Presentation on theme: "Agenda Introduction Overview of AT Presentation Questions & Answers"— Presentation transcript:
1 Agenda Introduction Overview of AT Presentation Questions & Answers Overview of Assistive TechnologyAgendaIntroductionOverview of AT PresentationQuestions & AnswersPurposeTo be able to answer “What is AT?”To understand when AT needs to be consideredTo learn some new AT tools and strategiesSRVUSD Special Education SELPA1
2 Introduction to Assistive Technology Overview of Assistive TechnologyIntroduction to Assistive TechnologySRVUSD Special Education SELPA2
3 Overview of Assistive Technology Using TechnologyWhy Would Anyone Use Technology? … to accomplish tasks that would be difficult or impossible to accomplish without assistance where the tasks need to be done in the available time with the available resourcesSRVUSD Special Education SELPA3
4 What is Assistive Technology? Overview of Assistive TechnologyWhat is Assistive Technology?A system of no tech, low tech, and high tech tools, strategies, and services that match a person's needs, abilities, and tasksSRVUSD Special Education SELPA4
6 Reading FactRoughly 85% of children diagnosed with learning difficulties have a primary problem with reading and related language skills.Reading difficulties are neurodevelopmental in nature.Neurodevelopmental problems don't go away, but they do not mean that a student (or an adult) cannot learn or progress in school and life.Most children with reading difficulties can be taught reading and strategies for success in school.When children's reading problems are identified early, they are more likely to learn strategies that will raise their reading to grade level.
7 Decoding Activity: Recognizing Phonemes Phonemes are the building blocks of language. Represented by letters of the alphabet, they are the component sounds of spoken words. Most people automatically hear, for example, that the word "goat" is made up of three sounds: "guh," "oh," and "tuh." Reading requires the ability to map the phonemes we hear to letters on a page, and vice versa. But what happens when this basic skill, called decoding, doesn't come automatically? Imagine struggling to sound out every word because you can't distinguish among phonemes.
8 Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with this phoneme translation key. Then use it to read the passage on the next page.Phoneme translation key:When you seePronounce asq z p b ys a, as in bat e, as in petd or t m b p er e, as in pet a, as in bat
9 Read the passage aloud to yourself -- or to a roomful of your peers Read the passage aloud to yourself -- or to a roomful of your peers! (Here's that translation key again.)When you seePronounce asq z p b ys a, as in bat e, as in petd or t m b p er e, as in pet a, as in batPassage: We pegin our qrib eq a faziliar blace, a poqy like yours enq zine. Iq conqains a hunqraq qrillion calls qheq work qogaqhys py qasign. Enq wiqhin each one of qhese zany calls, each one qheq hes QNA, Qhe QNA coqe is axecqly qhe saze, a zess-broquceq rasuze. So qhe coqe in each call is iqanqical, a razarkaple puq veliq claiz. Qhis zeans qheq qhe calls are nearly alike, puq noq axecqly qhe saze. Qake, for insqence, qhe calls of qhe inqasqines; qheq qhey're viqal is cysqainly blain. Now qhink apouq qhe way you woulq qhink if qhose calls wyse qhe calls in your prain.
10 Decoding Activity: Recognizing Phonemes Here is the translation:We begin our trip at a familiar place, a body like yours and mine. It contains a hundred trillion cells that work together by design. And within each one of these many cells, each one that has DNA, The DNA code is exactly the same, a mass-produced resume. So the code in each cell is identical, a remarkable but valid claim. This means that the cells are nearly alike, but not exactly the same. Take, for instance, the cells of the intestines; that they're vital is certainly plain. Now think about the way you would think if those cells were the cells in your brain. (Excerpt from "Journey into DNA" on the "Cracking the Code" Web site, NOVA Online.)So how did you do? Assuming you found the exercise difficult (that was our intention), consider that we disguised only eight of the forty-four known phonemes in the English language. And imagine if this weren't a game.
