3After the Ice Age Human societies began to change 13,000 years ago when the last ice age melted
4After the Ice Age Different societies resulted: Some literate, industrialSome illiterate, agriculturalSome hunter gatherers retaining stone tools
5Inequality and Extermination “Those historical inequalities have cast long shadows on the modern world,because the literate societies with metal toolshave conquered or exterminated the other societies."
6Yali’s Question Yali, a New Guinea politician asked "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea,but we black people had little cargo of our own?"
7Distribution of Wealth To rephrase,"why did wealth and power become distributed as they now are,rather than in some other way?”Distribution of Wealth in the World
8Common explanations Racial or genetic superiority? No objective evidence for this theory
9Common explanations Cold climate stimulates inventiveness? But Europeans inherited from warm climate peoplesagriculture,wheels,writing, andmetallurgyJapan inheritedAgriculture, metallurgy, writingIndustrial Revolution
10Conquest of the New World "The biggest population shift of modern timeshas been the colonization of the new World by Europeans,and the resultingconquest,numerical reduction ,or complete disappearanceof most groups of Native Americans".
11PizarroThe Incas were conquered by the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro.
12Pizarro’s Forces Pizarro had 168 soldiers. They were in unfamiliar territory,ignorant of the local inhabitants,were 1000 miles away from reinforcements,and were and surrounded by the Incan empirewith 80,000 soldiers led by Atahuallpa.
13Guns, Germs and Steel Pizarro had steel armor swords horse mounted cavalrygunsa minor factor
14Conquistadors In addition to horses and steel, conquistadors had: Superior ocean going shipsSuperior political organization of the European statesCarried infectious diseases that wiped out 95% of Native Americanssmallpox, measles, influenza, typhus, bubonic plagueSuperior knowledge of human behaviorfrom thousands of years of written history.
15Why not the other way?Still, why was it that the Europeans had all of the advantages instead of the Incas?Why didn't the Incasinvent guns and steel swords,have horses,or bear deadly diseases?IncaInca Warrior
16Unequal Conflicts"Much of human history has consisted of unequal conflictsbetween the haves and the have-nots:between peoples with farmer power and those without it,or between those who acquired it at different times."
18Advantages of Agricultural Societies More food, more people.Domestic animalsMeatPull plows, cartsTransportation, warFurs, fiberFertilizerDeadly germs
19Advantages of Agricultural Societies Sedentary ExistenceShort birth intervalshigher population densitiesGrain StorageSupport specialists:Kingsbureaucratssoldierspriestsartisans.
20Independent Crop Domestication Middle East (8,000 BC)Wheat, pea, oliveChinaRice, milletMexico (3,000 BC)Maize, squash, beansAndes mountainsPotatoUSASunflowerOther people adopted these crops (and domesticated animals) later as a cultural package
22Adoption by Hunter-Gatherers Sometimes domesticated plants and animals were adopted by hunters/gatherersNative Americans in U.S.Sometimes hunters/gatherers were displaced by agriculturalistsEuropean expansion in Australia, TasmaniaTrugannini, last Remaining Tasmanian Aboriginal, 1868
23Head Start "The peoples of areas with a head start on food production thereby gained a head start on the path leading to guns, germs and steel.The result was a long series of collisions between the haves and have-nots of history."
24Food Production Food production often led to poorer health shorter lifespanharder labor for the majority of people.
25Early Plant Domestication Humans unknowingly selected for traits:seed size, fiber lengthlack of bitternessearly germinationselfingdispersal mutationswheat that does not shatterseeds that stay in pods
2680% of World’s Production: WheatMaizeRiceBarleySorghumSoybeanPotatoCassavaSweet potatoSugar caneSugar beetBanana
27Major Domesticated Crops No new plants domesticated in modern timesAll of these domesticated thousands of years ago.Need a suite of domesticated plants to make agriculture workThus new plants domesticated where agriculture already successful
29Fertile Crescent Attributes Mediterranean climate.Wild stands of wheatHunter/gatherers settled down here before agriculture, living off grainHigh percentage of self pollinating plants -- easiest to domesticate.Of large seeded grass species of the world, 32 of 56 grow here.Big animals for domestication: goat, sheep, pig, cow
30Meso AmericaIn Meso America, the only animals domesticated were turkey and dogMaize was slow to domesticate.Occurred 5,000 years after domestication of wheat
31Big 5 Domesticated Animals HorseCowPigSheepGoatAll from Eurasia
32Large AnimalsOf 148 large herbivorous or omnivorous species in the worldEurasia had 72Africa 51Americas 24Australia 1Most cannot be domesticated
33Why have 134 out of 148 big species not been domesticated? Diet too finickykoalaGrowth rate too slowelephants, gorillasWon’t breed in captivitycheetah, vicunaNasty Disposition.grizzly bear, African buffalo, onager, zebra, hippo, elk
34Why have 134 out of 148 big species not been domesticated? Hard to herd (no dominance structure)deer, antelopeTendency to panic.deer, antelope, gazellesSolitaryonly cats and ferrets domesticatedTerritorialrhino
35Easier to spread East-West It was easier for domestic plants and animalslater, technology like wheels, writing)to spread East-West in Eurasiathan North- South in Americas.
36EvidenceSome crops domesticated independently in both S. America and Meso Americadue to slow spreadlima beanscommon beanschili peppers
37Evidence Most crops in Eurasia domesticated only once. Rapid spread preempted same or similar domestication.Fertile Crescent crops spread to Egypt, N. Africa, Europe, India and eventually to China.
38Africa East-West spread of plants, animals easier due to same day-length, similar seasonal variations.Temperate N. Africa crops did not reach S. Africa until colonists brought themSaharaTropicsTropical crops spread West to East in Africa with Bantu culture,did not cross to S. Africa due to climate.
39AmericasDistance between cool highlands of Mexico and Andes was only 1,200 miles but separated by low hot tropical region.Thus, no exchange of crops, animals, writing, wheel.Only maize spread.
40AmericasIt took 2,000 years for maize to cross 700 miles of desert to reach U.S.A.It took another 1000 years for maize to adapt to U.S.A. climate to be productive
41Not a Cultural IssueSome species like cows, dogs, pigs independently domesticated in different parts of the world.These animals were well suited for domestication.Modern attempts to domesticate:eland, elk, moose, musk ox, zebra, American Bisonare only marginally successful.