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Electrons in Atoms I. Waves & Particles C. Johannesson

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**A. Waves Wavelength () - length of one complete wave**

Frequency () - # of waves that pass a point during a certain time period hertz (Hz) = 1/s Amplitude (A) - distance from the origin to the trough or crest C. Johannesson

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** A A A. Waves crest greater amplitude (intensity) origin trough**

greater frequency (color) C. Johannesson

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B. EM Spectrum HIGH ENERGY LOW ENERGY C. Johannesson

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**B. EM Spectrum HIGH ENERGY LOW ENERGY R O Y G. B I V red orange yellow**

green blue indigo violet C. Johannesson

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**c = B. EM Spectrum c: speed of light (3.00 108 m/s)**

Frequency & wavelength are inversely proportional c = c: speed of light (3.00 108 m/s) : wavelength (m, nm, etc.) : frequency (Hz) C. Johannesson

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**B. EM Spectrum = ? = c = 434 nm = 4.34 10-7 m**

EX: Find the frequency of a photon with a wavelength of 434 nm. GIVEN: = ? = 434 nm = 4.34 10-7 m c = 3.00 108 m/s WORK: = c = 3.00 108 m/s 4.34 10-7 m = 6.91 1014 Hz C. Johannesson

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**C. Quantum Theory Planck (1900)**

Observed - emission of light from hot objects Concluded - energy is emitted in small, specific amounts (quanta) Quantum - minimum amount of energy change C. Johannesson

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**C. Quantum Theory vs. Planck (1900) Classical Theory Quantum Theory**

C. Johannesson

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**C. Quantum Theory Einstein (1905) Observed - photoelectric effect**

C. Johannesson

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**“wave-particle duality”**

C. Quantum Theory Einstein (1905) Concluded - light has properties of both waves and particles “wave-particle duality” Photon - particle of light that carries a quantum of energy C. Johannesson

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C. Quantum Theory The energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency. E = h E: energy (J, joules) h: Planck’s constant ( J·s) : frequency (Hz) C. Johannesson

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**C. Quantum Theory E = ? E = h = 4.57 1014 Hz**

EX: Find the energy of a red photon with a frequency of 4.57 1014 Hz. GIVEN: E = ? = 4.57 1014 Hz h = J·s WORK: E = h E = ( J·s) (4.57 1014 Hz) E = 3.03 J C. Johannesson

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