Presentation on theme: "Grammar for Logic Declarative Sentences 1. Subject / Predicate Analysis 2. Simple vs Compound."— Presentation transcript:
Grammar for Logic Declarative Sentences 1. Subject / Predicate Analysis 2. Simple vs Compound
Subject / Predicate Analysis The SUBJECT TERM is the noun phrase that identifies what is being talked about. – –ASK THE QUESTION : WHAT OR WHO IS THE SENTENCE TALKING ABOUT? The PREDICATE TERM is the verbal phrase that says something about the subject term. – –ASK THE QUESTION: WHAT IS BEING SAID ABOUT THE SUBJECT?
Examples of Subject/Predicate Analysis 1. All mammals are warm blooded. 2. Elaina and Joseph traveled to Cyprus last summer while they were on a Mediterranean cruise. 3. There are two new electric cars in Ford’s new production line for 2011. 4. Jonathan believes that all birds are descended from of dinosaurs
Now you try: Hurricane Katrina was the worst ecological disaster the United States has ever experienced. Subject = Hurricane Katrina Predicate = was the worst ecological disaster the United States has ever experienced.
Thirty miners have been trapped in Chile one mile beneath the earth for more than six weeks. Subject = Thirty miners Predicate = have been trapped in Chile one mile beneath the earth for more than six weeks
My aunt and uncle have lived together in marital bliss for forty five years. Subject = My aunt and uncle Predicate = have lived together in marital bliss for forty five years.
The derelict car across the street that belongs to my neighbor has been blocking parking for everyone for more than a month. Subject = The derelict car across the street that belongs to my neighbor Predicate = has been blocking parking for everyone for more than a month.
The couple sitting in the corner of the restaurant work with my boyfriend’s cousin’s brother. Subject = The couple sitting in the corner of the restaurant Predicate = work with my boyfriend’s cousin’s brother.
Simple vs Compound A SIMPLE STATEMENT is a statement that cannot be analyzed into anything simpler that still retains truth value. A COMPOUND STATEMENT is a statement that combines at least one simple statement and a logical operator. – –Logical operators are expressed by COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS such as “and” “either-or” “but” “however” “if-then” “only if” “although” and other words and phrases.
Examples 1. If Bobby is late, then Mary will be angry and Charlene will be waiting. 2. Sometimes reality may feel like a dream, and sometimes our dreams may feel like reality. 3. A new tax policy should have flat tax or it will have a new consumption tax. 4. The fence that Joe built is legal if, and only if he got the plans approved before he began work.
Now you try: If we want our state’s citizens to be well educated, then we must teach them their own language. [W]e want our state’s citizens to be well educated. [W]e must teach them their own language. Logical coordinators: If - then
Either I will run for governor, or I will retire and move to the South of France. I will run for governor. I will retire. [I will] move to the South of France. Logical coordinators: Either – or, and
Only if we all get out and vote will our society remain a vibrant democracy. We all get out and vote. Our society will remain a vibrant democracy. Logical coordinator: Only if Note: “and” is not a logical operator in this sentence.
Comprehending the subject matter is sufficient for passing the course. – –This sentence needs to be paraphrased in order for the logical relationships to come into the foreground. Paraphrase: If you comprehend the subject matter, then you can pass the course. – –Now the analysis is much easier. The trick is knowing that “is sufficient for” can be expressed as an “if-then” relationship. – –Other paraphrasings are possible. How to paraphrase is an art and takes practice, and the best paraphrase will depend on the context.