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Foundations of Problem-Based Learning

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1 Foundations of Problem-Based Learning
MBA 500 R3 Workshop 1 Foundations of Problem-Based Learning Joseph Lewis Aguirre

2 This Afternoon - The View
6:00 – 7:15 Background and philosophy behind PBL and MBA v. 20 Per PowerPoint slide show Q and A 10:15 – 10:30 break 7:30 – 8:00 8: Process Designate a “facilitator” Assemble Learning Teams Distribute ONLY the scenario to each learning team Give the scenario guide ONLY to the facilitator Facilitator leads the group in the first 1 or 2 steps. Request an additional volunteer to facilitate the remaining steps 2 and 3 only. General Q and A and distribution of the “answers” via the scenario guide for ALL to process what was learned.

3 WS1: Goals for Today Define the value of the MBA.
University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s Value of critical thinking in decision making. UOP Library. APA method for scholastic writing. Center for Writing Excellence. Plagiarism Checker. Collaborative learning.

4 MP-WS1-T1

5 Self Introduction Name Background
Home location and Place you facilitate Courses you facilitate Occupation/location One thing about me (something unique about yourself nobody would know you would feel comfortable sharing) Myers Briggs Tendency Indicator (MBTI) Write this information on your name tents, you will use it for choosing teams

6 Personal Positioning Statement
Simulating a generalized communication system

7 How do You Spell Success
Being successful in our occupation requires: Lifelong Learning Constant Personal and Professional Updating Always working to improve to stay ahead of the competitors Integrating Technology into personal and professional plans Being multidimensional Love what you do, do what you love! Do you agree????????

8 What I Must Do YOUR THOUGHTS? If Joseph were to help me with………
in this class, I know I can complete THIS class and the program.

9 Managers or MBAs? “Trying to teach people who have never practiced is worse than a waste of time – it demeans management”. Dr. Henry Mintzberg Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

10 What Employers Want Skill
Percent of Employers who rated this as “important” or “very important”* Interpersonal & Communication Skills 96% Learning Aptitude & Desire to Grow 95% Collaboration and Teamwork 93% Creative Problem Solving 92% Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

11 Managers or MBAs? Citation from the book Managers Not MBAs, by renown author Henry Mintzberg Note: Dr. Mintzberg obtained his PhD and his MS in Management from MIT's Sloan School of Management and is well known for his studies of strategic development and of managerial practice. Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

12 Course Basics Student Web Page https://mycampus.phoenix.edu/login.asp
https://mycampus.phoenix.edu/login.asp  rEsource Access to electronic course materials on Student Web Page. Electronic materials include the syllabus, required readings, additional articles, and a variety of multimedia materials to enhance educational experience Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

13 Course Basics Center for Writing Excellence - Accessible from Student Web Page. Link is located under the Services menu on the main page. Once you access the page, you’ll see two buttons at the bottom: Reviewing Services and Tutorials & Guides. Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

14 Course Basics Reviewing Services- Upload drafts of papers & within 48 hours, you’ll have feedback regarding how to improve your academic papers, as well as your writing style. Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

15 Course Basics- Tutorials
Tutorial & Guides- Contains helpful resources: The Grammar Expert: Longman Exercise Zone: -This site contains a diagnostic test that will give you specific feedback regarding your grammatical strengths and weaknesses so you’ll know exactly what tutorial you need to take! Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

16 Course Basics- Tutorials, Cont.
Tutorial & Guides- Contains helpful resources: Common Errors in English: APA Sample Paper–Referencing the APA Publication Manual: Plagiarism Tutorial:  University of Phoenix Library Tutorial: Microsoft® Tips and Tools: Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

17 Decision Making Framework
Information Characteristics Decision Structure Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus Business Professionals Operational Management Efficient, do thing right Structured Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing Semi Structured Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation Un Structured RELATIVE TIME SPAN

18 WS2: Key Concepts in Decision Making
Justify the use of decision-making models. Analyze the elements of decision-making models. Perform a situation analysis. Differentiate between symptoms and problems. Develop alternative solutions. Evaluate alternative solutions. Describe how personal, cultural, and organizational values impact ethical decision-making. Select the best possible solution.

