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How to set up and manage a Project ? Niten Chandra, IAS Joint Secretary Ministry of Rural Development Government of India Mob:

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Presentation on theme: "How to set up and manage a Project ? Niten Chandra, IAS Joint Secretary Ministry of Rural Development Government of India Mob:"— Presentation transcript:

1 How to set up and manage a Project ? Niten Chandra, IAS Joint Secretary Ministry of Rural Development Government of India Mob:

2 Five Key Phases of Project Management 1.Set up and Contract 2.Plan Project 3.Implement 4.Monitor & Report Progress 5.Complete & Review Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI2

3 Set up & Contract 1.Setting up Process 2.Develop Project Brief 3.Write Issue Statement 4.Define Mission & Key Objectives 5.Specify Outputs & Timings 6.Set Scope & Limits 7.Clarify Roles 8.Develop Personal Contracts 9.Develop Project Contract Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI3

4 Setting up Process 1.Formulate issues, mission, objectives, output and timing 2.Identify and engage with Stakeholders, beneficiaries, clients and customers 3.Ascertain cross-departmental links 4.Assess the feasibility of project 5.Determine the principal means of achieving project mission and primary objectives 6.Work out the resources it will need and who will provide them 7.Recommend how far its scope and authority should extend 8.Formulate the best strategy for executing the project 9.Select and appoint team members 10.Arrange training to ensure common approach and understanding 11.Formulate and sign the contract Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI4

5 Develop Project Brief Purpose : To brief project team on its task Helps in establishment of a project team Provides preliminary terms of reference from which a project contract can be derived Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI5

6 Issue Statement: Chronic inability of CAPART to meet its goals, poor networking, weak focus on rural community, entrenchment of malpractices and erosion of credibility Sample Project Brief Project Title: Restructuring of CAPART Required Outputs: Implementation plan, MPR, Notes for decisionTiming Mission: To enable CAPART meet its goal of rural prosperity through engagement with government and voluntary agencies Primary Objective: Change organizational structure within 3 months Scope & Limits: Only MoRD & CAPART to be involved, no engagement of professionals Budget: Rs 25 lakhs Authorization procedure: Executive Committee & General Body, MRD Cost Center: CAPART Project termination date: 31/May/12. Members: DG(CAPART), JS (CAPART), Dir/US (CAPART)Support Team SignedAdministrative Department Date Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI6

7 Write issue statement It is a clear description of what the problem is and what needs to be improved Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI7

8 Define Vision, Mission and Objectives 1.Vision provides the overall goal or purpose of the project. It defines how it will look like when we get there. It clarifies where the project is trying to get to. 2.Mission is what should be achieved in order to get to the vision. 3.Objectives are the means by which mission will be achieved. Vision Mission Objectives Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI8

9 Specify Required Outputs and Timing Reduces misunderstanding between owner and executant of project Provides a basis for assessing progress Provides means for establishing extent to which it has fulfilled project requirements Output should include: – Plan to achieve mission – Milestones with dates – MIS – Interim progress report – Measures of progress – Audit report, UC, Evaluation study, documentation (video), etc. – Timing : online, monthly, quarterly, annual, etc. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI9

10 Set scope & limits These prescribe the DONTs Budget constraint Territorial limits Performance standard / target Product type Procedures or process standards Limit of authority or delegation It prevents team from straying into areas not allowed or waste effort on low priorities. Limits have to be carefully judged so that they do not make objectives unrealistic. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI10

11 Agree project budget Identify cost heads: – Manpower – Materials – Equipment – Premises – Expenses – Subcontractors: lawyers, auditors, consultants, etc. – Reorganization costs Quantify project benefits over its life Clarify authorization level and cost center. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI11

12 Clarify roles Getting the right players involved in clearly defined roles ensures the necessary experience, skills and personal qualities are available to the project. Without these the project is unlikely to succeed. Owner Support: Sponsor & Facilitator Team : Leader & Members Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI12

13 Develop personal contracts Contracts clarify what is expected and who is doing what. It helps all parties in a project to define their roles and reach agreement with each other on how to work together. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI13

14 Develop project contract 1.Encourages team to feel a genuine party to the contract 2.Generates ownership of the means or the how 3.Helps to ensure project brief is appropriate 4.It should be signed to demonstrate commitment & understanding MissionKey Measures MilestonesPrincipal Means MeasuresObjectives By 31.3 By 31.7 Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI14

15 Plan What To Do 1.Use a Project Management Plan 2.Decide what to do 3.Develop implementation plans a.Work breakdown structure b.Key Activity & Task Plans c.Responsibility Charts d.Resource Requirement List e.Cost Breakdown Structure 4.Produce a schedule a.Gantt Chart b.Critical Path Analysis c.Draft Contingency Plans Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI15

16 Use a Project Management Plan This sets out five main phases in the life of a project and their key steps, with scheduled completion dates and assigned responsibilities: – Set up & contract, Plan project, Implement, Monitor & report progress, Complete & Evaluate Project StepStart ByComplete ByResponsibilityStatus Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI16

