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2 Teaching methods can be lined in a continuum from lecture to inquiry and from teacher-centered to learners- centered ends Lecture Demonstration Discussion Play way

3 Lecture method The teacher talks or addresses his pupils by means of reading his notes while the pupils listen and take down notes. This method of teaching is one- way channel of communication with the teacher making oral presentation of information to the pupils. Referred to chalk and talk Lecture method is the commonest but not very adequate.

4 Demerits of the Method: The lecture method cannot be used in the primary school and secondary schools Learning is an active, not a passive process. Students are expected to be active in the classroom, but the lecture methods do not permit learners to react to lecturers in active ways. The lecture method needs to be modified as it fails to meet the basic needs of the students. The lecture method fails to pay attention to individual differences as what may be interesting to one student may not be interesting to another and the rate of assimilation differs from one individual to another. Merits: The lecture method is very suitable for very large class. It also safes time and energy on the part of the teacher. Teachers are able to cover a wide range of topics within a short time.

5 Demonstration This is popularly referred to talk and show. The teacher show something to the entire class like viewing specimen on microscope. This is employed mainly when materials of learning cannot go over the students. This is a little better than lecture but it is close to it in not being very adequate

6 Merit Useful when materials cannot go round the students. Help to combine sense of hearing with seeing. Useful in teaching concepts that may be too dangerous to handle by students Demerit Student still remain passive A lot of them may not benefit especially when they do not see or pay attention to what is being observed

7 DISCUSSION In this method students are meant to work in groups to discuss a given topic with the intension of learning or gaining from the exercise. There are three sessions namely (i)Pre-discussion session where the teacher briefs the students on points of discussion (ii)(ii) The actual discussion session (iii) Post-discussion session where the entire class comes together to harmonize or summarize issues discussed. Group leaders and scribes are appointed. They ensure that members of the groups are given ample opportunity to actively participate in the discussion session

8 Merit Can lead to meaningful learning if carefully done. Lead to the development of leadership spirit and team spirit. Low ability students are challenged and benefit from others. Demerit It may degenerate to rowdy and noisy session if not properly controlled. Might be time wasting because there is the tendency that the students might wander away from topic of discussion. Tendency of good students to dominate the session is there.

9 ROLE PLAYING Children first begin to "pretend around the age of two.. They pretend to eat when they are not: to cry when they are not or to sleep when they are not. This is soon followed and combined with projection of these to other objects; the doll eats, the doll cries. The children also begin, to use objects to stand for what they are not e.g. calling a clock a car or tin their cars. Finally, children pretend to be someone else. They are mother or father, the baby or sister. Such role-playing always appears by the age of three-and-half or four. In this type of role-play, children perform the actions and say the words they have seen, heard, recombining these in their own unique ways. The roles then are their own creations, not reproductions of roles created by a storywriter or a filmmaker.

10 Merit (i) Play is a shared activity and thus serves as a means of fostering team spirit. (ii)If properly applied, the play method enables the pupils to learn with ease and to stimulate interest and provide variety in classroom. (iv)It helps in understanding the feelings, emotions and prejudices of other people. Demerit (i) Role-playing may create psychological disturbance for students especially when they are forced to act contrary to their views and beliefs: (ii)It may be time consuming; (iii)It may not clarify every point of view.

11 Laboratory Method Laboratory activity is carried out by an individual or a group for the purpose of making personal observation of processes, products or events. It is a means of verifying abstract concepts, laws and principles; or practising skills in observation, measurement, classification etc; of determining of scientific knowledge. For laboratory work to be effective, it must go through four phases of: pre-laboratory planning pre-laboratory discussion laboratory session post-laboratory discussion. This can be carried out in outdoor laboratory not necessarily in indoor lab only.

12 Inquiry Method Inquiry is broadly defined as the search for truth (Schwab 1962); and as an approach to the teaching and learning of science in particular. it is always used synonymously as the discovery approach to teaching. The latter employs the use of the former, which in turn makes use of the scientific method of solving problem that starts with (i) sensing a problem (ii) stating the problem (iii) formulating hypothesis (iv) designing experiment to test hypothesis (v) collecting, collating and analyzing data (vi interpreting the data, and (vii) drawing conclusion There are three forms of inquiry: guided inquiry, free inquiry or unguided inquiry, and modified free inquiry.