19 WS3: Critical Analysis in Decision Making
Examine the 9-step decision-making model. Explain each step of the problem-solving model. Explain the interrelationship among the problem solution, individual ethical values, and stakeholder values. Create an effective presentation.

20 WS4: Key Concepts of Problem Based Learning
Evaluate information sources. Apply the principles of generic benchmarking. Describe how content in problem based learning (PBL) is applied to the scenario. Impact of Risk and Ethics on Decision Making

21 WS5: Impact of Risk and Ethics on Decision Making
Assess the risk of alternative action. Evaluate the probability and severity of risk factors. Describe ways to mitigate risk. Infer stakeholder values with limited information.

22 WS6: Critical Analysis of Business Solutions
Develop measures (metrics) for performance evaluation, the success of implementation, and the attainment of end-state goals.

23 WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies
Define the value of the MBA. University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s Value of critical thinking in decision making. UOP Library. APA method for scholastic writing. Center for Writing Excellence. Plagiarism Checker. Collaborative learning.

24 WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies
Define the value of the MBA. University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s Value of critical thinking in decision making. UOP Library. APA method for scholastic writing. Center for Writing Excellence. Plagiarism Checker. Collaborative learning.

25 WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies
Define the value of the MBA. University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s Value of critical thinking in decision making. UOP Library. APA method for scholastic writing. Center for Writing Excellence. Plagiarism Checker. Collaborative learning.

26 WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies
Define the value of the MBA. University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s Value of critical thinking in decision making. UOP Library. APA method for scholastic writing. Center for Writing Excellence. Plagiarism Checker. Collaborative learning.

27 MP-WS1-T2

28 The Tip of the Iceberg Issues
Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

29 The Tip of the Iceberg E-business is, of course, only one sector.
Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

30 The Tip of the Iceberg E-business is, of course, only one sector.
Source: A/55/75–E/2000/55 E-business is, of course, only one sector. Wealth is being created in many countries, but there remains the challenge of the digital divide: the “Globalization Bytes” problem.

31 EXPERT ADVICE SOURCES OF CONFLICT Scarce resources Lack of information
Conflicting values, interests, or belief systems Power imbalances Physiological (illness) Hidden agendas

32 HEALTHY CONFLICT IN TEAMS
EXPERT ADVICE Identification and discussion of issues by team members Use of appropriate listening and questioning skills Team members’ ability to manage strong feelings Team members’ ability to separate interests from positions Willingness to discuss issues and needs to mutual resolution (win-win) Individual use of critical thinking skills Allows for change to occur

33 UNHEALTHY CONFLICT IN TEAMS
EXPERT ADVICE Individuals are identified as the problem(s) instead of issues Distorted communication, rumors, gossip, innuendos, secrets, collusion etc. Inappropriate displays of strong emotions; anger and frustration that could lead to violence. Individuals are synonymous with positions; polarization Team can fragment Escalation of issues; higher authority, could lead to legal actions

34 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES
EXPERT ADVICE Avoidance Low concern for results/assertiveness Low concern for people/cooperation Uncomfortable with conflict May believe that agreement is not possible (Lose-lose orientation)

35 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES
EXPERT ADVICE 2. Accommodation Low concern for results/assertiveness High concern for people/cooperation, Uncomfortable with conflict May be willing to sacrifice own needs in order to meet the needs of another (Lose-win orientation) 3. Competition 4. Compromise 5. Collaboration

36 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES
EXPERT ADVICE 3. Competition High concern for results/assertiveness Low concern for people/cooperation May enjoy conflict and sacrifice relationships with others in order to win (Win-lose orientation) 4. Compromise 5. Collaboration

37 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES
EXPERT ADVICE 4. Compromise Moderate concern for results/assertiveness Moderate concern for people/cooperation May not see that a win-win is an option Will give up some interests for others- meets some needs Win/lose: lose/win orientation) 5. Collaboration

38 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES
EXPERT ADVICE 5. Collaboration High concern for results/assertiveness High concern for people/cooperation Strives to meet the needs of all parties (Win/win orientation)

