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Generations in the Workplace Different Motivations Different Perspectives.

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1 Generations in the Workplace Different Motivations Different Perspectives

2 Workplace Trends Incentives other than salary are motivators (Herzberg) Incentives other than salary are motivators (Herzberg) Different concepts of career and success Different concepts of career and success Global economy and potential outsourcing Global economy and potential outsourcing Virtual workplace and technological revolution Virtual workplace and technological revolution Return of the retired worker Return of the retired worker Decline in unionized workforce Decline in unionized workforce Entering a workforce that is more demographically diverse Entering a workforce that is more demographically diverse –Women –Minorities –Immigrants –Workers with disabilities

3 3 Various Generations in the United States Generation Category Birth Years Population in the USA Common Characteristic Traditionalists1900s millionStability and security Baby Boomers millionTeamwork and human rights Generation X millionEmpowerment and social responsibility Generation Y millionTechnology and personal growth Cyberspace Gen Present20 millionGlobalization and internet Total290 million

4 4 Generational Exercise / Icebrea ker Exercise: Team up in generational groups, and discuss the question below: What key national and international events, trends, and people do you remember from your first 15 to 20 years? Complaints What We Appreciate Complaints What We AppreciateTraditionalists Baby Boomers: Gen Xers Generation Y:.

5 Four Different Generations Traditionalists ( ) Traditionalists ( ) Boomers ( ) Boomers ( ) Xers (1965 – 1979) Xers (1965 – 1979) Gen Y - Millennials ( ) Gen Y - Millennials ( )

6 Traditionalists Values (1909 – 1945) Duty Duty Sacrifice Sacrifice

7 Formative Even ts The Great Depression The Great Depression Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor WW II WW II Hiroshima Hiroshima

8 8 Traditionalists Traditionalists were born between the turn of last century and the end of World War II and they make up about 75 million individuals in the United States. Traditionalists were born between the turn of last century and the end of World War II and they make up about 75 million individuals in the United States. Traditionalists, because of their experience, have learned to do without technology; and the management style they learned mostly originated from the military. Traditionalists, because of their experience, have learned to do without technology; and the management style they learned mostly originated from the military. They expect career security of life-long employment and do not appreciate job-hoping or downsizing jobs. They expect career security of life-long employment and do not appreciate job-hoping or downsizing jobs. This generation prefers a learning environment that offers predictability, stability and security. This generation prefers a learning environment that offers predictability, stability and security.

9 Boomers Individuality, "Me" Generation Individuality, "Me" Generation

10 Boomer Formative Events The Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement John F. Kennedy assassination John F. Kennedy assassination Robert Kennedy assassination Robert Kennedy assassination Martin Luther King assassination Martin Luther King assassination Vietnam War Vietnam War Woodstock Woodstock The Cold War The Cold War Roe vs. Wade Roe vs. Wade

11 11 Baby Boomers The baby boomers were born around and make about 80 million individuals in the United States. The baby boomers were born around and make about 80 million individuals in the United States. They grew up in suburbs, had educational opportunities above their parents, saw lots of consumer products hit the market and the television had a significant impact on their views of the world regarding equal opportunities and other human rights. They grew up in suburbs, had educational opportunities above their parents, saw lots of consumer products hit the market and the television had a significant impact on their views of the world regarding equal opportunities and other human rights. Many members of this generation served in the military throughout the United States and around the globe. Many members of this generation served in the military throughout the United States and around the globe. The preferred learning environment of the Boomers is interactive and team activities. The preferred learning environment of the Boomers is interactive and team activities.

12 Xers Skeptical Skeptical Reluctant Reluctant Self Sufficient Self Sufficient the most loyal consumer the most loyal consumer the most loyal employees the most loyal employees

13 Xer Events Watergate Fall of the Berlin Wall Challenger explosion The Gulf War The PC boom The Reagan Presidency Watergate Fall of the Berlin Wall Challenger explosion The Gulf War The PC boom The Reagan Presidency

14 14 Generation X The Generation X, making up about 46 million individuals in the Unites States, transitioned into work environment during 1990s. The Generation X, making up about 46 million individuals in the Unites States, transitioned into work environment during 1990s. –They are technology-savvy. –They detest micro-management in the work environment and want constant feedback on how they are performing. –They are making a difference in society by expecting firms to be socially responsible. This generation believes as long as the job gets done, it isnt important where or when it occurs. This generation believes as long as the job gets done, it isnt important where or when it occurs.