13 Guided Inquiry: - In this type the teacher originates the problem to be solved. To give further guide, the teacher may explain or give clues or procedures in solving the problem. In other words the teachers structure the activities. What we call practical lesson in our science classroom is predominated by guided inquiry. Free Inquiry:- In this, neither the problem nor the solution is given. The students are required to formulate their own problem, device their own methods or procedures to solve the problem, collect their own data and draw reasonable conclusions by themselves. A good example is the final year projects or thesis. This method can expose students to danger and wastage of time, money and effort. For smaller children it can lead to trial and error eventually frustration. But learning uncovered by this method often has a lasting effect, can be retained for a long time and is easily transferable

14 Modified Free Inquiry:- For what seems to be disadvantages of free inquiry, science educators had advocated for modified free inquiry. In this method, the teacher provides the problem and students are asked to solve the problem in their own way. The teacher acts as a resource person only in term of giving motivation but not providing clues to the solution to the problem. For example a teacher can announce at the beginning of lesson. Here are some insects, find out as much as you can about them. The students are expected to observe, count the parts, and draw relationships in order to formulate concepts and conceptual schemes. The teacher sets the stage and encourages the students to solve the problems in their own way. The teacher may ask questions to clarify issues, which may assist the students, what particular procedures to adopt

15 Problem Solving Method: - Problem solving is usually defined as formulating new answers, going beyond the simple application of previously learned principles or rules to create a solution to a novel problem. If students merely apply a rule they have used before in similar situations, no real problem solving takes place. If the students are given step-by-step instructions about how to reach an answer, no real problem solving is necessary. In Gagne's view, problem solving involves combining previously learned rules into a new, never-before-used higher-order rule. Thus problem solving leads to a permanent change in a student's capabilities. The next time a similar situation is encountered, the student can simply use the recently learned high-order rule. Of course, if this proves unsuccessful, more problem solving will be necessary.

16 Teaching Problem Solving: Such-Man's Inquiry Approach (Suchman 1966). The purpose of Suchman's inquiry approach is to involve a whole group of students in finding an explanation for a puzzling problem. Using this teaching strategy, a teacher presents a carefully selected and worded problem to capture the students' interest. The problem describes an unlikely situation, one that cannot be easily explained using current principles or rules. For example, a biology teacher might present a problem such as this. In the mountains of the Southwest a number of years ago, dears were quite numerous, although the population would fluctuate slightly. There were also wolves in the mountains. Some people from a small town witness a wolf pack pull down two of the smaller deer in the herds and were horrified. As a result, the people launched a campaign to eliminate the wolves. To the dismay of the people, the years following the elimination of the wolves showed a marked decrease in the population of the deer. Why, when the wolf is the deer's natural predator, should this occur?

17 Testing Hypotheses After the problem has been presented, students must form hypotheses. To test out their ideas, they gather data by asking the teacher questions. Only questions that can be answered yes or no are allowed. Each student is permitted to pursue his or her line of questioning until satisfied that all relevant information has been collected. Then another student begins asking questions. The teacher does not evaluate proposed hypotheses but leaves this task to the student. Thus, the students are able to practice forming, testing, evaluating, rejecting, and revising hypotheses. If we entered the biology class described about half way through the problem solving session, we might hear the following: " Jim and I have another idea", Sam suggested. " Excellent", Mr. Smith praised. "Go ahead". " After the dears" predators were eliminated, the population expanded so their habitat couldn't support them, and they became susceptible to starvation, and the population went down", Sam said.

18 " OK." Mr Smith said. "Can we gather some information to support your idea?" " Were more rodents seen in the dears' habitat after the wolves were eliminated?" Ronke queried. " No." Mr. Smith said. " How about coytoes (young of wolves)? Ronke continued. " No again", replied Mr. Smith. " Were numerous bark less dead trees found in the region after the wolves were eliminated?" Bello continued. " Yes", Mr. Smith said. After series of questions and hypotheses testing, evaluating, rejecting and revising, the students eventually got the solution to the problem. They reasoned this way. If there were no rodents or other animals in the deer habitat, the deers must have fed on them. After killing and feeding on the animals and there were no more, they have to be eating the bark of the trees. When this could not do, they were dying probably killing and feeding on their young ones.

19 Learning Styles The level of economic prosperity of any nation determines the level of investment in education and this invariably determines the success of teaching and learning in schools and the type of teaching styles to be used. However, there are certain teaching styles that can be adopted and used by teachers in such Nigerian economy, which will favour the implementation of the educational system. Such teaching styles have been used in most of the newly industrialized countries like Japan Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, and Taiwan. Such teaching styles, which are sparingly used by our secondary school teachers, are called effective teaching styles. They include: 1.Democratic teaching Style (DTS) This is the characteristic of teachers who make use of students ideas, opinions and learning styles while teaching. They tend to induce more democratic, cooperative and friendly attitude on students toward learning. Such teachers are flexible and humanistic in their teaching. They lead students to identify themselves with the school. They also respect the individuality of their students and work as leader of the group. They lead students in the study of the significant problems in which they are interested. In this case the teacher and the student work in principle of give and take and respect each others ideas. They hold outlook of learning that emphasize permissiveness, tolerance, endurance and patriotism in human experience and behaviour.

