Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Pathology By Dr. Gehan Mohamed Dr. Abdelaty Shawky."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Pathology By Dr. Gehan Mohamed Dr. Abdelaty Shawky
* Pathology: * Pathology: is the science which studies the nature of the disease.
Pathology Classification 1.General pathology: – The study of general reactions of cells and tissues to insults and injuries that are basic to all disease processes. 2.Systemic pathology: – The study of specific disease processes or reactions as they affect particular organs or organ systems e.g. CVS, CNS, GIT…..etc.
Applied pathology 1. Anatomic pathology: a. Necropsy pathology b. Surgical pathology c. Cytopathology 2. Clinical pathology. 3. Forensic pathology.
1. Anatomic Pathology: – Making diagnosis by examining tissues. 1. Necropsy pathology: – Examination of tissues excised from cadavers in an effort to establish the cause of death. – This is called autopsy. 2. Surgical pathology: – Examination of tissues excised from living patients in an effort to establish a specific diagnosis. – This is called biopsy. 3. Cytopathology: – The microscpocic study of exfoliated cells within body fluids.
2. Clinical pathology: – Analysis of various specimens (whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, stool, CSF, sputum, etc.) from patients to facilitate diagnosis, direct therapeutic approach and monitor therapy. 3. Forensic pathology: – Subspecialty dealing with medicolegal investigation of death.
Biopsy - Examination of tissues from the living body to determine the cause of a disease. a. Closed biopsy (needle or core biopsy): – The pathologist or clinician put a needle into the mass to obtain a bit of tissue. – Usually wont give you enough material. b. Open biopsy (incisional biopsy): - An incision was made to obtain a larger mass of tissue. c. Excisional biopsy: - Excision of the whole mass for diagnosis.
Needle or core biopsy
FNAC = Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology A thin core needle is used to obtain a few cells from a mass lesion. Used for: – Superficial mass – Deep mass lesions (with help of CT/USG)
The Disease: The structural and functional changes in organs and tissues due to exposure to an irritant (causative agent of the disease).
* Classification of Diseases: A. Developmental: genetic, congenital. B. Acquired: 1. Inflammatory. 2. Neoplastic e.g. Tumors 3. Degenerative e.g. Ageing. 4. Metabolic.
What should we know about the disease? Definition. Epidemiology: Where & When. Etiology: What is the cause? Pathogenesis: Evolution of dis. Morphology: Structural Changes Complications. Management Prognosis Prevention
Etiology Study of the cause of a disease" a. Predisposing Causes of Disease: Factors which make an individual more susceptible to a disease (damp weather, poor ventilation, etc.) b. Exciting Causes of Disease (An etiologic agent ): Factors which are directly responsible for a disease (hypoxia, chemical agents, virus, bacteria …. etc.).
Pathogenesis The sequence of events in the response of the cells or tissues to the etiologic agent, from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of the disease or simply the mechanism of disease occurrence.
MORPHOLOGY OF THE DISEASE 1.Gross (macroscopic) changes: 1.Gross (macroscopic) changes: By naked eye examination. 2.Histologic (microscopic) changes: 2.Histologic (microscopic) changes: By light microscope examination. 3.Ultrastructural changes: 3.Ultrastructural changes: By an electron microscope examination.