Presentation on theme: "Goodman/20091 RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RTI) AT THE HIGH SCHOOL Shawn Goodman, School Psychologist, Ithaca High School (607) 274-2212"— Presentation transcript:
Goodman/20091 RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RTI) AT THE HIGH SCHOOL Shawn Goodman, School Psychologist, Ithaca High School (607)
Goodman/20092 The quality of a school as a learning community can be measured by how effectively it addresses the needs of struggling students. - Wright, 2005.
Goodman/20093 Goals of Presentation Overview of using RTI at the High School level Role of Guidance Counselors in making data- based decisions Map out resources, supports, and interventions at IHS Discuss how to align student problems with array of interventions
Goodman/20094 The Real Goal: Learn More Acronyms! IDEA IDEIA PBIS ADA IEP CSE LD SLD MR MMR ED SED OHI RTI CBM DIBELS BEA NCLB
Goodman/20095 Bonus: Solve this acronym: NCLTFBUHOSCKU
Goodman/20096 Learning disabilities have become a sociological sponge to wipe out the spills of general education. G. Reid Lyon of the National Institute of Child and Human Development
Goodman/20097 Problems with Traditional Approaches Little empirical support Too many false positives and negatives Inappropriate placements Focus on pathology: failure is prerequisite for interventions/support Emphasis on diagnosis and classification rather than intervention or remediation Reliance on confusing formulas Poor outcomes in Special Education
Goodman/20098 What is Response to Intervention? (RTI)
Goodman/20099 RTI is a promising approach used to identify and remediate learning problems. It is a model and not a specific technique or program.
Goodman/ Advantages of RTI: Allows for early intervention Can be used with all students Provides a map of what works (and what doesnt) for individual students Tracks student response over time (instead of at intake and release) Conforms to IDEIA The focus is on measurable and changeable aspects of the instructional environment
Goodman/ Compliance with IDEIA May not require the use of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement for determining whether a child has a specific learning disability Must permit the use of a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention
Goodman/ Compliance with Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) Redefines Learning Disabilities to include students with low ability (IQ) and academic delays Encourages use of RTI (show that the student responds to scientific, research-based interventions…) Discourages use of traditional methods associated with poor validity (discrepancy testing)
Goodman/ …Much to be gained by abandoning much of what we were doing (Ysseldyke et al., 1983).
Goodman/ How RTI works: 1.Universal screening of all students (typically 3 times per year) 2.Progress Monitoring 3.Data (from screening and progress monitoring) used to make decisions about instruction, educational placement, etc.
Goodman/ School-Wide Screening of all students: Quick, cheap, repeatable testing of important skills areas or behaviors (such as Reading Fluency) Tells us who is at risk Examples include Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy (DIBELS), Iowa Test of Basic Skills, etc.
Goodman/ Research-Based Progress Monitoring (For students identified as at-risk) At-risk students are assessed weekly We will use Curriculum-Based assessments (not standardized): quick and relevant We will chart results to show progress Allows us to see when a student is not responding – leads to early intervention
Goodman/ Data-based Decision Making Schools develop a system to collect and record data on student performance (beyond what standardized tests show) Helps to analyze curricular, departmental, and administrative roles Establishes a model of constant improvement
Goodman/ Oral Reading Fluency: Best Academic Indicator Empirical studies have consistently demonstrated a strong, positive correlation among oral reading fluency, reading decoding, reading comprehension, and on- task behavior (McDowell & Keenan, 2001; Shinn, Good, Knutson, Tilly, & Collins, 1992)
Goodman/ ABOUT READING PROBES Typically last one-minute Are given at different grade levels Number of correctly read words is recorded and measured against benchmarks Administer consecutively lower grade level probes until student shows proficiency Gives very accurate indication of students real reading level (based on actual reading curriculum rather than standardized material)
Goodman/ The following is an example of a common RTI Reading Probe (DIBELS):
Goodman/ DORF Progress Monitoring 15 Nicknames When I was born I was named after my grandfather. Most 11 people call me by my nickname instead of my real name, though.23 I got my nickname when I was about six months old and starting36 to eat solid foods. My mother would dip the spoon into my baby 49 food and start to bring a bite to my mouth. Before the spoon even63 touched my lips, I would open my mouth very wide and make a 76 little noise.78 My mother said to my father, Look at him eat. Isnt he90 cute?91 My father said, He looks just like a baby robin in his nest104 waiting for a juicy worm.109 After that, my father started calling me Bird as a nickname.120 he mostly kept it to himself, but then my grandfather began 131 calling me Bird. Finally, even my mother called me Bird.141 Now Im in the third grade and most of my classmates call153 me Bird. Only my teacher uses my real name. I am so used to my168 nickname that when my teacher calls on me I sometimes dont179 realize she is talking to me.185 Whenever my parents really want my attention, they call me 195 by my real name. When they call me by my full name and even 209 use my middle name I know I better pay attention Dynamic Measurement Group, Inc.
