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APA Without Agony ALOP 242 February 2, 2013. Topics How can what you already know help you (or trip you up)? How can what you already know help you (or.

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Presentation on theme: "APA Without Agony ALOP 242 February 2, 2013. Topics How can what you already know help you (or trip you up)? How can what you already know help you (or."— Presentation transcript:

1 APA Without Agony ALOP 242 February 2, 2013

2 Topics How can what you already know help you (or trip you up)? How can what you already know help you (or trip you up)? How can what you already know help you (or trip you up)? How can what you already know help you (or trip you up)? Why do I need APA? Why do I need APA? Why do I need APA? Why do I need APA? How do I get started? How do I get started? How do I get started? How do I get started? Template Template Template Guides you can trust Guides you can trust Guides you can trust Guides you can trust Are there any shortcuts? Are there any shortcuts? Are there any shortcuts? Are there any shortcuts? What about these fine points? What about these fine points? What about these fine points? What about these fine points? How do I cite the sources for this class? How do I cite the sources for this class? How do I cite the sources for this class? How do I cite the sources for this class? Recommended resources Recommended resources Recommended resources Recommended resources

3 1. Quote words from source Example 1: whole sentence Example 1: whole sentence APA style was developed by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing (Basics, n.d.).APA style was developed by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing (Basics, n.d.). Example 2: selected words Example 2: selected words Many editors and reviewers have extremely low tolerance for APA errors (Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Freis, 2010). Select, but stay true to authors intentThe director hoped to create…an epic on a an epic on a grand scale; thegrand scale…. result is an epic failure. Select, but stay true to authors intentThe director hoped to create…an epic on a an epic on a grand scale; thegrand scale…. result is an epic failure.

4 Example 3: 40 words or more Example 3: 40 words or more 1. Quote marks or block? This is how a block quotation looks: Format each quotation with 40 or more words as a block. Begin each block quotation on a new line. Indent the quotation.5 inch from the left margin. With this formatting, you do not need enclosing quotation marks. Place final punctuation before the in-text citation. (Munzenmaier, 2013) Using a block quotation is much like yielding the floor to another speaker. If you must use a long quotation, provide an introduction that shows how it relates to your own thinking.

5 Paraphrase After studying hundreds of definitions of procrastination, Steel (2013) concluded that all had one idea in common: people knew they would pay a price for delay, but still chose to put things off. Paraphrase After studying hundreds of definitions of procrastination, Steel (2013) concluded that all had one idea in common: people knew they would pay a price for delay, but still chose to put things off. 2. Credit ideas To cite an idea that you put into your own words Use an in-text citation To cite an idea that you put into your own words Use an in-text citation Omit quotation marks Omit quotation marks

6 Resources to help you paraphrase Resources to help you paraphrase UWisc Handbook UWisc Handbook Indiana plagiarism tutorial and self-test: https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/ Indiana plagiarism tutorial and self-test: https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/ https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/ https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/ 2. Credit ideas

7 3. Credit twice Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task-delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), Ferrari (2000) has classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators. in-text citation (ch. 6)reference entry (ch. 7) How can you tell this in-text citation goes with this reference list entry? How can you tell this in-text citation goes with this reference list entry? Is the text excerpt a quotation or a paraphrase? Is the text excerpt a quotation or a paraphrase?

8 3. No citation = plagiarism AMBROSE "Up, up, up… "Up, up, up…. CHILDERS

9 3. Can you recognize source? "Up, up, up, groping through the clouds for what seemed like an eternity.... No amount of practice could have prepared them for what they encountered. B- 24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds all over the sky." "Up, up, up, groping through the clouds for what seemed like an eternity.... No amount of practice could have prepared them for what they encountered. B- 24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds all over the sky." Thomas Childers, Wings of Morning, p. 83 Thomas Childers, Wings of Morning, p. 83 "Up, up, up he went, until he got above the clouds. No amount of practice could have prepared the pilot and crew for what they encountered B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds over here, over there, everywhere." "Up, up, up he went, until he got above the clouds. No amount of practice could have prepared the pilot and crew for what they encountered B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds over here, over there, everywhere." Stephen Ambrose, The Wild Blue, p. 164 Stephen Ambrose, The Wild Blue, p. 164