39 Window on World of DP Analyzer Ruler Entertainer Relater
Intent Need Category Get it done right Control Ruler Get it done right Accuracy Analyzer Get Along Approval Relater Get Appreciated Attention Entertainer Task Oriented Analyzer Ruler Entertainer Relater People Oriented Passive Aggressive

40 Window Into Conflict Resolution
Non-adversarial attitude toward other Adversarial A number value for your organization A number value for your organization Detachment Collaboration Evasion Coercion Disengagement from other Engagement with other

41 Conflict Resolution Strategy
30% of a managers time is spent dealing with conflict Fortune 500 company executives are involved in litigation related activity 20% of their time. Step 1: SWOT Step 2: Train - Establish the core competencies Step 3: Coach ~ Support the learning Step 4: Enable - Remove the obstacles – culture driven Step 5: Institutionalize ~ Train in-house experts Establish a panel of skilled mediators to resolve disputes that are not successfully resolved by the core competencies gained by Training (Step 2) and supported by Coaching (Step 3). Step 6: Feedback - Compare to benchmarks

42 EXPERT ADVICE EXPERT ADVICE
  "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers" - Thomas Watson, IBM president, 1943. "Television won't last because people will soon get tired of staring at a plywood box every night" - producer Darryl Zanuck, Twentieth-Century Fox, 1946.       

43 EXPERT ADVICE EXPERT ADVICE
"There is no need for any individual to have a computer in their home" - Ken Olson, president of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977. "640k ought to be enough for anybody" - Microsoft founder Bill Gates, 1981

44 WHERE DO I WANT TO GO TODAY?
"Cheshire-Puss," she began, rather timidly, "Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?" "That depends a great deal on where you want to get to," said the cat. "I don't much care where -," said Alice. "Then it doesn't matter which way you go," said the cat. --Lewis Carroll Alice in Wonderland -

45 Creating a New System “It must be remembered that there is nothing
more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, more dangerous to manage, than the creation of a new system. For the initiator has the enmity of all who would profit by the preservation of the old institutions and merely lukewarm defenders in those who would gain by the new ones. — Niccolo Machiavelli

46 Information Age Paradox
"Despite the existence of more and better information than ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it," -- Peter Tobia, author, "Decision Making in the Digital Age: Challenges and Responses," As a business end user, you have a responsibility to promote ethical uses of information technology in the workplace. As a manager or business professional, it will be your responsibility to make decisions about business activities and use of information technologies which may have an ethical dimension that must be considered. Business ethics is concerned with the numerous ethical questions that managers must confront as part of their daily business decision making. Such issues include employee and customer privacy, protection of corporate information, workplace safety, honesty in business practices, and equity in corporate policies. How can managers make ethical decisions when confronted with many of these controversial issues? Managers and business professionals alike should use ethical principles to evaluate potential harm or risks of the use of E-Business technologies. Ethical principles for responsible use of IT include: Proportionality. The good achieved by technology must outweigh any harm or risk in its use. Informed Consent. Those affected by the technology should understand and accept the risks associated with that use. Justice. The benefits and burdens of the technology should be distributed fairly. Minimized Risk. To the extent that any risk is judged acceptable by the preceding three guidelines, technology should be implemented so as to eliminate all unnecessary risk. These are guiding principles that can be used to govern ethical conduct by managers and users. However, more specific standards of conduct are needed to govern ethical use of information technology. The Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) provides the following guidelines for becoming a responsible end user: Act with integrity, avoid conflicts of interest and ensure your employer is aware of any potential conflicts. Protect the privacy and confidentiality of any information you are entrusted with. Do not misrepresent or withhold information that is germane to a situation. Do not attempt to use the resources of an employer for personal gain or for any purpose without proper approval. Do not exploit the weakness of a computer system for personal gain or personal satisfaction. Set high standards for your work. Accept responsibility for your work. Advance the health, privacy, and general welfare of the public.