Goodman/ How can IHS use RTI? Sample Program: represents one of many possibilities
Goodman/ RTI Pilot: Cost: No cost. Materials: Downloaded from internet Staff: School Psychologist, and one student intern (Ithaca College) Participants: 22 students Duration: 6 months for all 3 phases
Goodman/ RTI Pilot: Overall Results (for the graph-phobic among us) High level of cooperation, participation, and student satisfaction Accurately identified effective interventions for each student Students showed significant improvements in reading ability (from session to session and across all sessions)
Goodman/ Protocol 1.Existing student achievement scores were used to identify 22 students at-risk for learning disabilities in reading 2.All 22 at-risk students received additional screening using DIBELS probes 3.6 students were identified with severe reading fluency deficits. 4.Brief Experimental Analysis (BEA) and Extended Analysis were used with these 6 students to identify effective interventions and collect data on response to intervention.
Goodman/ RTI Pilot: Case Studies
Goodman/ Sample Case One J.S. Age: 15 years, 7 months Grade: 8
Goodman/ J.S. - History Repeated first grade Multiple suspensions and transfers Multiple residential placements Longstanding family conflict (adopted, incarceration of siblings., illness, etc). Reading is frustrating and embarrassing Avoids reading and academic tasks
Goodman/ J.S. - RTI RESULTS Assessment and Intervention given by School Psychologist for 30 minutes/session over 3 weeks Reading Fluency increased from 85 to 135 Words/Minute Errors decreased from 6/minute to 0 Six sessions of Intervention showed an average increase in Fluency of 8 Words/Minute per session
Goodman/ J.R. – Brief Experimental Analysis
Goodman/ J.R. – Extended Analysis
Goodman/ J.S. – RECOMMENDATIONS (presented to J.S. and Teacher) 1.Material in all subjects to be given at 5 th grade level 2.Weekly practice sessions (30 minutes) with a reading specialist to focus on skill acquisition 3.Weekly practice sessions (30 minutes) with a reading specialist or tutor using Intervention. 4.Reassess progress at one month intervals
Goodman/ Sample Case Two P.V. Age: 15 years; 7 months Grade: 10
Goodman/ P.V. – History History of school failure Classified Emotionally Disturbed by Special Education Reads at 2 nd Grade Level Reads very slowly, but makes no errors Increased anxiety when reading aloud
Goodman/ P.V. - RTI RESULTS Intervention and assessment given by college intern for 30 minutes/session over 4 weeks Reading Fluency increased from 41 to 132 Words/Minute Error rate remained 0 Youth satisfaction high
Goodman/ P.W. – Brief Experimental Analysis
Goodman/ P.W. – Extended Analysis
Goodman/ Reading material at the 3 rd grade level 2.Instruction/Intervention should include Motivation and Repeated Reading (Practice) 3.Reduce distractions and interruptions 4.Allow extra time, especially during long pauses. Do not finish words or sentences unless she asks for help. 5.Assess anxiety which manifests as stuttering, fidgeting, and giving up. P.V. - Recommendations
Goodman/ NEXT STEPS for IHS: Introduce RTI to IHS as a way to raise the quality of educational services available to all students –Map all programs, services, resources, and supports currently available at school and in the community –Develop a practical model of assessment and progress monitoring –Align problems with appropriate interventions or supports Use RTI model to track and analyze program effectiveness –Use implementation guides currently available – Establish IHS (or Department-Specific) criteria for at-risk status
Goodman/ Resources National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD): Core Findings About Response to Intervention. University of Nebraska Omaha. Response to Intervention: The Latest News and Resources. Big Ideas in Beginning Reading (U of Oregon): What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept of Education): Intervention Central: CBM Warehouse: The Behavior Reporter (Behavior Report Card Generator): Gresham, F.M. (2004). Current status and future directions of school-based behavioral interventions. School Psychology Review, 33, Fuchs, L.S. (2003). Assessing intervention responiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, Mellard, D. (2005). Responsiveness to Intervention: Implementation in Schools.
Goodman/ Resources Intervention Central. Jim Wrights excellent website for RTI, and other interventions. Link to Syracuse Schools model using Intervention Teams. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy. School program using RTI.
Goodman/ Process of Learning New Tasks Acquisition: student learns to read new words Fluency: student practices accurately reading words Generalization: student reads words in different contexts Adaptation: student uses knowledge of new words to decipher words with other sound patterns - Wilbur, and Cushman, 2006
Goodman/ Five Possible Reasons for Academic Difficulty Not motivated Not spent enough time practicing Not received enough help Not had to use the skill that way before Too hard - Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & McGrath, 2002
Goodman/ Academic Interventions: Not motivated? Need practice? Need help? Too hard? Provide choices and incentives Drills, practice, and structured teaching Modeling, prompting, correcting, error corr. Modify materials to ensure instr. match