15 15 Understanding the Generation X Population Gen X employees are self-reliant, they want a balance, they do not like to commit, they are skeptical, and they embrace diversity in the culture. Gen X employees are self-reliant, they want a balance, they do not like to commit, they are skeptical, and they embrace diversity in the culture. GenX employees are said to be the work to live generation, whereas the baby boomers are considered to be the live to work population. GenX employees are said to be the work to live generation, whereas the baby boomers are considered to be the live to work population. The Gen Xers are usually not motivated by long term rewards or the use of fear. The Gen Xers are usually not motivated by long term rewards or the use of fear. GenX workers do not want to be micromanaged and dont want managers to waste their time with lectures and boring meetings. GenX workers do not want to be micromanaged and dont want managers to waste their time with lectures and boring meetings.

16 16 Generation X Workers One reason for understanding the expectations of workers is to effectively maximize recruiting and retention efforts of qualified employees. One reason for understanding the expectations of workers is to effectively maximize recruiting and retention efforts of qualified employees. The Gen X workers expect managers to: The Gen X workers expect managers to: –Invest in their employees –Be able and willing to provide effective feedback –Understand work issues and be able to respond to their needs and concerns –Provide them empowerment and access to the needed information and resources.

17 Gen Y - Millenials ( ) Well Cared For Well Cared For Idealistic Idealistic Group Oriented Group Oriented Sheltered Sheltered Confident Confident Team Oriented Team Oriented Conventional Conventional Pressured Pressured Achieving Achieving

18 Gen Y - Millenial Events Oklahoma City Bombing Oklahoma City Bombing 9/11 Terrorist Attack 9/11 Terrorist Attack The Internet boom The Internet boom

19 19 Gen Y – Millenials Generation Y makes up about 70 million individuals. Generation Y makes up about 70 million individuals. They are technology savvy, generally good at multi-tasking and have had access to cell phones, personal pagers, computers and concern for personal safety most of their life. They are technology savvy, generally good at multi-tasking and have had access to cell phones, personal pagers, computers and concern for personal safety most of their life. It is predicted that this generation will be more loyal to organizations than the Gen Xers provided they are stimulated and have learning opportunities. It is predicted that this generation will be more loyal to organizations than the Gen Xers provided they are stimulated and have learning opportunities. They are likely to challenge why systems and how things operate, and futurists feel this generation will make the greatest contributions. They are likely to challenge why systems and how things operate, and futurists feel this generation will make the greatest contributions.

20 20 Understanding Generation Y Workers Generation Y individuals are more technologically savvy and more interactive than any other generations prior to them. Generation Y individuals are more technologically savvy and more interactive than any other generations prior to them. Generation Y employees tend to be open to diversity of ideas, cultures, music, and points of view. Generation Y employees tend to be open to diversity of ideas, cultures, music, and points of view. They are able to adapt quickly to new life styles and cultures compared to their parents. They are able to adapt quickly to new life styles and cultures compared to their parents. They tend to be very interactive and they value learning, flexibility, and mutual trust. They tend to be very interactive and they value learning, flexibility, and mutual trust. They follow the rules of their organizations and professions and they tend to be good team players with challenging assignments. They follow the rules of their organizations and professions and they tend to be good team players with challenging assignments. In order to be successful, it is essential that leaders make effective connections with all generations. In order to be successful, it is essential that leaders make effective connections with all generations.

21 21 Generational Perspectives Traditionalists (& Veterans) Baby BoomersGeneration X Work Right thing to doCreative self- expression Pays the bills Boss To be respectedTo be correctedTo learn from Leisure Reward for hard work Improves my karma Relief from stress Education A dreamThe point of lifeA means to an end Future Rainy day to work for Now is more important Uncertain at best Money SaveA birthrightInvest Future Work Institute 2004: Boom vs. Bust: Managing Generational Diversity

22 22 Generational Issues Traditionalist s (& Veterans) Baby Boomers XersGen Ys Work Ethic DedicatedDrivenBalancedDetermined Leadership by… HierarchyConsensusCompetencePulling together Outlook PracticalOptimisticSkepticalHopeful Company Loyalty Loyal to the company Loyal to the workLoyal to themselves Always have a resume ready Attitude to work Just do it!Work should be meaningful Work pay the bills Work must be fun Work style Formal; chain of command Team-orientedCasualPractical whatever works Future Work Institute 2004: Boom vs. Bust: Managing Generational Diversity