11 What is Assistive Technology. IDEA (20 U. S. C What is Assistive Technology? IDEA (20 U.S.C. Section 1401) includes the following definitions:Assistive Technology Device:Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of children with disabilities.Assistive Technology Service:Any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition or use of an assistive technology device.AT is a tool for access (e.g., school environment, core curriculum) and for independence (e.g., communication, mobility) and will change as the student’s needs change and as technology continues to change. The need for AT should be an integral part of a comprehensive assessment for students with disabilities in all areas related to their disabilities, as appropriate, for each student and must be considered by the IEP team, based upon the student's assessed needs and strengths.Although the IDEA uses the term “device”, IEP teams should remember that assistive technology also includes AT hardware and software. AT may also include technology solutions that are considered instructional technology tools, if they have been identified as educationally necessary and documented in the student's IEP (i.e., a classroom computer with a word processing program that already exists in the general or special education classroom).AT may also include low technology solutions that may be typically classified by IEP teams as modifications (i.e., pencil grips or adapted paper).Caution: AT devices may also include items such as eyeglasses that are typically considered “personal” if the IEP team determines the device is educationally necessary…..the same would apply to hearing aids….(see OSEP opinion letters: 11/19/93 Mr. Peter Seiler; 1/13/95 Mr. Terry Bachus). Be careful what you recommend as “educationally necessary”!11
13 ConsiderationUse a dynamic, ongoing process of information gathering and decision-making.Trials should be conducted before determining if an AT device is appropriate.Take into account the required tasks within various instructional areas across all relevant environments
14 Considerations (cont.) Match device features to student’s capabilities, interests and needsEvaluate the student’s AT needs including addressing barriers to student’s performanceTeam must have knowledge and experience with AT; may consult with other district personnel, use outside agencies or vendors, but the final decision rests with the IEP team
15 Remember Consideration and training are ongoing processes Factors which may influence the process:Change in the environmentChange in the student needs/skills/preferencesNew technologyThere are no guarantees: it is important to realize the solution reached at one point in time may not be appropriate later!
17 Legislation The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) The Assistive Technology ActAmericans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Section 508 of the Rehab Act
18 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) Guarantees all children with disabilities the benefit of a free appropriate public education (FAPE)Services defined in the Individualized Education Program (IEP)AT must be “considered” for every student during the development of the IEPAT that is needed must be provided at no cost to the individual or family
19 AT ConceptsAssistive Technology is essentially a legal term related to use and need, not to specific itemsIncludes a broad range of possible devices and servicesNot always something to be acquired
20 AT ConceptsCategories of tools that can be AT if required by a student for FAPEAssistive TechnologyInstructional TechnologyUniversally Designed TechnologyUniversally Designed Instruction (UDL)
22 Continuum from Low to High Tech Overview of Assistive TechnologyContinuum from Low to High TechSlides 15-1610 minutesincluding videoAssistiveSAY.. AND/OR USE VIDEO…SAY: It has been estimated that there are thousands of devices that fall into the AT continuum, so some classification system is helpful.SAY: Often, when people think of technology, they think only high-tech products, such as computers and high-tech communication aids, but the range of AT devices falls into a broad continuum from very low, non-electronic technology to very complex high technology. .SAY: Some AT devices are relatively simple, but potentially very effective “low tech” devices. Sometimes they have no electronics in them and sometimes they have very simple electronics which are often powered by standard batteries. Some examples of low tech devices include talking spell checkers, pencil grips, slant boards, single-message speaking devices, and splints.SAY: Other AT devices are a bit more complex and fall into the lower end of “high tech”. Devices in this category are called “mid-tech” by some people. They have a degree of electronic functioning and almost always have some sort of power source that requires some level of care. These devices are potentially very powerful, but for many users often require less training and support to get started. Some examples of mid-tech devices include portable word processors, multiple-message communication aids, and some alternate computer access devices.SAY: Examples of the most complex, but often necessary, AT category - high tech - includes computers, very sophisticated communication aids, and more complex computer input systems such as those controlled by eye gaze or with speech. Tools in this category generally require more training and maintenance than less complex tools.IF USING THE VIDEO, SAY: Please turn your attention to the monitor as have a look at examples of tools on the AT continuum.CLICK THE MOUSE TO PROCEED TO THE NEXT SLIDE.TechnologyLow TechMid TechHigh Tech*Simple*Some Maintenance*Complex Electronics*Little Maintenance*Some training*More training*Limited/No Electronics*More Electronics*More MaintenanceSRVUSD Special Education SELPA22
23 Low and High TechLOW TECH: Equipment and other supports readily available in schools, including off-the-shelf items to accommodate the needs of the students, which can be provided by general/special education through the Student Study Team/IEP processes (e.g., calculator, tape recorder, pencil grip, large pencils)23
24 Low and High Tech (cont.) HIGH TECH: Supports and services beyond basic assistive technology, often for students with low incidence and/or significant/severe disabilities, which require more in-depth assessment (e.g., closed circuit television (CCTV), FM systems, sound field systems, augmentative communication devices, alternative computer access, and specialized software)It is important to consider and use the technology purchased with state and federal technology funds for all students (e.g., computers and basic software), and to request funding for students with disabilities who may not have access to the technology purchased with these funds. [Same argument as with text books for all students!]24
26 The Assistive Technology Team is made up of anyone that interacts with the student: Teachers and paraprofessionals,Parents,Other Specialists – speech, OT, PhysicalOther agencies such as the Regional Center, CCS, outside assessors.However! AT decisions are made by the student’s IEP team.