17 Decide what to do 1.Collect data i.Current processes ii.Performance standard iii.Measuring waste, errors iv.Surveying customers/ suppliers, etc. v.Efficiency & productivity 2.Analyse root causes 3.Find best solutions a.Check sheets b.Data Display c.Asking why d.Brainstorming e.Cause & effect analysis f.Paired comparisons g.Process mapping h.Time cost analysis i.Pareto analysis j.Cost Benefit analysis k.Decision Chart l.Priorities Grid Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI17

18 Develop Implementation Plans Key Activity (Milestones) Planning Sequences key activities & tasks and identifies timescales Work Breakdown Structure (Goals, Objectives, Actions, Tasks, Sub-Tasks) Identifies and structures different levels of activities Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI18

19 Develop Implementation Plans Resource requirement list List Resource needs and availability Responsibility Chart Identifies who is responsible for what task Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI19

20 Develop Implementation Plans Contingency Action Plan Sets out actions for serious setbacks Schedule Brings together task durations, start and finish dates, prime responsibilities Cost Breakdown structure Defines cost elements, eg. time, equipment, material, subcontractor costs by key activity and tasks Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI20

21 Responsibility Chart Task Name Estimated Work Days Duration of Work (No of Weeks) SRDJSIFDDirDGDDG Responsibility Types: 1.P: Prime Responsibility 2.W: Does Work 3.A: Advises 4.I: Provides Input 5.D: Takes Decision 6.C: Must be consulted 7.IF: Must be Informed Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI21

22 Resource Requirement List (Materials, manpower, systems, equipment, specialist help, funds, etc.) Task NameResources Required AvailabilityProblemsOptionsAction Taken Comments Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI22

23 Cost Breakdown Task NameResource Required CostCost CodeExpenditure Authorized Invoice Received Payment Record the dates for expenditure authorized, invoice received and payment made. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI23

24 Produce a Schedule Gantt or Bar Chart Critical Path Method (CPM) Programme or Performance Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) Task NameMonths JanFebMarApr Set goals Set Budget Engage Professionals Draft Plan Approve Plan Release Funds Procure Equipment Operationalise Train users Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI24

25 Contingency Planning Potential ProblemSolution OptionsAction Taken Project:Date: Prepared by: Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI25

26 Implement Implementation is about getting things done according to plan and ensuring that a number of things are in place to support the activities and manage the resultant changes. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI26

27 Checklist for Successful Implementation 1.Community / Client Focus : Is the focus on community / client and the end users’ views and needs being attended to through regular check and feedback. 2.An Effective Communication System: knowing what should be communicated to whom, by whom, when, how, what outcomes are required, etc. Are goals, means, roles, responsibility, procedures, rules, guidelines and instructions clear to people ? 3.Effective Teamwork: what training, support and review mechanisms are in place. Is the Responsibility Chart working ? Do frictions persist ? 4.Working conditions: are the working conditions of team members adequate ? What incentives and awards are given to performers? 5.Information systems: Have measures been agreed ? How will data be captured, who will do it ? How will it link into the communications system? Is the protocol for sharing information with public in place ? 6.Progress Monitoring: Is the planned frequency and format working ? Are deviations analysed and corrective actions taken? 7.Risks and contingency planning: Have risks been identified and contingency planning done? What are the unforeseen problems and their likely impact ? How will they be dealt with ? 8.Legal, etc: Is full compliance to all legal, health, safety, administrative, audit and financial procedures being achieved ? Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI27

28 Monitor & Report Progress 1.Is work being done within the estimates ? 2.Will each activity be completed within schedule ? 3.Is quality of work within specification? 4.Are expected results being achieved ? 5.Are there other changes or special problems ? Corrective Action 1.Clarifying roles & removing confusion 2.Rearranging the workload 3.Resolving disputes 4.Putting in more resources or effort 5.Moving target completion date(s) 6.Lowering targets ResourcesActivitiesOutputsOutcomesImpact Feedback (MIS) Results Chain MIS should be : i.Focussed on priorities ii.Responsive i.e initiates corrective action iii.Timely – no undue delays iv.User friendly v.Flexible vi.Simple & Clear Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI28

29 Progress Report 1.Current Project Status: Cost, time & quality 2.Future Status: likely deviations 3.Critical Tasks status: 4.Risk Assessment: 5.Information relevant to other projects/States : lessons learnt, best practices Task NamePlanned ResultActual ResultDeviationsRemedial Action Date:Submitted By: Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI29

30 Project Log Purpose: Monitor project process in a qualitative way to deal with important management issues and to generate useful information for future project improvement Entry DateIssuesNumerical Data OpinionAction Required Responsibility Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI30

31 Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI 31 1.Financial 2.Administrative 3.MIS 4.Monitoring & Evaluation 5.Performance Audit 6.Incentives 7.Training 8.Coordination 9.Discipline 10.Stress Management

32 Training & Learning Stages 1.We come to know about something which is new and different 2.We understand the possible applications of the new idea or information 3.We accept the idea as useful, a desirable option and are willing to make the changes 4.We are able to apply the new learning. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI32

