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Grammar for Logic Declarative Sentences 1. Subject / Predicate Analysis 2. Simple vs Compound.

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar for Logic Declarative Sentences 1. Subject / Predicate Analysis 2. Simple vs Compound."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar for Logic Declarative Sentences 1. Subject / Predicate Analysis 2. Simple vs Compound

2 Subject / Predicate Analysis  The SUBJECT TERM is the noun phrase that identifies what is being talked about. – –ASK THE QUESTION : WHAT OR WHO IS THE SENTENCE TALKING ABOUT?  The PREDICATE TERM is the verbal phrase that says something about the subject term. – –ASK THE QUESTION: WHAT IS BEING SAID ABOUT THE SUBJECT?

3 Examples of Subject/Predicate Analysis  1. All mammals are warm blooded.  2. Elaina and Joseph traveled to Cyprus last summer while they were on a Mediterranean cruise.  3. There are two new electric cars in Ford’s new production line for  4. Jonathan believes that all birds are descended from of dinosaurs

4 Now you try:  Hurricane Katrina was the worst ecological disaster the United States has ever experienced.  Subject = Hurricane Katrina  Predicate = was the worst ecological disaster the United States has ever experienced.

5  Thirty miners have been trapped in Chile one mile beneath the earth for more than six weeks.  Subject = Thirty miners  Predicate = have been trapped in Chile one mile beneath the earth for more than six weeks

6   My aunt and uncle have lived together in marital bliss for forty five years.   Subject = My aunt and uncle   Predicate = have lived together in marital bliss for forty five years.

7   The derelict car across the street that belongs to my neighbor has been blocking parking for everyone for more than a month.   Subject = The derelict car across the street that belongs to my neighbor   Predicate = has been blocking parking for everyone for more than a month.

8   The couple sitting in the corner of the restaurant work with my boyfriend’s cousin’s brother.   Subject = The couple sitting in the corner of the restaurant   Predicate = work with my boyfriend’s cousin’s brother.

9 Simple vs Compound   A SIMPLE STATEMENT is a statement that cannot be analyzed into anything simpler that still retains truth value.   A COMPOUND STATEMENT is a statement that combines at least one simple statement and a logical operator. – –Logical operators are expressed by COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS such as “and” “either-or” “but” “however” “if-then” “only if” “although” and other words and phrases.

10 Examples   1. If Bobby is late, then Mary will be angry and Charlene will be waiting.   2. Sometimes reality may feel like a dream, and sometimes our dreams may feel like reality.   3. A new tax policy should have flat tax or it will have a new consumption tax.   4. The fence that Joe built is legal if, and only if he got the plans approved before he began work.

11 Now you try:   If we want our state’s citizens to be well educated, then we must teach them their own language.   [W]e want our state’s citizens to be well educated.   [W]e must teach them their own language.   Logical coordinators: If - then

12   Either I will run for governor, or I will retire and move to the South of France.   I will run for governor.   I will retire.   [I will] move to the South of France.   Logical coordinators: Either – or, and

13   Only if we all get out and vote will our society remain a vibrant democracy.   We all get out and vote.   Our society will remain a vibrant democracy.   Logical coordinator: Only if  Note: “and” is not a logical operator in this sentence.

14   Comprehending the subject matter is sufficient for passing the course. – –This sentence needs to be paraphrased in order for the logical relationships to come into the foreground.   Paraphrase:   If you comprehend the subject matter, then you can pass the course. – –Now the analysis is much easier. The trick is knowing that “is sufficient for” can be expressed as an “if-then” relationship. – –Other paraphrasings are possible. How to paraphrase is an art and takes practice, and the best paraphrase will depend on the context.


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