Presentation on theme: "Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies By Jared Diamond 1997 Text extracted from Chapters 1-10"— Presentation transcript:
Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies By Jared Diamond 1997 Text extracted from Chapters 1-10
After the Ice Age Human societies began to change 13,000 years ago o when the last ice age melted
After the Ice Age Different societies resulted: o Some literate, industrial o Some illiterate, agricultural o Some hunter gatherers retaining stone tools
Inequality and Extermination Those historical inequalities have cast long shadows on the modern world, because the literate societies with metal tools have conquered or exterminated the other societies."
Yalis Question Yali, a New Guinea politician asked "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?"
Distribution of Wealth To rephrase, "why did wealth and power become distributed as they now are, o rather than in some other way? Distribution of Wealth in the World
Common explanations Racial or genetic superiority? o No objective evidence for this theory
Common explanations Cold climate stimulates inventiveness? But Europeans inherited from warm climate peoples o agriculture, o wheels, o writing, and o metallurgy Japan inherited o Agriculture, metallurgy, writing o Industrial Revolution
Conquest of the New World "The biggest population shift of modern times has been the colonization of the new World by Europeans, and the resulting o conquest, o numerical reduction, o or complete disappearance of most groups of Native Americans".
Pizarro The Incas were conquered by the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro.
Pizarros Forces Pizarro had 168 soldiers. They were in unfamiliar territory, o ignorant of the local inhabitants, o were 1000 miles away from reinforcements, o and were and surrounded by the Incan empire with 80,000 soldiers led by Atahuallpa.
Guns, Germs and Steel Pizarro had o steel armor o swords o horse mounted cavalry o guns a minor factor
Conquistadors In addition to horses and steel, conquistadors had: o Superior ocean going ships o Superior political organization of the European states Carried infectious diseases that wiped out 95% of Native Americans o smallpox, measles, influenza, typhus, bubonic plague Superior knowledge of human behavior o from thousands of years of written history.
Why not the other way? Still, why was it that the Europeans had all of the advantages instead of the Incas? Why didn't the Incas o invent guns and steel swords, o have horses, o or bear deadly diseases? Inca Inca Warrior
Unequal Conflicts " Much of human history has consisted of unequal conflicts o between the haves and the have-nots: between peoples with farmer power and those without it, or between those who acquired it at different times."
Advantages of Agricultural Societies More food, more people. Domestic animals o Meat o Pull plows, carts o Transportation, war o Furs, fiber o Fertilizer o Deadly germs
Advantages of Agricultural Societies Sedentary Existence o Short birth intervals o higher population densities Grain Storage o Support specialists: Kings bureaucrats soldiers priests artisans.
Independent Crop Domestication Middle East (8,000 BC) o Wheat, pea, olive China o Rice, millet Mexico (3,000 BC) o Maize, squash, beans Andes mountains o Potato USA o Sunflower Other people adopted these crops (and domesticated animals) later as a cultural package
Adoption by Hunter- Gatherers Sometimes domesticated plants and animals were adopted by hunters/gatherers o Native Americans in U.S. Sometimes hunters/gatherers were displaced by agriculturalists o European expansion in Australia, Tasmania Trugannini, last Remaining Tasmanian Aboriginal, 1868
Head Start " The peoples of areas with a head start on food production o thereby gained a head start on the path leading to guns, germs and steel. o The result was a long series of collisions between the haves and have-nots of history."
Food Production Food production often led to o poorer health o shorter lifespan o harder labor for the majority of people.
Early Plant Domestication Humans unknowingly selected for traits: o seed size, fiber length o lack of bitterness o early germination o selfing o dispersal mutations wheat that does not shatter seeds that stay in pods
Major Domesticated Crops No new plants domesticated in modern times All of these domesticated thousands of years ago. Need a suite of domesticated plants to make agriculture work o Thus new plants domesticated where agriculture already successful
Fertile Crescent Attributes Mediterranean climate. Wild stands of wheat Hunter/gatherers settled down here before agriculture, living off grain High percentage of self pollinating plants -- easiest to domesticate. Of large seeded grass species of the world, 32 of 56 grow here. Big animals for domestication: goat, sheep, pig, cow
Meso America In Meso America, the only animals domesticated were turkey and dog Maize was slow to domesticate. Occurred 5,000 years after domestication of wheat
Big 5 Domesticated Animals Horse Cow Pig Sheep Goat All from Eurasia
Large Animals Of 148 large herbivorous or omnivorous species in the world o Eurasia had 72 o Africa 51 o Americas 24 o Australia 1 Most cannot be domesticated
Why have 134 out of 148 big species not been domesticated? Diet too finicky o koala Growth rate too slow o elephants, gorillas Wont breed in captivity o cheetah, vicuna Nasty Disposition. o grizzly bear, African buffalo, onager, zebra, hippo, elk
Why have 134 out of 148 big species not been domesticated? Hard to herd (no dominance structure) o deer, antelope Tendency to panic. o deer, antelope, gazelles Solitary o only cats and ferrets domesticated Territorial o rhino
Easier to spread East- West It was easier for domestic plants and animals o later, technology like wheels, writing) to spread East-West in Eurasia than North- South in Americas.
Evidence Some crops domesticated independently in both S. America and Meso America o due to slow spread lima beans common beans chili peppers
Evidence Most crops in Eurasia domesticated only once. Rapid spread preempted same or similar domestication. Fertile Crescent crops spread to Egypt, N. Africa, Europe, India and eventually to China.
Africa East-West spread of plants, animals easier o due to same day-length, similar seasonal variations. Temperate N. Africa crops did not reach S. Africa until colonists brought them o Sahara o Tropics Tropical crops spread West to East in Africa with Bantu culture, o did not cross to S. Africa due to climate.
Americas Distance between cool highlands of Mexico and Andes was only 1,200 miles but separated by low hot tropical region. Thus, no exchange of crops, animals, writing, wheel. o Only maize spread.
Americas It took 2,000 years for maize to cross 700 miles of desert to reach U.S.A. It took another 1000 years for maize to adapt to U.S.A. climate to be productive
Not a Cultural Issue Some species like cows, dogs, pigs independently domesticated in different parts of the world. o These animals were well suited for domestication. Modern attempts to domesticate: o eland, elk, moose, musk ox, zebra, American Bison o are only marginally successful.