Presentation on theme: "All about settlements A: Why are they there?"— Presentation transcript:
1All about settlements A: Why are they there? Unit 3: People worldAll about settlementsA: Why are they there?
2This half term We will looking at settlements – what are they? Why are they where they are?What do they do?How can they be organised? Where are different types of building found?Shopping and settlements – where did they shop in the past? How do you buy goods now?
4Basically it is where people live A single house can be a settlementBut so is a hamlet (what’s this?)A villageA townA cityA conurbation (that’s a ?)
5They began a long time ago Once people started to domesticate animals and plant crops, then people stayed in the same place. These were settlements.As people got better and growing food, they has some left over, They had a surplus. So they began to trade with other settlementsThen they needed transport networks.Some settlements proved to be better places to live and so they grew.
6What would the places that grew need? If I lived a long time ago and wanted to build a settlement, what would I need? Where would I choose to go?
7Here are some villages – can you say why they might be there?
8The site of a settlement is where the settlement has been built. A good site would have some of theseProtection/defenceWaterShelteredFlat landFertile soilRoutes throughPlace that will not floodThrough gaps in hillsSafe way across riversAlong valley sidesWhy?
9Valley Site River floodplain Raised river terrace Some settlements are located in a valley to obtain water from the river. Theflat land (deposited silt) also provided fertile farmland. The flat land abovethe floodplain might provide an excellent transport route way.
10Example: Corfe, Isle of Purbeck Gap TownExample: Corfe, Isle of PurbeckIn places which provide an easy route througha ridge or highland villages were set up to takeadvantage of the trade and travellers. Highland can providegood defensive sites.
11Defence Site Defences on the River meander (incised) neck of meander Early settlers needed to find places which were easily defended from attack. A good site was one which was surrounded by a river meander. The villagers would only have to build defences on one side at the neck of the meander.Example: City of Durham
12Example: Isle Ely (Fens), Cambridgeshire Dry Point SiteIn areas of the country where the landscape flooded regularly people sought locations which were normally drier. This might be on the edge of the wetland area or on islands of higher land.Example: Isle Ely (Fens), Cambridgeshire
13Example: City of Oxford Bridging PointExample: City of OxfordVillages were sometimes built at places where it was easier to cross a valleyfloodplain. These places acted as nodal points, an attraction for travellersand traders.
14Sheltered Town North side -little sun and open to the North wind South side side - gets the sun and is protected from cold windIn the northern hemisphere a south facing slope will have more sun and will be protected from the cold north wind and crops will grow better.
15In summaryThere are a number of factors that were important when locating a settlement:Protection - good views from a hilltop give you warning if you are about to be attacked.Water Supply - Plenty of water is needed for drinking, cooking and washing. Water might come from a river, spring or well.A Risk of Flooding - Sites must not flood or be marshy.Proximity to a River - Needs to be easy to cross either on foot at a ford or by a bridge. Rivers can also aid transport, provide power and a source of food.Building Materials - Needed wood or stone. Useful to be near a wood or a rocky hillside.Supply of Fuel - Wood needed for fires for warmth and to cook on.Shelter - In the northern hemisphere a south facing slope will have more sun and will be protected from the cold north wind.Flat Land - Easier to build on, for growing crops and traveling to other towns.Economic Activities - Located near to a means of making money.
21Why did Rhayader become a settlement? What made its site special? This is an annotated picture – a picture with labels explaining about thingsWhy did Rhayader become a settlement? What made its site special?Castle mound – a natural rocky outcrop over looking the riverNarrow part of river so easy to crossRiver Wye
22Other issues to consider Where a place is in relation to other places and to the physical surroundingsSo ask:Physical situation: what is the land like? What about rivers? Flooding?Human Influences: How is it joined to other places? Is it close to the centre of a country or is it isolated
23More about why Rhayader is where it is MainroadsHigh ground to the north- sheltered form the N windLimits of the townGround that often floodsRiver WyeBridge
24Without the maps you could explain quite a lot Rhayader at a narrow rocky point of the R Wye good for defence and for a bridge – also not far north of a good ford.It has good transport links to the N, S and E. It is on the main route to England for all central Wales.The rocky point was an excellent place to build a castle for defence – it is high above the town, protected on the west by the river and a good place to watch over the 3 routes into the town from the N, S and E.It is on a sunny south facing slope and is sheltered by the hills to the North.It is restricted in size by the hills to the N, W and E and by the marshy area to the south
25Settlement patternsAs well as coming in a variety of sizes, settlements also come in a variety of shapes or patternsSettlements usually develop in a particular pattern (but not always).A nucleated settlement is where the buildings are clustered around a central point, e.g. a bridge or market square or a crossroads.
27Settlement patternsA linear settlement is where the buildings are arranged in a line - usually along a river or road, or in Wales along the valley floor
28Settlement patternsA dispersed settlement is where the buildings are spread out or scattered. Dispersed settlements are often found in remote, sparsely-populated areas such as hill farming areas
29Settlement patternsOver the past 100 years many new settlements have been planned and developed by the UK government - for example, the town of Harlow in Essex. New towns like this follow distinctive patterns, with their shape often influenced by decisions made by planners
31So reviewA Settlement that that is clustered around a crossroads is a … settlementWhen individual houses are scattered over an area upland for example then these settlements are …If a settlement runs along a river valley, it is a … settlementsite and situation
32Look back at slides 20, 22 and 23 to see what you might do So homeworkThink of a town near you – or one you know well. Can you work out why it is there? [Do discuss this with your parents]Either by using a map/satellite picture and labelling it or simple sentences.Look back at slides 20, 22 and 23 to see what you might doGeoff says: I think I will look on Google maps for places near me – that has maps and satellite pictures