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WHY TO SEEK FOR A CANON? Katri Sarmavuori. Canonised literature 2001 by Juha Rikama  Seven Brothers by Aleksis Kivi, The Unknown Soldier by V ä in ö.

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Presentation on theme: "WHY TO SEEK FOR A CANON? Katri Sarmavuori. Canonised literature 2001 by Juha Rikama  Seven Brothers by Aleksis Kivi, The Unknown Soldier by V ä in ö."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHY TO SEEK FOR A CANON? Katri Sarmavuori

2 Canonised literature 2001 by Juha Rikama  Seven Brothers by Aleksis Kivi, The Unknown Soldier by V ä in ö Linna, The Red Line by Ilmari Kianto, and Juha by Juhani Aho  A Doll ’ s House by Henrik Ibsen, The Outsider by Albert Camus, and Lord of the Flies by William Golding.  Seven Brothers by Aleksis Kivi, The Unknown Soldier by V ä in ö Linna, The Red Line by Ilmari Kianto, and Juha by Juhani Aho  A Doll ’ s House by Henrik Ibsen, The Outsider by Albert Camus, and Lord of the Flies by William Golding.

3 Conclusions  ” The weak status of literature could, at least in part, be explained by the fact that young people had lost interest in literature and their interest continued to diminish, which is seen to be related to the marginalisation of the status of literature in the whole field of communications. ” (Rikama 2004)

4 The literary canon as assessed by senior high school teachers  1.A domestic novel (3): for example Kivi, Aho, Canth, Linna  2.A domestic collection of poems (1): for example Leino, S ö dergran, Kailas, Hellaakoski, Vala  3. A domestic present-day novel (1)  4.Scandinavian literature (1): for example Ibsen  5.A Russian classic (1): for example Tolstoi, Dostojevski, Chekhov  1.A domestic novel (3): for example Kivi, Aho, Canth, Linna  2.A domestic collection of poems (1): for example Leino, S ö dergran, Kailas, Hellaakoski, Vala  3. A domestic present-day novel (1)  4.Scandinavian literature (1): for example Ibsen  5.A Russian classic (1): for example Tolstoi, Dostojevski, Chekhov

5  6.Other European literature (2): for example Moliere, Shakespeare, Camus, Hesse, Kafka  7.American literature (1): for example Marquez, Steinbeck, Hemingway  8.Literature from other continents (1): for example Brink  9.A foreign present-day novel (1) (Virke 1/1998.)  6.Other European literature (2): for example Moliere, Shakespeare, Camus, Hesse, Kafka  7.American literature (1): for example Marquez, Steinbeck, Hemingway  8.Literature from other continents (1): for example Brink  9.A foreign present-day novel (1) (Virke 1/1998.)

6 Results (Sarmavuori 2004)  the book selection was broad.  teachers regarded the reading of classics as important  A common treatment: one book chosen for obligatory reading and another choice as option for individual study  The coursework contained individual or team presentations of the reading selection, reading diaries or comparative analyses  teachers: it is important to choose books that give rise to discussions and speak to young people  the book selection was broad.  teachers regarded the reading of classics as important  A common treatment: one book chosen for obligatory reading and another choice as option for individual study  The coursework contained individual or team presentations of the reading selection, reading diaries or comparative analyses  teachers: it is important to choose books that give rise to discussions and speak to young people

7 Results  The list of recommmend literature was considered good overall.  The teachers of the study used the following writers: Kivi, Canth, Linna, Ibsen, Aho, Hemingway, Moliere, Shakespeare, Kianto, Steinbeck, Sillanp ää, Chekhov and Golding. (Sarmavuori 2004.)  The list of recommmend literature was considered good overall.  The teachers of the study used the following writers: Kivi, Canth, Linna, Ibsen, Aho, Hemingway, Moliere, Shakespeare, Kianto, Steinbeck, Sillanp ää, Chekhov and Golding. (Sarmavuori 2004.)