27 The MOST IMPORTANT Team Membership Issue Team membership is flexible and team members are selected based on the specific needs of the individual with disabilities
29 Gather data from a variety of sources... Overview of Assistive TechnologyGather data from a variety of sources...“That was wonderful, Leonard, but according to our earlier assessments, you are not able to do that.”SRVUSD Special Education SELPA29
30 The SETT FrameworkStudentEnvironmentsTasksTools
31 The Goal of SETT Framework … to help collaborative teams createStudent-centered (Self),Environmentally-useful, andTasks-focusedTool systemsthat foster the educational success ofstudents with disabilities
32 The Student/SelfThe person who is the central focus of the AT process.The person for whom everyone involved in any part of the AT service provision is an advocate.
33 EnvironmentsThe customary environments in which the student is (or can be) expected to learn and grow
34 TasksThe specific things that the student needs to be able to do to reach expectations and make educational progress
35 ToolsThe supports and services needed by the student and others for the student to do in tasks in order to meet expectations
36 Critical Elements of the SETT Framework Overview of Assistive TechnologyCritical Elements of the SETT FrameworkCollaborationCommunicationMultiple PerspectivesPertinent informationShared KnowledgeFlexibilityOn-going ProcessesSRVUSD Special Education SELPA36
38 Quality Indicators for Assistive Technology Services (QIAT) Overview of Assistive TechnologyQuality Indicators for Assistive Technology Services (QIAT)SRVUSD Special Education SELPA38
39 Quality Indicators for Eight Areas Administrative SupportConsiderationAssessmentIEP DevelopmentImplementationEvaluation of EffectivenessTransitionProfessional Development
40 Areas of Assistive Technology Devices Overview of Assistive TechnologyAreas of Assistive Technology DevicesSRVUSD Special Education SELPA40
41 Major Categories of Assistive Technology Devices Overview of Assistive TechnologyMajor Categories of Assistive Technology DevicesLow Tech Solutions Creative ThinkingSeating/PositioningMobility AidsADL / EADLRecreationComputer AccessAACAT for People with Learning DisabilitiesAT for People with Sensory ImpairmentsSRVUSD Special Education SELPA41
42 Thinking about AT TOOLS For whom? Think STUDENT or SELF For where? Overview of Assistive TechnologyFor whom? Think STUDENT or SELFFor where?Think ENVIRONMENTThinking aboutAT TOOLSFor what?Think goals and TASKSSRVUSD Special Education SELPA42
43 Low Tech Solutions - Creative Thinking Overview of Assistive TechnologyLow Tech Solutions - Creative ThinkingSRVUSD Special Education SELPA43
44 “Imagination is more important than knowledge” Albert Einstein
45 AT is Everywhere!! AT does not have to be expensive or complicated AT can be anything that assists a person with a disability
46 Example of Creative Thinking Plant Watering DeviceBattery Operated Kerosene PumpAdapted for switch accessTotal device cost - under $10
47 Remember…..Think Outside the BOX!!!TraditionalThinking
53 AT – Reading Support Color Highlighting Overview of Assistive TechnologyAT – Reading SupportColor HighlightingBooks with audio or electronic formatsReading PenText Reading SoftwareQuicktionary reading penKurzweil 3000SRVUSD Special Education SELPA53
54 AT Low Tech - Writing Assistants Overview of Assistive TechnologyAT Low Tech - Writing AssistantsSlant BoardMagnetic WordsLabelsPens/MarkersPencil GripsRaised PaperTemplatesQuicktionary reading penKurzweil 3000SRVUSD Special Education SELPA54
55 AT Mid Tech – Writing Assistants Portable Word ProcessorsNeo/AlphasmartFusionDreamWriterWriting CorrectionFranklin Dictionary
56 AT High Tech - Writing Assistants PixwriterClassroom SuiteClicker 5Writing with SymbolsSpeech to Text
57 AT - High Tech Writing Assistants WebspirationDraft Builder
58 AT Organizational Assistants Color CodingObject CalendarsOrganizersVoice DiariesTwo-way Text pagersElectronic Calendars
59 AT Math Supports Portable Calculators Money Calculator Graphing CalculatorSpell CheckersGraphing Software
60 Access to Multimedia Materials CD PlayerAudio DescriptionE-textCassette Tapes
61 Access to Computers Speech Output Voice synthesisScreen Reading Software
63 Internet Accessibility Is an emerging area.Youtube closed captioningText to speechMagnifiers
64 Documenting AT in the IEP Documentation should support why a specific device or services is being selected, based on established criteria, for the specific needs of the individual childDocument any specific conditions/environments in which the use of the device will be necessary (i.e., home, school, community)Address whether or not parents will be held liable for loss, theft or damage to a device beyond normal wear and tear, if the device is going homeDocument how training for student, family members and service providers in the use of identified tools and strategies will be providedPlan for and document meaningful follow through by all team membersAT should be discussed during “transition services” when it may be needed in post-secondary environments and documentation of who is responsible to do what is requiredAT may be addressed in one or more components of the IEPPresent levelsGoals and objectivesSpecial ed. and related servicesSupplementary aids and servicesModifications required for participation in district/statewide assessmentsSupports required for school personnelAT must be addressed in the consideration of special factors component of the IEP
65 Documenting in IEPMake sure and consider AT for every student with an IEP!SPECIAL FACTORSDoes the student require assistive technology devices and/or services? No Yes (specify) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