47 Planning, Tools and Descriptions
It is not the plan that matters, It’s the planning. -General Dwight D. Eisenhower Graphical Diagrams do not constitute a specification….nothing replaces clear, concise text. - David A. Ruble

48 Planning, Tools and Descriptions
At a recent study, I commented at one point in our deliberations that we had spent more time on wordsmithing than we had on considering the substance of our report. -- Robert W. Lucky, VP for Applied Research at Telecordia. NJ It seems to me language by its very nature is imprecise. I think of each word as inhabiting a fuzzy ball of uncertain semantic meaning…. – Robert W. Lucky

49 -- Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C. Former President of Notre Dame
Decisions My BASIC principle is that you don't make decisions because they are easy; you don't make them because they are cheap; you don't make them because they're popular; you make them because they're right -- Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C. Former President of Notre Dame

50 Individual Vs Collective Intelligence
No one in this world, so far as I know, has ever lost money by underestimating the intelligence of the great masses of the plain people -H. L. Mencken Large groups of people are smarter than an elite few, no matter how brilliant—better at solving problems, fostering innovation, coming to wise decisions, even predicting the future. -James Surowiecki

51 Decision Making Preconditions
1. There must be an awareness of the existence of a gap 2. There must be a perceived need to solve the problem 3. There must be some way to measure the size of the gap 4. The skills and resources needed to solve the problem must be present or at least easily obtainable

52 Decision Strategies Optimization Satisficing
Optimization Satisficing Elimination by aspects – eliminate all alternatives that fail with respect to a particular aspect

53 Decision Strategies Instrumentalism – muddling through – compare alternative courses of action to the current one Mixed scanning – search for, collection, processing, evaluating and weighing of information. The importance of the decision determines the degree of scanning Analytical Hierarchical Process

54 Generalized System Environment System
Processing Control Output Input The systems approach views a business process as a system that has 5 components: input, process, output, feedback and control. The systems approach to problem solving uses the systems orientation to conceptualize the nature of the problem. Under the systems orientation, all elements of a problem interact with one another. Consequently, the systems approach considers each "step" to influence and provide feedback on every other step: Define the Problem. A problem is a basic condition that is causing an undesirable result. An opportunity is a basic condition that presents the potential for desirable results. A key task at this stage is to separate symptoms -- signs that a problem exists -- from the actual problems themselves. Develop Alternative Solutions. It is almost always true that every problem or opportunity has more than one effective course of action. As a problem solver, you must resist the tendency to move to the most immediate solution that comes to mind. It is good management practice to generate several alternatives and choose among them on the basis of clearly defined evaluative criteria. Select the Solution. On the basis of evaluative criteria, it is possible to compare alternatives to each other. Selection is important because there must be firm commitment to the alternative before committing organizational resources to solving the problem. Design the Solution. The selected solution to an IS problem next requires designing how the solution will be created. Here it is a good idea to meet with business end users and technical staff to develop design specifications and an implementation plan. Implement the Solution. When ready, the solution must be implemented. It is a good idea to monitor implementation carefully so that an assessment of the solution, design, and the logistics of bringing it into action can all be evaluated objectively. System Components, Relationships, Boundaries, Interfaces, Constraints

55 Modem Communications System
Control Modem Message Message Received Destination Info Source The systems approach views a business process as a system that has 5 components: input, process, output, feedback and control. The systems approach to problem solving uses the systems orientation to conceptualize the nature of the problem. Under the systems orientation, all elements of a problem interact with one another. Consequently, the systems approach considers each "step" to influence and provide feedback on every other step: Define the Problem. A problem is a basic condition that is causing an undesirable result. An opportunity is a basic condition that presents the potential for desirable results. A key task at this stage is to separate symptoms -- signs that a problem exists -- from the actual problems themselves. Develop Alternative Solutions. It is almost always true that every problem or opportunity has more than one effective course of action. As a problem solver, you must resist the tendency to move to the most immediate solution that comes to mind. It is good management practice to generate several alternatives and choose among them on the basis of clearly defined evaluative criteria. Select the Solution. On the basis of evaluative criteria, it is possible to compare alternatives to each other. Selection is important because there must be firm commitment to the alternative before committing organizational resources to solving the problem. Design the Solution. The selected solution to an IS problem next requires designing how the solution will be created. Here it is a good idea to meet with business end users and technical staff to develop design specifications and an implementation plan. Implement the Solution. When ready, the solution must be implemented. It is a good idea to monitor implementation carefully so that an assessment of the solution, design, and the logistics of bringing it into action can all be evaluated objectively. Noise

