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Y7 Geography 1 Unit 3: People world All about settlements A: Why are they there?

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Presentation on theme: "Y7 Geography 1 Unit 3: People world All about settlements A: Why are they there?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Y7 Geography 1 Unit 3: People world All about settlements A: Why are they there?

2 2 This half term We will looking at settlements – what are they? Why are they where they are? What do they do? How can they be organised? Where are different types of building found? Shopping and settlements – where did they shop in the past? How do you buy goods now?

3 3 Geoff asks: What is a settlement?

4 4 Basically it is where people live A single house can be a settlement But so is a hamlet (whats this?) A village A town A city A conurbation (thats a ?)

5 5 They began a long time ago Once people started to domesticate animals and plant crops, then people stayed in the same place. These were settlements. As people got better and growing food, they has some left over, They had a surplus. So they began to trade with other settlements Then they needed transport networks. Some settlements proved to be better places to live and so they grew.

6 Y7 Geography 6 What would the places that grew need? If I lived a long time ago and wanted to build a settlement, what would I need? Where would I choose to go?

7 7 Here are some villages – can you say why they might be there?

8 8 The site of a settlement is where the settlement has been built. A good site would have some of these Protection/defence Water Sheltered Flat land Fertile soil Routes through Place that will not flood Through gaps in hills Safe way across rivers Along valley sides Why?

9 9 Valley Site Some settlements are located in a valley to obtain water from the river. The flat land (deposited silt) also provided fertile farmland. The flat land above the floodplain might provide an excellent transport route way. River floodplain Raised river terrace

10 10 Gap Town In places which provide an easy route through a ridge or highland villages were set up to take advantage of the trade and travellers. Highland can provide good defensive sites. Example: Corfe, Isle of Purbeck

11 11 Defence Site Early settlers needed to find places which were easily defended from attack. A good site was one which was surrounded by a river meander. The villagers would only have to build defences on one side at the neck of the meander. River meander (incised) Defences on the neck of meander Example: City of Durham

12 12 Dry Point Site In areas of the country where the landscape flooded regularly people sought locations which were normally drier. This might be on the edge of the wetland area or on islands of higher land. Example: Isle Ely (Fens), Cambridgeshire

13 13 Bridging Point Villages were sometimes built at places where it was easier to cross a valley floodplain. These places acted as nodal points, an attraction for travellers and traders. Example: City of Oxford

14 14 North side -little sun and open to the North wind South side side - gets the sun and is protected from cold wind In the northern hemisphere a south facing slope will have more sun and will be protected from the cold north wind and crops will grow better. Sheltered Town

15 15 In summary There are a number of factors that were important when locating a settlement: Protection - good views from a hilltop give you warning if you are about to be attacked. Water Supply - Plenty of water is needed for drinking, cooking and washing. Water might come from a river, spring or well. A Risk of Flooding - Sites must not flood or be marshy. Proximity to a River - Needs to be easy to cross either on foot at a ford or by a bridge. Rivers can also aid transport, provide power and a source of food. Building Materials - Needed wood or stone. Useful to be near a wood or a rocky hillside. Supply of Fuel - Wood needed for fires for warmth and to cook on. Shelter - In the northern hemisphere a south facing slope will have more sun and will be protected from the cold north wind. Flat Land - Easier to build on, for growing crops and traveling to other towns. Economic Activities - Located near to a means of making money.

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21 21 River Wye Narrow part of river so easy to cross Castle mound – a natural rocky outcrop over looking the river Why did Rhayader become a settlement? What made its site special? This is an annotated picture – a picture with labels explaining about things

22 22 Other issues to consider Where a place is in relation to other places and to the physical surroundings So ask: Physical situation: what is the land like? What about rivers? Flooding? Human Influences: How is it joined to other places? Is it close to the centre of a country or is it isolated

23 23 More about why Rhayader is where it is Limits of the town High ground to the north - sheltered form the N wind Ground that often floods River Wye Bridge Main roads

24 24 Without the maps you could explain quite a lot Rhayader at a narrow rocky point of the R Wye good for defence and for a bridge – also not far north of a good ford. It has good transport links to the N, S and E. It is on the main route to England for all central Wales. The rocky point was an excellent place to build a castle for defence – it is high above the town, protected on the west by the river and a good place to watch over the 3 routes into the town from the N, S and E. It is on a sunny south facing slope and is sheltered by the hills to the North. It is restricted in size by the hills to the N, W and E and by the marshy area to the south

25 25 Settlement patterns As well as coming in a variety of sizes, settlements also come in a variety of shapes or patterns Settlements usually develop in a particular pattern (but not always). A nucleated settlement is where the buildings are clustered around a central point, e.g. a bridge or market square or a crossroads.

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27 27 Settlement patterns A linear settlement is where the buildings are arranged in a line - usually along a river or road, or in Wales along the valley floor

28 28 Settlement patterns A dispersed settlement is where the buildings are spread out or scattered. Dispersed settlements are often found in remote, sparsely-populated areas such as hill farming areas

29 29 Settlement patterns Over the past 100 years many new settlements have been planned and developed by the UK government - for example, the town of Harlow in Essex. New towns like this follow distinctive patterns, with their shape often influenced by decisions made by planners

30 30 Harlow Essex

31 31 So review A Settlement that that is clustered around a crossroads is a … settlement When individual houses are scattered over an area upland for example then these settlements are … If a settlement runs along a river valley, it is a … settlement

32 Y7 Geography 32 So homework Think of a town near you – or one you know well. Can you work out why it is there? [Do discuss this with your parents] Either by using a map/satellite picture and labelling it or simple sentences. Look back at slides 20, 22 and 23 to see what you might do Geoff says: I think I will look on Google maps for places near me – that has maps and satellite pictures

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