10 4. Keep in-text citations short Show where you used a source in your paper Show where you used a source in your paper Have three basic elements Have three basic elements Author(s) last name Author(s) last name Year Year Page # (for direct quotation if available) Page # (for direct quotation if available) Researcher- focused Burns (2003) Burns (2003) has stated that leadership beginswhere change begins (p. 140). Chronology- focused In 1978, In 2003, In 1978, Burns published Leadership, a seminal work in an emerging field. In 2003, he described how leadership studies could provide solutions to global problems in Transforming Leadership. Idea-focused (Burns, 2003, p. 181) The innovators approach to leadership is exemplified by Franklin Delano Roosevelts first days in office (Burns, 2003, p. 181).

11 4. Keep in-text citations short No amount of practice could have prepared [the pilot and crew] for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds (Childers, 1995, p. 83) over here, over there, everywhere. No amount of practice could have prepared [the pilot and crew] for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds (Childers, 1995, p. 83) over here, over there, everywhere. References References Childers, T. (1995). Wings of morning. New York: Perseus. parentheticalreference entry …In each case, I footnoted the passage in question, but failed to put some words and sentences into quotation marks. I am sorry and will make relevant changes in all future editions.Stephen Ambrose Ambroses apology

12 4. Keep in-text citations short Example 1: source with no hard page numbers Procrastinators put things off even though theyexpect to be worse-off for the delay (Steel, 2013). Example 1: source with no hard page numbers Procrastinators put things off even though theyexpect to be worse-off for the delay (Steel, 2013). Basic elements Basic elements Author(s) last name Author(s) last name Year Year Page # (for direct quotation if available) Page # (for direct quotation if available) Example 2: The Procrastination EquationProcrastination is an irrational delay, whereby we voluntarily put off tasks until later despite expecting to be worse off for the delay (Steel, 2010, p. 53). Example 2: The Procrastination EquationProcrastination is an irrational delay, whereby we voluntarily put off tasks until later despite expecting to be worse off for the delay (Steel, 2010, p. 53).

13 4. Keep in-text citations short Example 1: source with no hard page numbers Procrastinators put things off even though theyexpect to be worse-off for the delay (Steel, 2013). Example 1: source with no hard page numbers Procrastinators put things off even though theyexpect to be worse-off for the delay (Steel, 2013). Basic elements Basic elements Author(s) last name Author(s) last name Year Year Page # (for direct quotation if available) Page # (for direct quotation if available) Example 2: The Procrastination EquationProcrastination is an irrational delay, whereby we voluntarily put off tasks until later despite expecting to be worse off for the delay (Steel, 2010, p. 53). Example 2: The Procrastination EquationProcrastination is an irrational delay, whereby we voluntarily put off tasks until later despite expecting to be worse off for the delay (Steel, 2010, p. 53).

14 4. Keep in-text citations short Example 3: no URL Procrastinators put things off even though theyexpect to be worse-off for the delay (Steel, 2013). Example 3: no URL Procrastinators put things off even though theyexpect to be worse-off for the delay (Steel, 2013). URLs go in the reference entry Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination / URLs go in the reference entry Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination /http://procrastinus.com /the-definition-of-procrastination /http://procrastinus.com /the-definition-of-procrastination /

15 4. Keep in-text citations short Example 4: give just enough to match to references People in the Northwest tend to procrastinate more than Americans living in other parts of the country (Psychology, 2010). Example 4: give just enough to match to references People in the Northwest tend to procrastinate more than Americans living in other parts of the country (Psychology, 2010). Complete title in reference entry Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute [interview with Joseph Ferrari]. (2010, April 5). Retrieved from crastination.aspx Complete title in reference entry Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute [interview with Joseph Ferrari]. (2010, April 5). Retrieved from crastination.aspx

16 5. Give complete location info Handbook/DocAPA.html

17 5. Locationcreators view Four basic elements of a reference list entry: Four basic elements of a reference list entry: Author Author Date Date Title Title Location (retrieval information) Location (retrieval information) WHOWho created this reference? WHENWhen was it created? WHATWhat is this reference called? WHEREWhere can this reference be found?