56 Generalized Communications System
Transmission Channel Control Receiver Transmitter Message Message Received Destination Info Source The systems approach views a business process as a system that has 5 components: input, process, output, feedback and control. The systems approach to problem solving uses the systems orientation to conceptualize the nature of the problem. Under the systems orientation, all elements of a problem interact with one another. Consequently, the systems approach considers each "step" to influence and provide feedback on every other step: Define the Problem. A problem is a basic condition that is causing an undesirable result. An opportunity is a basic condition that presents the potential for desirable results. A key task at this stage is to separate symptoms -- signs that a problem exists -- from the actual problems themselves. Develop Alternative Solutions. It is almost always true that every problem or opportunity has more than one effective course of action. As a problem solver, you must resist the tendency to move to the most immediate solution that comes to mind. It is good management practice to generate several alternatives and choose among them on the basis of clearly defined evaluative criteria. Select the Solution. On the basis of evaluative criteria, it is possible to compare alternatives to each other. Selection is important because there must be firm commitment to the alternative before committing organizational resources to solving the problem. Design the Solution. The selected solution to an IS problem next requires designing how the solution will be created. Here it is a good idea to meet with business end users and technical staff to develop design specifications and an implementation plan. Implement the Solution. When ready, the solution must be implemented. It is a good idea to monitor implementation carefully so that an assessment of the solution, design, and the logistics of bringing it into action can all be evaluated objectively. Noise

57 Modem Communications System
Control Modem Message Message Received Destination Info Source The systems approach views a business process as a system that has 5 components: input, process, output, feedback and control. The systems approach to problem solving uses the systems orientation to conceptualize the nature of the problem. Under the systems orientation, all elements of a problem interact with one another. Consequently, the systems approach considers each "step" to influence and provide feedback on every other step: Define the Problem. A problem is a basic condition that is causing an undesirable result. An opportunity is a basic condition that presents the potential for desirable results. A key task at this stage is to separate symptoms -- signs that a problem exists -- from the actual problems themselves. Develop Alternative Solutions. It is almost always true that every problem or opportunity has more than one effective course of action. As a problem solver, you must resist the tendency to move to the most immediate solution that comes to mind. It is good management practice to generate several alternatives and choose among them on the basis of clearly defined evaluative criteria. Select the Solution. On the basis of evaluative criteria, it is possible to compare alternatives to each other. Selection is important because there must be firm commitment to the alternative before committing organizational resources to solving the problem. Design the Solution. The selected solution to an IS problem next requires designing how the solution will be created. Here it is a good idea to meet with business end users and technical staff to develop design specifications and an implementation plan. Implement the Solution. When ready, the solution must be implemented. It is a good idea to monitor implementation carefully so that an assessment of the solution, design, and the logistics of bringing it into action can all be evaluated objectively. Noise

58 Management Roles Mintzberg’s 10 Management Roles:
Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator

59 Decision Structure Structure Non- collaborative Collaborative
Consensus Majority Weighted Committee Individual Consensus Majority Weighted

60 Decision Making Process
Stimulus Decision Maker Problem Definition Implementation

61 Decision Making Process
Intelligent Phase Objectives Problem statement Data Collection Design Phase Modeling Criteria Alternatives Choice Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation Implementation

62 Decision Making: Intelligence
Problem Identification Problem Classification Problem Ownership

63 Decision Making: Design
Modeling Criteria Alternatives

64 Decision Making: Choice
Search appropriate action - Blind - Heuristic

65 Decision Making: Evaluation
Multiple Goals Sensitivity Analysis What-If Goal Seeking

66 Alternative Decision Making Models
Paterson’s 5-step Pounds’ 8-step Kepner-Trego 3-step Hammond elements for smart choices Cougar’s Creative Problem-Solving Pokras’ 6-step Bazerman 6-step anatomy of a decision Beach’s naturalistic decision theories