23 23 Generational Issues (contd) Traditionalists (& Veterans) Baby BoomersXersGen Ys Listening to managers Listen respectfullyListen for the hidden meaning Listen while composing an Asking a pointed question Working with others Quietly, in a supportive role Enjoys team interactions OK, if people are compatible Enjoy it as long as Im learning Attitude toward authority Hes the bossI wish shed listen more to our ideas Hes OK as long as he knows what hes doing How do you spell authority? What I like most Clear, defined expectations Important work vital to the companys success Being left alone to get my work done Having fun; chance to learn What Id like to be appreciated for My experienceMy creativityMy technical skillsAll I know The best manager is a … Person with long- range plan Person who listens to us Someone who trust me and leaves me alone A mentor and coach Future Work Institute 2004: Boom vs. Bust: Managing Generational Diversity

24 24 Organizational Commitment Commitment Commitment more than just a passive loyalty to an organization. more than just a passive loyalty to an organization. entails active involvement within the organization whereby one wants to achieve goals. entails active involvement within the organization whereby one wants to achieve goals. –Previous research has linked organizational commitment to work behaviors such as turnover, absenteeism, and job performance (Mowday, et al., 1982). –The process through which an individual enters the organization through the recruitment process may shape his/her commitment to the organization.

25 25 Organizational Commitment Tulgan (1996) concluded that GenX employees look for organizations that recognize employees for the daily value they bring in return for the reward. Tulgan (1996) concluded that GenX employees look for organizations that recognize employees for the daily value they bring in return for the reward. Porter, et al., (1974), considered to be core theorists defined organizational commitment as: The relative strength of an individuals identification with an involvement in a particular organization. Such commitment can generally be characterized by at least three factors: Porter, et al., (1974), considered to be core theorists defined organizational commitment as: The relative strength of an individuals identification with an involvement in a particular organization. Such commitment can generally be characterized by at least three factors: A strong belief in and acceptance of the organizations goals and values A strong belief in and acceptance of the organizations goals and values A willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization A willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization A definite desire to maintain organizational membership A definite desire to maintain organizational membership

26 26 Organizational Commitment Meyer and Allen (1991) combined the behavioral and attitudinal approaches, and the concept of three-component model of organizational commitment was born: Meyer and Allen (1991) combined the behavioral and attitudinal approaches, and the concept of three-component model of organizational commitment was born: Affective commitment reflects a desire to maintain membership in an organization.Affective commitment reflects a desire to maintain membership in an organization. Continuance commitment reflects a need to remain with an organization.Continuance commitment reflects a need to remain with an organization. Normative commitment reflects an obligation to remain with an organizationNormative commitment reflects an obligation to remain with an organization One of the greatest needs a good Leader or Mentor can benefit from is having an employee who is committed and such commitment is in terms of behavior and attitude. One of the greatest needs a good Leader or Mentor can benefit from is having an employee who is committed and such commitment is in terms of behavior and attitude. These employees are individuals who forgo alternative courses of action and choose to connect with the organization. These employees are individuals who forgo alternative courses of action and choose to connect with the organization.

27 27 Xers: Myth Vs Fact PERCEPTIONREALITY Xers are lazy In a Readers Digest survey of 1,050 Americans, 74 percent of Xers agreed with the statement: Hard work is the key to getting ahead. Just 66 percent of respondents age 49 to 62 felt that way Xers are disloyal Their seeming restlessness and disloyalty indicate an ability to adapt to change. Paying ones dues means little to Xers, who value self-building jobs that contribute to their marketability Xers are arrogant They arent arrogant; theyre self-reliant. With working moms, they learned early on how to solve problems on their own Xers have short attention spans Their way of learning was shaped by computer technology. That engendered a knack for innovation and ability to connect seemingly unrelated pieces of information. They prefer to jump around, assimilating data from multiple sources Future Work Institute 2004: Boom vs. Bust: Managing Generational Diversity

28 28 Employee of the Future FromTo Job SecurityInteresting, Fulfilling Work Authority AcceptanceChallenge Participation AppropriateA Right Work Primary ActivityA Component of Life Family Second to WorkEqual to Work Leisure LuxuryEntitlement Source: U.S. Department of Labor

29 29 Systemic Impact of Disparate Generations In the Twenty First Century, organizations need to embrace change as a constant motivating force that provides both opportunities as well as challenges. In the Twenty First Century, organizations need to embrace change as a constant motivating force that provides both opportunities as well as challenges. The major thoughts of organization theory do change overtime and through ages because of new paradigms and new knowledge. The major thoughts of organization theory do change overtime and through ages because of new paradigms and new knowledge. It is important that managers study their workforce and understand the impact of having a multi-generation workforce in the organization. It is important that managers study their workforce and understand the impact of having a multi-generation workforce in the organization.