18 5. Locationcreators view 1. WHO Ferrari, J. (2005, December 7). There s always tomorrow [live chat with E. Hoover]. Transcript available at Chronicle of Higher Education Web site: 2005/12/procrastination/ Four building blocks for any format: 2. WHEN 3. WHAT 4. WHERE

19 5. Locationcreators view Author. (Date). Retrieval information. BookPerrin, R. (2006). Pocket guide to APA style. New York: Houghton Mifflin. JournalCuddy, C. M. (2002). Demystifying APA style. Orthopaedic Nursing, 21(5), Web article American Psychological Association (APA) documentation. (2009). Retrieved from University of Wisconsin Madison Writing Center website: /American_Psychological_Association_(APA) _Documentation_M.pdf

20 5. Locationcreators view Basic guideline: provide enough information to make it easy to find the source Basic guideline: provide enough information to make it easy to find the source See See The Generic Reference: reference.htmlThe Generic Reference: reference.html Missing Pieces: blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/05 /missing-pieces.htmlMissing Pieces: blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/05 /missing-pieces.html I Cant Find….: /i-cant-find-the-example-reference-i-need.htmlI Cant Find….: /i-cant-find-the-example-reference-i-need.html Location information varies by source: generally youll only need a few types of entries Location information varies by source: generally youll only need a few types of entries

21 5. Location: Consumers view Where can I find good sources? Where can I find good sources?

22 5. Location: Consumers view DivaDee. (2010, July 1). Why I put things off. Message posted to /archives/july10 Procrastination. (2010, January 17). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from /wiki/Procrastination References Specter, M., & Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Time orientations of procrastinators: Focusing on the past, present, or future? Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), References Which source is the most credible? Which source is the most credible?

23 5. Location: Consumers view What should you cite instead of Wikipedia? What should you cite instead of Wikipedia?

24 6. Alphabetize reference list A well-written paper creates a new organization. A well-written paper creates a new organization. What is procrastination? Steel (2008) has described all procrastinators as trading short- term gain for long-term pain. Ferrari (2000) classified those who habitually delay into three categories: arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators. While most people occasionally put things off, some are chronic procrastinators whose delays disrupt their lives: Remember, 80% of us procrastinate, but 20% are procrastinators (Ferrari, 2005). Both Steel (2008) and Ferrari (2000, 2005) emphasized the negative. However, Chu and Choi (2005) found strategic delay could The same source may be cited several different places within the paper. The same source may be cited several different places within the paper. New paragraph = new in-text citation. New paragraph = new in-text citation.

25 6. and hang your indents An alphabetized reference list makes it easy to find complete location information for each in-text citation. An alphabetized reference list makes it easy to find complete location information for each in-text citation. References Chu, A. H., & Choi, J. N. (2005, June 1). Rethinking procrastination: Positive effects ofactive procrastination on attitudes and performance. Journal of Social Psychology. Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), Ferrari, J. (2005, December 7). Theres always tomorrow [live chat with E. Hoover]. Transcript available at Chronicle of Higher Education website: /colloquy/2005/12/procrastination/ Steel, P. (2007a). Definition of procrastination. Retrieved from Procrastination Central Web site: finition.php Steel, P. (2007b). Theories of procrastination. Retrieved from Procrastination Central Web site: eories.php Create a hanging indent by pressing Control-T, using the ruler, or selecting hanging indent in the Format Paragraph dialog box Create a hanging indent by pressing Control-T, using the ruler, or selecting hanging indent in the Format Paragraph dialog box