67 Decision Making Decision: Commitment to action 4 1 11 5 12 13 3 8 14 16 6 2 9 17 15 10 16 7

68 Decision Making Knowledge Based
1 2 3 5 6 8 7 10 11 9 16 4 15 14 13 12 17 1 2 3 5 6 8 7 10 11 9 16 4 15 14 13 12 17 F(h) Knowledge0 Knowledge1

69 Decision Making Context
Maturity Concurrency Management Level Organizational Design

70 Knowledge Base 4 1 11 5 12 13 3 8 14 16 6 2 9 17 15 10 16 7

71 Problem Solving Intelligence Problem Space Problem Space Design Choice

72 Decision Styles Relater Entertainer Analyzer Ruler
Intent Need Category Get it done right Control Ruler Get it done right Accuracy Analyzer Get Along Approval Relater Get Appreciated Attention Entertainer Relater Entertainer Analyzer Ruler Passive Aggressive Task Oriented People Oriented

73 Managerial Decision Making and DSS
How are decisions made at work?

74 Decision Making Drivers
Decision Making Drivers at Work: Decision Making Drivers at Large : Technology Complexity Competition Globalization Environmental/Regulatory Change

75 DECISION SUPPORT DRIVERS
Speed, Timeliness Accuracy Cost Reduction Increased Productivity Technical Support Quality Support Competitive Tool Overcome Cognitive Limits in Processing and Storage

76 Organizational Culture
Individual Initiative – individual freedom, independence Risk Tolerance – degree to which employee is encouraged Directions – Clarify of objectives and performance Integration Management support – clear communication and support Control – rules and regulations Identity – Identity to corporate or group Reward System Conflict Tolerance Communications pattern – hierarchical structure

77 Organizational Resources
INPUTS RESOURCES OUTPUTS Money Materials People Knowledge Material Human Funds Products Services Feedback

78 Organizational Culture
Values – risk taking, ethics, Goals: Clarity, Commitment, Consistency Structure– reward system consistent with values and goals, accountability, reporting (C3), decision making, walk the talk, feedback Climate - Enthusiasm, Competition (supporting goals), Creativity. Collaboration. F;exibility, Involvement, Trust. Creative stress/ Environment – Other Teams/organizations, marketplace, Culture, Competition, Pressures

79 Organizational Effectiveness
ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE Other Teams Marketplace Enthusiasm STRUCTURE Competition Accountability Reward System GOALS Reporting Relationships Creativity Values Clarity Commitment Mission Philosophy Collaboration Stress Feedback System Decision Making Behavior Norm Flexibility Trust Competition Culture Involvement Pressures

80 Decision Strategies Optimization Satisficing
Optimization Satisficing Elimination by aspects – eliminate all alternatives that fail with respect to a particular aspect Instrumentalism – muddling through – compare alternative courses of action to the current one Mixed scanning – search for, collection, processing, evaluating and weighing of information. The importance of the decision determines the degree of scanning Analytical Hierarchical Process – decompose the overall decision objective into a a hierarchic structure of criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives

81 Information Information– Qualified Data or Value
relevant timely Associated Symbolic Data Joseph L. Aguirre Anywhere

82 Knowledge Knowledge: data get organized into information
information gets organized into: concepts, beliefs, ideas Info Info concepts beliefs ideas Info Info Info Info

83 Knowledge - Bloom Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy Chart Knowledge
Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

84 Knowledge Hierarchy Meta knowledge Knowledge Information Data Noise

85 Knowledge Information Knowledge Data Processed Relevant, actionable
Contextual, relevant, actionable Relevant, actionable Processed

86 Problem Solving Any problem can be viewed as a system that we are attempting to analyze and develop an equivalent to: Input Output Cultural problem: Man takes wife, mother and child out for a boat ride. The boat starts to sink. There are only 2 life preservers. The man is taking one -- who gets the other? Black Box


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