30 30 Decision Making Decision making is one of the most interesting and pervasive concept in all organizations. Decision making is one of the most interesting and pervasive concept in all organizations. Today, the ability to learn faster than ones competitors for making effective decisions might be the only true competitive advantage for twenty first century managers and organizations. Today, the ability to learn faster than ones competitors for making effective decisions might be the only true competitive advantage for twenty first century managers and organizations. One can always think and reflect upon the importance of decision making and the consequence of making both good and bad decisions. One can always think and reflect upon the importance of decision making and the consequence of making both good and bad decisions.

31 31 Learning Organization In order to create a learning organization, senior leaders and managers must integrate creativity and brainstorming in the organization and allow every person in the organization to develop a personal mastery (Senge, 1990). In order to create a learning organization, senior leaders and managers must integrate creativity and brainstorming in the organization and allow every person in the organization to develop a personal mastery (Senge, 1990). –Peter Senge stated that such organizations also need to encourage employees of all generations to develop and use complex mental models. –Leaders and managers must do everything they can to promote group creativity and team learning. –Leaders and managers must emphasize the importance of building a shared vision.

32 32 Organizational Culture Most organizational leaders understand that their firms need to stay efficient, effective, and sensitive to their environments in order to remain successful and socially responsible. Most organizational leaders understand that their firms need to stay efficient, effective, and sensitive to their environments in order to remain successful and socially responsible. Because of cultural and technological changes, organizations are required to make internal changes periodically in order to continue to be sustainable. Because of cultural and technological changes, organizations are required to make internal changes periodically in order to continue to be sustainable. Organizational leaders should understand the needs, desires and work habits of various generations in the workforce before planning or implementing major changes. Organizational leaders should understand the needs, desires and work habits of various generations in the workforce before planning or implementing major changes.

33 33 Employee Motivation and Satisfaction Employee motivation and satisfaction are important elements in the effective management of employees from different cultures and generations. Employee motivation and satisfaction are important elements in the effective management of employees from different cultures and generations. Motivational strategies can differ with each generation; it can also differ according to ones culture. Motivational strategies can differ with each generation; it can also differ according to ones culture. In some cultures and generations, non-monetary rewards and recognition can be appropriate strategies to motivate employees. In other cultures and generations monetary bonuses can be very motivational. In some cultures and generations, non-monetary rewards and recognition can be appropriate strategies to motivate employees. In other cultures and generations monetary bonuses can be very motivational. When international managers decide to appreciate their employees with rewards and recognition; they need to assure that the appreciation will motivate employees. When international managers decide to appreciate their employees with rewards and recognition; they need to assure that the appreciation will motivate employees.

34 34 Training Programs Corporate training programs are one of the main methods to bring international employees to come together and share the knowledge and practices and to gain knowledge regarding the company. Corporate training programs are one of the main methods to bring international employees to come together and share the knowledge and practices and to gain knowledge regarding the company. In training programs, it is beneficial for employees from all generations to attend. This provides an opportunity for employees and employers to understand each other and their cultural and generational differences. In training programs, it is beneficial for employees from all generations to attend. This provides an opportunity for employees and employers to understand each other and their cultural and generational differences. When companies conduct ethical training, they need to ensure that the content of the training is not only appropriate for a specific generation or culture but also for other cultures and generations. When companies conduct ethical training, they need to ensure that the content of the training is not only appropriate for a specific generation or culture but also for other cultures and generations. Overall, managers should act according to the cultural and generational norms of the group or country where they are conducting business. Overall, managers should act according to the cultural and generational norms of the group or country where they are conducting business.

35 35 Recommendations / Conclusions 1.The findings establish that a relationship exist between leadership style and the GenX employee affective commitment. 2.This finding is consistent with the framework provided in path-goal theory, which indicates that leaders should choose an appropriate leadership style based on the various demands of the task and type of subordinate. 3.The Situational Leadership model clearly states that it is useful to keep in mind that there is no one best way to influence others. 4.The challenge leaders have is to use leadership style or mentoring that best meets subordinates motivational needs. Nonetheless, employees tend to be committed when their immediate boss demonstrates concern and empathy. 5.The overarching purpose of leadership or mentoring is to guide and coach subordinates as they move along the path to achieve a goal, which may eventually lead to commitment in the workplace.


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