8 My own canon list  1.Aleksis Kivi: Seven Brothers, Minna Canth: Pastor ’ s Family, V ä in ö Linna: The Unknown Soldier or Veikko Huovinen: Havukka-aho ’ s Philosopher  2.Edith S ö dergran: Poems  3.Bo Carpelan: The Shadows of the Summer or Arto Paasilinna: Auta armias (not translated in English, in Swedish Milda makter, in Dutch Wees genadig) or Tove Jansson: Moominpappa at Sea  1.Aleksis Kivi: Seven Brothers, Minna Canth: Pastor ’ s Family, V ä in ö Linna: The Unknown Soldier or Veikko Huovinen: Havukka-aho ’ s Philosopher  2.Edith S ö dergran: Poems  3.Bo Carpelan: The Shadows of the Summer or Arto Paasilinna: Auta armias (not translated in English, in Swedish Milda makter, in Dutch Wees genadig) or Tove Jansson: Moominpappa at Sea

9  4.Henrik Ibsen: A Doll ’ s House  5.Chekhov  6.Shakespeare: Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet  7.Hemingway: The Old Man and the Sea  8.Brink  9.Hertha M ü ller  4.Henrik Ibsen: A Doll ’ s House  5.Chekhov  6.Shakespeare: Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet  7.Hemingway: The Old Man and the Sea  8.Brink  9.Hertha M ü ller

10 Curriculum for pupils with native Swedish in Finland (1977)  From world literature  Platon: Phaidon, State  Bible: Sermon on the Mount  Darwin: On the Origin of Species  Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws  Voltaire: Candide  Rousseau: Emile  Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams  Beecher-Stowe: Uncle Tom ’ s Cabin  Marx: Communist Manifesto  Gogol: Revisor  Turgenjev: Zapiski ohotnika  From world literature  Platon: Phaidon, State  Bible: Sermon on the Mount  Darwin: On the Origin of Species  Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws  Voltaire: Candide  Rousseau: Emile  Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams  Beecher-Stowe: Uncle Tom ’ s Cabin  Marx: Communist Manifesto  Gogol: Revisor  Turgenjev: Zapiski ohotnika

11  Orwell: 1984  Swift: Gulliver ’ s Travels  De Beauvoir: The Second Sex  Solzhenitsyn: One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich  Anne Frank ’ s Diary  Angela Davis ’ s autobiography  Orwell: 1984  Swift: Gulliver ’ s Travels  De Beauvoir: The Second Sex  Solzhenitsyn: One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich  Anne Frank ’ s Diary  Angela Davis ’ s autobiography

12 From Scandinavian literature  Strindberg: Det nya riket  Ibsen: A Doll ’ s House  Almqvist: Det g å r an  Linna: The Unknown Soldier  Strindberg: Det nya riket  Ibsen: A Doll ’ s House  Almqvist: Det g å r an  Linna: The Unknown Soldier

13 From native Swedish literature  Runeberg: The Tales of Ensign St å l  Diktonius: H å rda s å nger  Andersson: Bakom bilderna  Kihlman: M ä nniskan som skalv (Lukion opetussuunnitelmatoimikunnan mietint ö II A 1977, 165 — 166.)  Runeberg: The Tales of Ensign St å l  Diktonius: H å rda s å nger  Andersson: Bakom bilderna  Kihlman: M ä nniskan som skalv (Lukion opetussuunnitelmatoimikunnan mietint ö II A 1977, 165 — 166.)

14 What kind of research?  1) Inquiry research. We send a questionnaire to different populations and take samples of them: teacher educators, teachers, student teachers, pupils, administrators, researchers, usual readers or representants from different vocations.

15  2) Curriculum comparison research. We take written curriculums from different countries and compare, how they are similar or different and look, if there is a recommendation for authors and their books.

16  3) Canon and identity. We should make a study about pupils ’ identity. During the last mother tongue course in the upper secondary school there is an obligatory course ” language, literature and identity ”. We should ask with a questionnaire or make an interview how pupils and teachers experience it. What they feel and think about their literary identity?

17  4) Textbooks and identity. What kind of literature, national, European and/or global classics there are in the textbooks? What do they mean for pupils ’ identity? How do they form pupils ’ national, European and global identity?


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