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SECTION 1.7 Graphs of Functions

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T HE F UNDAMENTAL G RAPHING P RINCIPLE FOR F UNCTIONS The graph of a function f is the set of points which satisfy the equation y = f(x) That is, the point (x,y) is on the graph of f if and only if y = f(x) Example: Graph f(x) = x 2 - x - 6

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G RAPHING P IECEWISE F UNCTIONS Graph

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Z EROS OF F UNCTION The zeros of a function f are the solutions to the equation f(x) = 0 In other words, x is a zero of f if and only if (x,0) is an x-intercept of the graph of y = f(x)

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S YMMETRIES AND E VEN /O DD F UNCTIONS Steps for testing if the graph of a function possesses symmetry: About the y-axis if and only if f(-x) = f(x) for all x in the domain of f About the origin if and only if f(-x) = -f(x) for all x in the domain of f We call a function even if its graph is symmetric about the y-axis or odd if its graph is symmetric about the origin.

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E XAMPLE Determine if the following functions are even, odd, or neither even nor odd.

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E XAMPLE Determine if the following functions are even, odd, or neither even nor odd.

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E XAMPLE Determine if the following functions are even, odd, or neither even nor odd.

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E XAMPLE Determine if the following functions are even, odd, or neither even nor odd.

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E XAMPLE Determine if the following functions are even, odd, or neither even nor odd.

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E XAMPLE Determine if the following functions are even, odd, or neither even nor odd.

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S OLUTION 1. 2. 3.

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S OLUTION ( CONTINUED ) 4. 5.

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F UNCTION BEHAVIOR Increasing Decreasing Constant

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A LGEBRAIC D EFINITIONS Suppose f is a function defined on an interval I We say f is: increasing on I if and only if f(a) < f(b) for all real numbers a, b in I with a < b decreasing on I if and only if f(a) > f(b) for all real numbers a, b in I with a < b constant on I if and only if f(a) = f(b) for all real numbers a, b in I

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M INIMUM AND M AXIMUM Suppose f is a function with f(a) = b We say f has local maximum at the point (a,b) if and only if there is an open interval I containing a for which f(a) ≥ f(x) for all x in I different than a. The value f(a) = b is called “a local maximum value of f ” We say f has a local minimum at the point (a,b) if and only if there is an open interval I containing a for which f(a) ≤ f(x) for all x in I different than a. The value f(a) = b is called “a local minimum value of f ” The value b is called maximum of f if b ≥ f(x) for all x in the domain of f The value b is called the minimum of f if b ≤ f(x) for all x in the domain of f

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E XAMPLE Given the graph of y = f(x)

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E XAMPLE ( CONTINUED ) Answer all of the following questions: 1. Find the domain of f 2. Find the range of f 3. Determine f(2) 4. List the x-intercepts, if any exist 5. List the y-intercepts, if any exist 6. Find the zeros of f 7. Solve f(x) < 0 8. Determine the number of solutions to the equation f(x) = 1 9. List the intervals on which f is increasing. 10. List the intervals on which f is decreasing. 11. List the local maximums, if any exist. 12. List the local minimums, if any exist. 13. Find the maximum, if it exists. 14. Find the minimum, if it exists. 15. Does f appear to be even, odd, or neither?

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E XAMPLE Let f(x) = 15x/(x 2 +3). Use a graphing calculator to approximate the intervals on which f is increasing and those on which it is decreasing Approximate all extrema

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S OLUTION

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E XAMPLE Find the points on the graph of y = (x - 3) 2 which are closest to the origin. Round your answers to two decimal places.

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