26 7. Follow author-date system. Example 1: Begin with authors last name Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination / Example 1: Begin with authors last name Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination /http://procrastinus.com /the-definition-of-procrastination /http://procrastinus.com /the-definition-of-procrastination / Example 2: If no author, begin with title Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute [interview with Joseph Ferrari]. (2010, April 5). Retrieved from crastination.aspx Example 2: If no author, begin with title Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute [interview with Joseph Ferrari]. (2010, April 5). Retrieved from crastination.aspx

27 8. Follow author-date system. Example 3: In the reference list, the full date the second element. For websites, use date of last edit. Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination / Example 3: In the reference list, the full date the second element. For websites, use date of last edit. Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination /http://procrastinus.com /the-definition-of-procrastination /http://procrastinus.com /the-definition-of-procrastination / Example 4: If no author, begin with title and full date Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute. (2010, April 5). Retrieved from tination.aspx Example 4: If no author, begin with title and full date Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute. (2010, April 5). Retrieved from tination.aspx Example 5: If no date, use n.d. Procrastination self-test. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2013, from Shamus University Counseling website: Example 5: If no date, use n.d. Procrastination self-test. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2013, from Shamus University Counseling website:

28 8. Follow author-date system. Example 6: In text, place year after first element (Steel, 2013) Example 6: In text, place year after first element (Steel, 2013) Example 7: If no author, begin with title (Psychology, 2010) Example 7: If no author, begin with title (Psychology, 2010) Example 8: If no date, use n.d. (Procrastination, n.d.) Example 8: If no date, use n.d. (Procrastination, n.d.) Common mistake: TMI in in-text citation Year only (no month or day) Common mistake: TMI in in-text citation Year only (no month or day) No URLs No URLs

29 9. Block quotes 40 words Write a sentence that puts the quotation in context. Write a sentence that puts the quotation in context. Start quotations of 40 words or more on a new line, indented.5 inch Start quotations of 40 words or more on a new line, indented.5 inch Place final punctuation before in-text citation Place final punctuation before in-text citation Most experts believe that procrastination always has negative consequences. However Chu and Choi (2005) say that not all procrastinators are lazy and undisciplined. While passive procrastinators are more stressed and less efficient, active procrastinators can adapt quickly to fast- changing environments. They are energized by pressure and if something comes up, they will switch gears and engage in new tasks they perceive as more urgent. The key is that active procrastinators use delay as a conscious strategy. (Bellum, 2012)

30 10. When to get personal Every source cited in-text needs to be in your reference list except personal communications letters s voice mail texts interviews Every source cited in-text needs to be in your reference list except personal communications letters s voice mail texts interviews anything your readers cannot access Cite in-text only Give sources first initial and last name, personal communication, Month, Day, Year Cite in-text only Give sources first initial and last name, personal communication, Month, Day, Year Example: (T. Westbrook, personal communication, February 2, 2013) Example: (T. Westbrook, personal communication, February 2, 2013)

31 10. When to get personal Key question: is it retrievable?

32 Quick Quiz T F When citing someones ideas, you should do the in-text citation just as you would for a direct quotation. T F When citing someones ideas, you should do the in-text citation just as you would for a direct quotation. T F When citing someones ideas in your own words, do not use quotation marks. T F When citing someones ideas in your own words, do not use quotation marks. T F Quotations of 40 word or more are formatted differently than short quotations. T F Quotations of 40 word or more are formatted differently than short quotations.

33 Quick Quiz Every source that you cite in your paper must appear in your reference list except ____________________. Every source that you cite in your paper must appear in your reference list except ____________________. The main question to ask yourself when deciding how to cite a class handout is ___________________. The main question to ask yourself when deciding how to cite a class handout is ___________________. personal communications Is it retrievable? T F APA stands for Advanced Protracted Agony. T F APA stands for Advanced Protracted Agony.

