports.Formal language is serious, polite and carefully written.It contains no contractions, slang, or shortened words.
51Now check your persuasive letter… Are the readers needs being addressed in your letter?What revisions do you need to make?Is there any informal language in your letter?
52Prefix re- and Greek Roots meter- measurechron- timetherm- heatology- study or science ofThe prefix re- means again.
53Spelling reintroduce reaffirm reorganize inflamed What are some other words that share the same base word as these words?Examples: introduction, affirmative, disorganized
54Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics Some nouns don’t add s or es when forming plural nouns. Some change the vowel.mangoosemengeesemoosesalmonmoosesalmonSome nouns stays the same in singular an plural forms.childpersonchildrenpeopleIrregular plurals change altogether.
55Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics I have seen a volcano.Before Adam sleeps, he brushes his tooth.Rewrite the sentences changing the singular nouns with plural nouns.I have seen volcanoes.Before Adam sleeps, he brushes his teeth.
56Genre- Interview… Interviews… Shows exact words of a conversation Are labeled with speakers initialsFootnotes are used to give the reader information that will help the reader understand the text or give the reader extra knowledge about a subject. Footnotes often identify the source of information given in text.
57Think Link What is a CFL? It is a compact florescent light bulb. What are the three main fossil fuels?Oil, coal and natural gasIn additional to being renewable energy sources, solar power and wind power produce little or pollution. Can you think of a reason that they might not be good energy sources?They are not as powerful or as readily available gas and coal.
58Editing Your Persuasive Letter Editing is where you look for errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics.Make sure your letter is properly formatted.It needs a heading with date, inside address, salutation, body, closing and signature.Compound sentences can add variety to a writing.Have a classmate peer edit your letter.Make necessary changes to your letter based on editing checklist and peer advice.