33 Management Competencies Clusters of Personal CompetenceDimensions of personal competence 1. Planning to optimize the achievement of results 1.1 Showing concern for excellence 1.2 Setting & prioritizing objectives 1.3 Monitoring & responding to actual against planned activities 2. Managing others to optimize results2.1 Showing sensitivity to the needs of others 2.2 Relating to others 2.3 Obtaining the commitment of others 2.4 Presenting oneself positively to others 3. Managing oneself to optimize results3.1 Showing self-confidence and personal drive 3.2 Managing personal emotions and stress 3.3 Managing personal learning & development 4. Using intellect to optimize results4.1 Collecting & organizing information 4.2 Identifying and applying concepts 4.3 Making decisions Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI33

34 Job Description with Performance Plan & Behavioural Criteria Key Result AreasMeasures & Reports Standards & TargetsTiming Direct regional operations to ensure that all planned targets are met within agreed budgets and time scales Monthly Management Reports on : Expenses Sales Staffing Budget Variance Reports For year ending Mar 2012 Not more than $ X million in expenses Target is $ Y million < 5 % increase in costs Not more than +- 5% Reports due one week after month end. Behavioural criteriaDecisiveness, Planning & Organizing, Problem Analysis, Work Standards, Inter-personal sensitivity, Management control, Initiative, Persuasiveness, Leadership, Judgment Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI34

35 Planning for Performance Major Areas of ResponsibilityResults or standards expected to be achieved. Agreed actions and priorities. Due Dates of action initiation and completion. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI35

36 Reviewing Performance What actually has been achieved as described by responsible person Comments of the Superior Assessment by Superior Far exceeded standard Consistently exceeded standard Sometimes exceeded standard Consistently met standard Did not meet standard Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI36

37 Aligning Members within an Organization Achievement of Department’s mission & objectives depends on how individuals within an organization are aligned with the mission & objectives. There are essential attributes that may be fostered in individuals to ensure proper alignment of individuals within a Department by building appropriate performance culture. Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI37

38 Checking for Attributes Sl. No. Attributes Score (0-1) 1Competence: has or seeks knowledge and skills relevant for job, continually learning 2Effort: tries to complete tasks, does not delay 3Productivity: stamina, endurance with high volume of work done 4Creativity: lateral thinking, produces useful & innovative ideas or approaches to problem solving 5Quality: does work with accuracy, calm & thoroughness, does not offend, not moody has self-control 6Communication: listens and explains ideas or concepts clearly, pleasantly, persuasively 7Dependability: is firm & follows up on completion of assignments despite odds, gives no excuses 8Initiative: has enthusiasm, seeks new assignments or opportunities for contribution, crosses boundaries and reaches out 9Decision-making: sets priorities and gives options, provides focus & clarity 10Leadership: fosters team-work, helps team solve problems, tactfully resolves disputes, inspires, is kind, not fault-finding, mentors, coaches and develops others Total Score Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI38

39 Building Performance Culture in an Organization 1.Set short-term, challenging, motivating and realistic goals 2.Provide support for performance 3.Invite people to workshops and seminars to present success tales and share experience with others at agreed intervals 4.Appreciate & reward performers 5.Investigate problems with non-performers 6.Get together performers and non-performers to share the key success drivers, provide solutions & make the tasks doable for the non-performers. 7.Provide additional support, training to non-performers and lower their targets to make them achievable 8.Let non-performers attain the respect for showing performance, taste the joy of performance, and have the anxiety to avoid non-performance Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI39

40 How can Leader solve problems of team members Get agreement that there is a problem Discuss possible solutions Agree on action to be taken to solve the problem Follow up on action and assess results Recognize progress and achievements as they occur Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI40

41 Outline Plan for Performance Discussion 1.Warm up 2.Job Responsibilities 1.What do you see as your major responsibilities at present 2.What are the priorities ? Why ? 3.What would you change about your project? 4.How could your time and talents be used better? 3.Performance goals 1.Overall, how do you we feel about the targets we set? 2.Have any of them proved to be inappropriate? Why? 4.Job accomplishments 1.How do you feel the job is doing? 2.What has interested you most in your project in the past? 3.What have been the major accomplishments? 4.Where do you think you are being most effective in your project? 5.Areas for Improvement 1.What disappoints or frustrates you most about your project at the present time? 2.Where do you feel least effective? 3.What can we do to increase your effectiveness 4.What help or support can we give you? 6.Assessment 7.Plans for Improvement 1.This should be discussed and agreed and not imposed 8.Conclusion 1.Summarize the discussion 2.Agree on future action 3.Describe what will happen with the results of the review 4. Thank everyone for their time and contribution Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI41

42 Post-Completion Evaluation : Capitalising on Learning 1.Lessons Learnt 2.Things which could have been done better 3.Leadership and motivation 4.Enthusiasm and passion of the team members 5.Clarity & focus on goals 6.Coordination among interdependent units/departments 7.Quality of communication- internal & external, flow of information 8.Efficiency, effectiveness, flexibility, freedom, trust 9.Quality of support received 10.Authority, responsibility & delegation 11.Resourcing issues 12.Robustness and value of contract 13.Problems of personal time management Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI42

43 Thank You Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI43


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