34 Why APA? A documentation style A documentation style Gives credit to your sources Gives credit to your sources Increases your credibility by Increases your credibility by Substantiating your opinionSubstantiating your opinion Distinguishing your ideas from your sourcesDistinguishing your ideas from your sources Makes it possible to find sources Makes it possible to find sources

35 Give credit; avoid plagiarism Cite words and ideas from other authors Cite words and ideas from other authors Quotations taken word-for-word from a source Quotations taken word-for-word from a source Paraphrases and summaries of other authors ideas Paraphrases and summaries of other authors ideas Information and ideas that are not widely known or available in a basic reference work Information and ideas that are not widely known or available in a basic reference work Anything from a source that might be mistaken for your own words or ideas if left uncited Anything from a source that might be mistaken for your own words or ideas if left uncited When in doubt, cite When in doubt, cite

36 What makes me credible? AUTHOR CredentialsCredentials ExperienceExperience InsightInsight Writing styleWriting style Depth of knowledgeDepth of knowledge Giving credit credibility AUTHORITIES In academic writing, your opinion is only as good as your thinking your thinking your evidence your evidence

37 Gain credibility Opinion: Using APA style will help you succeed. How do you know?How do you know? Why should I believe you?Why should I believe you? Substantiated opinion: Many editors and reviewers have extremely low tolerance for APA errors. Thus, it is clear that authors who submit manuscripts to journals wherein APA style is required would benefit from becoming as familiar as possible with the Publication Manual (Onwnegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Frels, 2010, p. ix). Show me the evidence!

38 Give credit; get credit Whats cited shows the quality of your research Whats cited shows the quality of your research Whats not cited shows the quality of your thinking Whats not cited shows the quality of your thinking Most researchers define procrastination by its negative consequences, including Ferrari (2000, 2005), Steel (2010), and Tice and Baumeister (1997). Yet Chu and Choi (2005) argue that procrastination can be a productive way to adapt to rapidly changing priorities. Consider this real-life example. At the beginning of a curriculum writing projects, guidelines often go through several rapid revisions. Veteran writers who wait for final guidelines before submitting work meet Chu and Chois criterion for productive procrastination because they consciously use delay as a proactive strategy.

39 Why APA? APA is APA is Efficient and flexible Efficient and flexible Suited to science Suited to science Standard in your fieldStandard in your field Date-focusedDate-focused Required for publication Required for publication

40 APA-style citations are Generally shorter than other styles Generally shorter than other styles Flexible: follow the nearest model Flexible: follow the nearest model Pinks citation of Goleman For example, Daniel Goleman, author of the groundbreaking book Emotional Intelligence, has [explored] how much IQ accounts for career success. APA-style citation For example, Goleman (1997) has [explored] how much IQ accounts for career success.

41 APA focuses on dates How current is your source? How current is your source? Which one of many studies is cited? Which one of many studies is cited? in-text citation Ferrari (2000) has classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators.

42 APA-style citations are Used by experts in your field Used by experts in your field BIG NAMES IN PROCRASTINATION RESEARCH Ferrari Choi Tice Baumeister Steel ALTERNATIVE VIEWS Pychyl &

43 How do I contribute? Ferrari Choi Tice Baumeister Steel Pychyl & SELECT APPLYARGUE CRITIQUE EVALUATE TRACE PROJECT COMBINE SHARE AUTHOR

44 APA-style citations are Important to your teachers Important to your teachers Expectations rise as you progress. Expectations rise as you progress. Ask: what are your APA priorities? Ask: what are your APA priorities? Important to editors if you ever publish Important to editors if you ever publish

45 How do I learn APA? Two common approaches: Sweat the small stuff Sweat the small stuff Advantage: builds a sense of confidence Advantage: builds a sense of confidence Disadvantage: lots of small stuff Disadvantage: lots of small stuff Think functionality Think functionality Advantage: fulfills purposes Advantage: fulfills purposes Disadvantage: requires persistence Disadvantage: requires persistence

46 APAs two purposes Acknowledge any words or ideas from other sources. Acknowledge any words or ideas from other sources. Provide enough information to locate your sources. Provide enough information to locate your sources.