66 Common Questions about AT Q: Are schools required to pay for AT and services?A: It is the responsibility of the school district to provide the equipment, services, or programs identified in the IEP. However, the district may pay, utilize other resources to provide and/or pay for it, or cooperatively fund the device and/or services. Other resources may include, but are not limited to, Medi-Cal, foundations, church or social groups, charitable organizations, businesses, and individuals.Cost is a consideration but not a controlling factor. If more than one option will provide for the provisions of FAPE, then cost may be a legitimate factor in determining whether a particular device or service is appropriate. However, the determination must be done on an individual basis with the components of IDEA being followed. Cost may not be a factor when the alternative is denial of the provision of FAPE.66
67 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: Can schools require parents to pay for AT devices or services identified in the IEP or require parents to use their own private health insuranceA: No, the “free” in FAPE is extremely significant regarding students with disabilities; IDEA requires that all special education and related services identified in the IEP must be provided “at no cost to the parent.”Districts may request but cannot require parents to use their private insurance; however, the use of private insurance proceeds must not pose a realistic threat of financial loss to the parents of the child with disabilities. Districts need to inform the parents that they should check whether or not it will effect their insurance cap.67
68 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: If a device is written into an IEP, does that mean that it is for the sole use of the student or does the student just have to have access to the device?A: The student needs to have reasonable access to the device. So, if it is written that a student needs to have text to speech to assist with reading and writing, having access to the classroom computer would meet FAPE.
69 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: Can the student take the AT device owned by the school home?A: Yes, if the IEP team determines that the student needs access to an AT device at home to implement the educational program. For example, a student with a physical disability may not be able to complete homework assignments without access to a calculator at home.As technology is provided in the home setting, school systems will have to address whether or not parents should be held liable for loss or a device or for damage to a device beyond normal wear and tear.69
70 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: Does the device follow the student when he/she transitions from elementary to middle school and on to high school?A: If an assistive device is necessary to fulfill the requirements of the student’s IEP, such a device must be provided in the school the student attends. The same device may not necessarily follow the student from one school to another, but a comparable device that fulfills the IEP requirements will be needed in the new school.Remember, access to the device is key.
71 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: Does the student have access to AT aids and services if they are eligible for extended school year services?A: Yes, if the IEP team determined that the assistive technology is needed as part of the extended school year services.
72 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: Is a school district responsible for providing “state-of-the-art” equipment for the student?A: No. However, the school must provide appropriate technology for the student’s needs to ensure a FAPE. The decision is an IEP team responsibility and should be based on the AT evaluation. If a less expensive device would accomplish the same goals, the IEP team is under no obligation to choose a more expensive option.The IEP team should however consider the future goals of the child so that the AT can grow with the needs of the child.72
73 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: Are schools responsible for customization, maintenance, repair, and replacement of AT devices?A: AT services are included as considerations in the acquisition of equipment or devices purchased/provided by the school. If family-owned AT is used by the school and listed in the IEP as necessary for providing FAPE, the school might also be responsible for maintenance, repair, and replacement. Responsibilities for these services should be discussed in the IEP notes or the meeting document.
74 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: Under what circumstances may AT be considered a related service?A: AT can be a related service if the service is necessary for the student to benefit from his/her education.NOTE: Training of staff and parents would be consultation services and must be documented on the student’s IEP.
75 Common Questions about AT (cont.) Q: Can the IEP team refuse to consider AT devices on the IEP?A: No, IEP teams have the responsibility to determine a student’s need for AT and of specifying the devices and services needed. It is important that IEP teams are informed of this requirement to determine if a student needs an AT device and the need for an AT consultation to assist in making the determination.
76 SummaryAT is a tool for access (e.g., school environment, core curriculum) and for independence (e.g., communication, mobility) and will change as the student’s needs change and as technology continues to change.
77 Summary (cont.)The need for AT should be an integral part of a comprehensive assessment for students with disabilities in all areas related to their disabilities, as appropriate, for each student and must be considered by the IEP team or 504 Coordinator, based upon the student's assessed educational needs and strengths.