20 2.Participatory teaching style (PTS) This is an interactive learning session to induce mass participation of the students in one class. The teachers may use group work and integration of subjects by both students and teachers with little efforts or freedom of choice of movement in order to avoid corporal punishments. This style goes on with control; academically discipline oriented and supportive. Finally, it breeds academically oriented students with individually teacher people interaction. 3.Learner control teaching style (LCTS) This is the teaching style that gears towards allowing the learner to have the control over the ends and means of his learning. Students go about finding solution to problems in learning situations

21 4.Informal Teaching Style (ITS) This is the characteristic of teachers who tend to be flexible, student centred and democratic in classroom relationship. They are sensitive to individual needs and differences in learning styles. They put emphasis on the student learning through individual study, small group decisions and excursion outside the school rather than on the teacher-teaching center. Consequently, studies have shown that the above teaching style are effective and good in educational instruction and can be adopted in any economic situation. Generally those teaching styles have the following good attributes. (a)Economically flexible and can be used effectively in any situation. (b)As learning is multidimensional they encourage joint participation of students and teachers in the classroom and match with students styles, pay close attention to factors affecting students ability to learn and utilize some of the important media for instruction in modern world.

22 (c) They make students cope with their world, have self- direction in the conduct of their own affairs, seek more learning as a result of present learning experiences and meet their needs. Finally, these teaching styles make maximum efforts to reach all the students each with different interest abilities and goals as well as different ways of learning. From available literatures, it was generally identified that students who are exposed to such effective teaching styles have the following attributes that have positive correlation to academic success. Such attributes include: friendliness, patriotic perseverance, confidence, mutual co- operation and recognition, high level of efficiency and habits of independence, initiative of working effectively in absence of teacher, high measure of works output, positive attitudes towards the teacher and schools, effective relations and memory and sense of clarity, variety, tasks orientation and high rate of success. These are innovation in teaching and learning that help educational development in any nation.

23 Questioning Techniques Questioning is an essential part of the teaching- learning process. Proper questioning will lead to meaningful learning. Carin (1970) and Oloruntegbe (2003) observe that not only do teachers ask too many questions. Surveys indicate over 90 percent of all questions teachers ask require reproducing what has just been read, heard or seen-by students. These kinds of questions demand only the lowest level of thinking by children- memorization. The high cognitive level type of questioning is an essential ingredient of inquiry and discovery. And in order to promote the development of intellectual process skills in children and to make learning and teaching effective, teachers must plan the questions they want to ask during a lesson while the actual lesson plan is going on.

24 The following points must be considered a necessary guide when planning the art of questioning. -What is it I want to teach? -What do I expect to accomplish through questioning? -What types of questions could I ask? -How will I respond and use children's answers to questions? To go about the first point the teacher must decide what objectives the lesson is set to achieve, what skills and attitudes the students must acquire and manifest. Then the taxonomy of educational objectives by Krathwohl et al (1964) will be of tremendous use. Teachers can spread their questions over the levels of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis synthesis and evaluation using table of specification.

25 The teacher must be sure he knows why he asks questions. The purpose of asking question must be clear to him before doing the asking. On the type of questions to ask or not to ask, Carin (1977) has offered some points that need be examined. Ask questions that require children to use the thought processes involved in science like; designing an investigation e.g. How would you find out? Hypothesizing e.g. what do you think will happen? Making operational definition, How would you define? Evaluating scientific procedure e.g. if you were to redo the experiment how would you ensure more accurate results? Ask question in a variety of ways in addition to "what", "how", "why", so that students are asked to illustrate or show how, explain, discuss, justify, trace, interpret, evaluate, contrast, summarize etc. Ask questions that are specific rather than too broad or general. How do seeds sprout? Is poor, what conditions are necessary for seeds to sprout? Better. To avoid the possibility of frustration in "how" questions, ask questions that direct children to the variables and changing conditions of the experiment such as:

26 –What do you think will happen if we.... –Will it work more or less quickly with.... –What might we do if we want this one to.... Avoid asking the following types of questions because they inhibit investigation and tend to be unscientific: a.Yes or No types of question. b.Teleological questions - (this means use of design or purpose as an explanation of natural phenomena. Why does nature abhor a vacuum? - Poor Why is it so difficult to maintain a vacuum? - Better. c.Anthropromotic questions - (this means giving human qualities to phenomena). Why do electrons want to leave the metal? What causes the electrons to move-Better. (After all, as far as we know, electrons are not capable of wanting). d.Vague, indefinite questions

27 Tell us about light - Poor What are some of the characteristics of light? - Better. e.Statement that suddenly turn into a question. The growth of your plant with fertilizer since last month was what? - Poor. How much have your plants with fertilizer grown since last month? - Better. f.A battery of questions What is weather, how is it different from climate and how can a weather map help predict it? - Poor. What are some of the elements that make up weather? - Better. g.Asking for information children cannot be expected to know. How does a Geigner counter work? - Poor. If the charged particles like protons go into the Geigner counter tube, what happened in the Geigner counter alert us to this?

28 h. Give away question, the answer is obvious and a foregone conclusion. - Avoid repeating children's answers to questions unless they could not be heard. The art of questioning is a skill that develop with training, experience and practice. It demands that the user be ready to achieve the set goals by a careful and effective planning of what questions to ask and when to ask them. Mills (1977) and Riley (1978) recommended simple training procedure such as discussion and listening to audiotape as capable of improving teachers questioning behaviour. Microteaching and actual classroom teaching will also be of help.


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