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Chapter 18: Conquest and Survival – The Trans-Mississippi West

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1 Chapter 18: Conquest and Survival – The Trans-Mississippi West

2 American Communities:
Oklahoma Land Rush

3 18.1: Indian People Under Siege

4 A. Growth of the West Gold rush 1848 Homestead Act 1862
Alaska Terr. 1867 TRR 1869 Trouble w/Natives

5 A. Growth of the West 6. Indian Removal Act – 1830 “No Mans Land”
Removal of Natives by force if needed/Pres. AJ Trail of Tears after Cherokee Nation v. Ga. 1831 “No Mans Land” Leads to “Land Rush” and “Sooners”

6 “Land Rush” & “Sooners”



9 Dugouts


11 Soddies



14 Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee

15 C. Assimilation of the Native American
Farming Christianity English Education “Friends of the Indians”

16 Importance of the Buffalo

17 D. Settlers and the Buffalo
Killed by hunters for heads, hides, bones, and fur for sport by RR co. 2. Helped gov’t push Natives onto reservations

18 E. Massacre at Sand Creek, Co 1864
Natives told to make camp at Sand Creek to make peace deal. Col. Chivington >100 Cheyenne killed while sleeping; bodies mutilated Body parts kept as souvenirs Later discredited by Congress

19 F. Treaty of Laramie (1868) Ended Great Sioux War of 1865-1867
Lands in the Black Hills, SD, Wy, and Mt. Deposits of gold discovered, which leads to …

20 G. Battle at Little Bighorn, Mt. (aka Greasy Grass ) (1876)
7th Calvary sent to take lands of Black Hills – found gold Custer and men overtaken and killed by Crazy Horse Public outcry = forcing more onto reservations Same situation with the Nez Perce in the NW Pacific “Custer’s Last Stand”

21 18.7: Transformation of Indian Society

22 A. Helen Hunt Jackson (1881) Exposes injustices of the NA by the USgov’t Supporter of assimilation Indian Rights Assoc Women’s nat’l Indian Assoc

23 B. Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
To “Americanize” NA by teaching them that owning land and farming was “right” Reservation lands distributed to head of household; 160 acres; individuality not communal Lands left over sold to settlers NA lost >2/3rd of their lands

24 C. Ghost Dance: prohibited by government
1. Return of the buffalo 2. Restorations of their lands 3. Make the white man disappear

25 D. Battle of Wounded Knee @ Pine Ridge Reservation (1890)
Started with the arrest and killing of Sitting Bull A few days later, 7th Calvary rounded up ghost dancers and took them to Wounded Knee Camp >200 unarmed NA killed and left to freeze Payback for Battle of Little Bighorn Brought Indian wars to an end





30 Mining, Mormons, and Mexicans
18.2: Internal Empire Mining, Mormons, and Mexicans

31 Miners “Striking it Rich!” Mining for Gold and Silver

32 1. Pros and Cons of Mining a. Pros Railroads increased
Statehood increased Cities developed and “Boomed”- economy grew rapidly b. Cons Increased crime Destruction of land “ghost towns”

33 2. Real Winners? a. Mine owners - able to invest capital in industries that supported the miners Equip and technology RR Timber hydroelectricity

34 Hazards of Mining The Western Federation of Miners on parade, passing the Southern Hotel in Rhyolite, February 17, (Nevada Historical Society)

35 Miners & Workers

36 From Boom Towns to Ghost Towns

37 Realities of “Helldorados”
                                                                                                                                        Realities of “Helldorados”

38 B. Mormons Joseph Smith Brigham Young

39 C. Mexican-Americans Economically and socially tied to land and country Very few prospered Formed political party Poor political conditions in Mex = migration

40 18.3: The Open Range

41 Cowboys & Cattle

42 Long Drives

43 A. Life as a Cowboy Hard: Saloons, violence, guns, and prostitutes
Range wars = fences; problematic for grazing

44 B. Collapse of Cattle Industry
barb wire overgrazing overstocking extreme weather

45 18.4: Farming Communities on the Plains

46 A. The Great Plains 1. Why move to the Great Plains? Homestead Act
(future home of the Dust Bowl!) Homestead Act Advertising RR/towns Farming technology

47 B. Homestead Act of 1862 160 acres 5 yrs cultivation (grow crops)
Land for farming was bad Option of purchasing it at $1.25 acre after 6 months (residency requirement) Only 10% of farmers received their lands from the act. Why so little? - Better lands closer to transportation and town/mkts

48 18.5: The World’s Breadbasket

49 A. Farming and Technology
McCormick’s reaper


51 A. Farming and Technology
Efficiency = increase trade 2. Dependent on: Technology Nature Shipping and RR Global markets

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