47 What about the small stuff? One option: use a template

48 Whats the trick?

49 Where do I start?

50 Where do APA experts live?

51 Can I trust non-APA guides? Theres a lot of bad APA out there. Theres a lot of bad APA out there. If you use a citation maker, check the results. If you use a citation maker, check the results. You might find these sites helpful: You might find these sites helpful: Dr. Abel Scribes Guides to APA Style and Documentationone of the few accurate resources to focus on writing college papers: Abel Scribes Guides to APA Style and Documentationone of the few accurate resources to focus on writing college papers: Diana Hackers Research and Documentation Online clearer explanations than APAs own Manual: bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch09_o.htmlDiana Hackers Research and Documentation Online clearer explanations than APAs own Manual: bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch09_o.html UW Madison Writers Handbookexcellent online tutorials on format and documentation: Madison Writers Handbookexcellent online tutorials on format and documentation:

52 What about students? Dr. Abel Scribes advice on APA for college papers:

53 Reference list first reference entry APA documentation guide. (2011). Retrieved from University of Wisconsin Madison Writing Center website: writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPA.html Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self- esteem, and task-delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), Retrieved from Academic Search Elite database. (Ferrari, 2000) (APA, 2011) First two elements of reference list (author-date or title- date) give you in-text citation in-text citation

54 In-text citations second Researcher- focused Chronology- focused Idea-focused Mann (2005) Mann (2005) developed a (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination. 2005, Mann In 2005, Mann developed a unique method for overcoming procrastination, which he calls the (10+2)*5 method. (Mann, 2005). The (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination has three steps: work for ten minutes, take a two-minute break, and go back to work, repeating the cycle for an hour (Mann, 2005).

55 Quick Quiz: Whats the error? Steel, P. (2013). The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from The Procrastination Equation website: Which of the 742,000 results was used?

56 Quick Quiz: Whats missing? (2009) Steel, P. (2009). Theories of procrastination. Retrieved from Figure 1. The Procrastination Equation. Source: Steel (2009) Available at Recently Steel found that traditional explanations of procrastination, including fear of failure, self-handi- capping, and rebelliousness, were not supported by research. In his view, only Temporal Motivation theory has been validated. Recently Steel found that traditional explanations of procrastination, including fear of failure, self-handi- capping, and rebelliousness, were not supported by research. In his view, only Temporal Motivation theory has been validated.

57 Quiz: Which source is credible? Terrace, H. S., Petitto, L. A., Sanders, R. J., & Bever, T. G. (1979). Can an ape create a sentence? Science, 206, Washoe: The signing chimp. (n.d.) Retrieved February 5, 2005, from Mrs. Smiths class Web site: classprojects.html

58 Shortcuts Free citation-makers Free citation-makers CitationMachine CitationMachine Creates in-text and reference list entries Creates in-text and reference list entries Has built-in help Has built-in help NoodleTools Express NoodleTools Express Cites legal cases and documents Cites legal cases and documents Will store source info in paid version Will store source info in paid version

59 EBSCO (Available at Cowles, DSM, URB, WDM)

60 Citations: Check the result EBSCO RESULT Pink, D. (2008). Do the RIGHT THING. People Management, 14(7), 34. CORRECT APA FORMAT Pink, D. (2008). Do the right thing. People Management, 14(7), 34.

61 Using a citation maker 1.Launch the citation maker. 2.Choose your documentation style (APA). 3.Choose the type of source. Hint: You may need to explore links like More or figure out that Web-based Media means video. 4.Fill in the blanks with as much information as you have. 5.Note formatting hints (First initial only for authors first name.) 6.If information is missing, check links like About Us to see if you can unearth any buried nuggets. If you look for and cant find information to put in a blank, leave it empty.look for 7.Click the button that creates the citation. 8.Double-check the result. 9.Make needed corrections and copy the citation into your document or copy, paste, and correct in your document.

62 Dig before omitting info Author check beginning and end of article visit the home page check links like About Us check beginning and end of article visit the home page check links like About Us

63 Where info hides Author distinguish site titles and subheads from article titles visit the home page check About Us check beginning and end of article look for last updated use most recent copyright date (not 1997–2007) Date Title check beginning and end of article generally, title is closest to article be alert to external links

64 Citation makers: Cite Fast Dig before leaving a blank. None are perfect. Disclaimer

65 Citation Machine Citation Machine (www.citationmachine.net) Dig before leaving a blank. None are perfect. Disclaimer Video demo: /t/MzI2N2FkZmY

66 NoodleBib Express NoodleBib Express (www.noodletools.com) Video demo: /t/ZWMyN2JjNj

67 Bedford Bibliographer Has built-in hints Allows you to save, edit, and export Account is free Is most accurate (except for websites)

68 Fine points What to quoteWhat to quoteWhat to quoteWhat to quote Block quotationsBlock quotationsBlock quotationsBlock quotations Placing in-text citationsPlacing in-text citationsPlacing in-text citationsPlacing in-text citations No page numberNo page numberNo page numberNo page number Missing informationMissing informationMissing informationMissing information No authorNo authorNo authorNo author More than one author More than one author More than one author More than one author No dateNo dateNo dateNo date More than one sourceMore than one sourceMore than one sourceMore than one source Quoted quotationQuoted quotationQuoted quotationQuoted quotation Just one chapterJust one chapterJust one chapterJust one chapter Sponsored siteSponsored siteSponsored siteSponsored site DOIsDOIsDOIs

69 What to quote Exceptions Exceptions common language common language writ of habeas corpus writ of habeas corpus situational leadership theory situational leadership theory Raymond Chandler declared that readers should feel that the solution of a mystery isinevitable. common knowledge common knowledge widely known widely known easily available in standard references easily available in standard references Any words from the original should be quoted. Any words from the original should be quoted. At least half the mystery novels published violate the law that the solution, once revealed, must seem to be inevitable. Raymond Chandler

70 Quotations < 40 words Set off someone elses exact words with quotation marks Set off someone elses exact words with quotation marks Chandler (1945) believed that a detective should be the best man in his world. Down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid (Chandler, 1945).

71 Quotations: 40+ words Set off long quotations as block quotations Set off long quotations as block quotations Down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid. The detective in this kind of story must be such a man. He is the hero, he is everything…. He must be, to use a rather weathered phrase, a man of honor…. (Chandler, 1945) The classic definition of a detective comes from The Simple Art of Murder: Use a new line and left indent instead of quotation marks Use a new line and left indent instead of quotation marks Preview block quotes Preview block quotes.5" Hint: Word will count words if you highlight them and choose Tools, Word Count.

72 Remember in-text citations? Basic format: (Author, year, page or section head) Researcher- focused Chronology- focused Idea-focused Burns (2003) has stated that leadership beginswhere change begins (p. 140). In 1978, Burns published Leadership, a seminal work in an emerging field. In 2003, he proposed solutions to global problems in Transforming Leadership. The innovators approach to leadership is exemplified by Franklin Delano Roosevelts first days in office (Burns, 2003, p. 181).

73 Use only stable page #s If author/date are given in text, that information is not repeated within parentheses at the end. If author/date are given in text, that information is not repeated within parentheses at the end. Use only stable page numbers. Use only stable page numbers. Use section headers for Internet sources that have them (Steel, n.d., My Definition, para. 1). Use section headers for Internet sources that have them (Steel, n.d., My Definition, para. 1). book print version PDF STABLE PAGE #s

74 No page # / header? SOURCE- REFLECTIVE STATEMENT SOURCE The future belongs to a different kind of person,The future belongs to a different kind of person, Pink says….Pink claims were living in a different era, a different age. An age in which those whothink different may be valued more than ever.

75 What about… no author? Start with key words from title Start with key words from title Use only as much as necessary Use only as much as necessary Follow standard formatting Follow standard formatting (Personality, 2008). (Personality, 2008). (Types of Procrastinators, 2005). (Types of Procrastinators, 2005). (Procrastination, 2008a) (Procrastination, 2008a) (Procrastination, 2008b) (Procrastination, 2008b)

76 What about…many authors? Consult the Publication Manual, Table 6.1 Consult the Publication Manual, Table 6.1

77 What about…no date? Use n.d. Use n.d. Steel (n.d.) defined procrastination asto voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. IN-TEXT Steel (n.d.) defined procrastination asto voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. Steel, P. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Procrastination Central Web site: REFERENCE LIST Steel, P. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Procrastination Central Web site:

78 What about…many sources? Separate with semicolon Separate with semicolon Alphabetize within citation to match order of reference list Alphabetize within citation to match order of reference list MULTIPLE CITATION Most researchers emphasize the negative consequences of procrastination (Ferrari, 2005; Steel, 2008; Tice & Baumeister, 1997).

79 What about…quoted quotation? Ideally, find the original Ideally, find the original Second-best: use as cited in to direct readers to reference list entry Second-best: use as cited in to direct readers to reference list entry INDIRECT QUOTATION Procrastinators trade short term gain for long term pain, according to Steel (as cited in Kahn, 2008). REFERENCE ENTRY Kahn, U. (2008, December 7 ). Academics invent a mathematical equation for why people procrastinate. The Telegraph. Retrieved from

80 What about…one chapter? If its by one author, cite the book. If its by one author, cite the book. If its a chapter in a book with many authors, cite the chapter and the book. If its a chapter in a book with many authors, cite the chapter and the book. Benedict, J. (2000). Sports culture contributes to domestic violence. In T. L. Roloff (Ed.), Domestic violence: Opposing viewpoints (pp ). Greenhaven, CT: Greenhaven. Titles of books, movies, and other complete works are italicized.

81 What about…sponsored site? Site sponsor is identified just before URL Site sponsor is identified just before URL Readers can judge source credibility Readers can judge source credibility Serial murder: Multidisciplinary perspectives for investigators. (2005). Retrieved from Behavioral Analysis Unit, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Web site:

82 What about…DOIs? Mayer, D. (2007, June). Why write? To impact patient care! Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 323. Retrieved May 20, doi: /07.CJON.323 Resolve:

83 Quality: Too much missing? Road rage and teens. (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2007, from alyplace/mystery.html If several elements of a full citation are missing, is the source credible enough to use? If several elements of a full citation are missing, is the source credible enough to use?

84 How do I cite 242 sources?

85 Follow standard model REFERENCE ENTRY #18 Pink, D. (2005). A whole new mind: Why right-brainers will rule the future. New York, NY: Penguin. (Pink, 2005) IN-TEXT (Pink, 2005)

86 Follow model w. tweak REFERENCE ENTRY Morin, E. (2001). The reform of thinking and education in the twenty-first century. In J. Binde (Ed.), Keys to the 21st century (pp ). Oxford, UK: Berghahn/UNESCO. (Morin, 2001) IN-TEXT (Morin, 2001)

87 Adapt monograph model REFERENCE ENTRY #22 Gardner, H. (2007). Five minds for the future [summary]. Retrieved from (Gardner, 2007) IN-TEXT (Gardner, 2007)

88 Follow closest model REFERENCE ENTRY #26 Goleman, D. (2000, March-April). Leadership that gets results (Reprint 00204). Harvard Business Review, pp Available from Harvard Business Publishing: IN-TEXT (Goleman, 2000)

89 Adapt model REFERENCE ENTRY #49 Norton, R. (2010). Reposting of how to teach a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Video posted to (Norton, 2010) IN-TEXT (Norton, 2010)

90 Resources

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