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Conditional Logic Using Excel “IF” Statements

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Logical TestIf TrueIf False Did you finish your dinner? You may have dessert. You may not have dessert. Are you a registered voter? You may vote in the election. You may not vote in the election. Does the animal have a backbone? It is classified as a vertebrate. It is classified as an invertebrate. Do you want to mail the letter? You will need to get a stamp. You will not need to get a stamp. Some “plain-English” examples of conditional logic statements

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My grading scale—(yours might be different) FromToLtr GradePass or Fail >=0%<59.5%FFail >=59.5%<69.5%DPass >=69.5%<79.5%CPass >=79.5%<89.5%BPass >=89.5%<=100%APass

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Example 1: A simple conditional logic test Based on the grading scale shown in the previous slide, create a conditional logic statement that determines if each of the values in column K (“Pct of Tot Pts Possible”) represents a passing grade (“Pass”) or a failing grade (“Fail”), and store the results in column M ( “Pass or “Fail”). KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6 3 73 459.4 579.8 667.2

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The basic form of an “If” statement is: =IF(Logical Test is True,Then,Else)

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Logical TestIf TrueIf False Is K2>=59.5?M2=PassM2=Fail =IF(K2>=59.5,“Pass","Fail") The conditional logic statement for the first case is: KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6Pass 3 73 459.4 579.8 667.2

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For the value in K2 (i.e., 73), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K2>=59.5,”Pass”,”Fail”) For the value in K3 (i.e., 89.6), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K3>=59.5,”Pass”,”Fail”) For the value in K4 (i.e., 59.4), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K4>=59.5,”Pass”,”Fail”) For the value in K5 (i.e., 79.8), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K5>=59.5,”Pass”,”Fail”) For the value in K6 (i.e., 67.2), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K6>=59.5,”Pass”,”Fail”) The conditional logic statements for all cases are: KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6Pass 3 73Pass 459.4 Fail 579.8 Pass 667.2 Pass

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Example 2: “Nested” conditional logic tests Based on the grading scale shown previously, create a conditional logic statement that will determine the letter grade for each of the values in column K (“Pct of Tot Pts Possible”), and store the results in column L (“Ltr Grade”). KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6 3 73 459.4 579.8 667.2

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=IF(K2>=89.5,"A",IF(K2>=79.5,"B",IF(K2>=69.5,"C",IF(K2>=59.5,"D","F")))) Displayed on the next four slides are its four ”nested” component parts… KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6A 3 73 459.4 579.8 667.2 The conditional logic statement for the first case is:

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Logical TestIf TrueIf False Is K2>=59.5?L2=DL2=F Is K2>=69.5?L2=CSteps in Blue Is K2>=79.5?L2=BSteps in Blue Is K2>=89.5?L2=ASteps in Blue =IF(K2>=89.5,"A",IF(K2>=79.5,"B",IF(K2>=69.5,"C",IF(K2>=59.5,"D","F")))) KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6D 3 73 459.4 579.8 667.2

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Logical TestIf TrueIf False Is K2>=59.5?L2=DL2=F Is K2>=69.5?L2=CSteps in Blue Is K2>=79.5?L2=BSteps in Blue Is K2>=89.5?L2=ASteps in Blue =IF(K2>=89.5,"A",IF(K2>=79.5,"B",IF(K2>=69.5,"C",IF(K2>=59.5,"D","F“)))) KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6C 3 73 459.4 579.8 667.2

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Logical TestIf TrueIf False Is K2>=59.5?L2=DL2=F Is K2>=69.5?L2=CSteps in Blue Is K2>=79.5?L2=BSteps in Blue Is K2>=89.5?L2=ASteps in Blue =IF(K2>=89.5,"A",IF(K2>=79.5,"B",IF(K2>=69.5,"C",IF(K2>=59.5,"D","F“)))) KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6B 3 73 459.4 579.8 667.2

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Logical TestIf TrueIf False Is K2>=59.5?L2=DL2=F Is K2>=69.5?L2=CSteps in Blue Is K2>=79.5?L2=BSteps in Blue Is K2>=89.5?L2=ASteps in Blue =IF(K2>=89.5,"A",IF(K2>=79.5,"B",IF(K2>=69.5,"C",IF(K2>=59.5,"D","F")))) KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6A 3 73 459.4 579.8 667.2

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For the value in K2 (i.e., 73), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K2>=89.5,"A",IF(K2>=79.5,"B",IF(K2>=69.5,"C",IF(K2>=59.5,"D","F")))) For the value in K3 (i.e., 89.6), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K3>=89.5,"A",IF(K3>=79.5,"B",IF(K3>=69.5,"C",IF(K3>=59.5,"D","F")))) For the value in K4 (i.e., 59.4), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K4>=89.5,"A",IF(K4>=79.5,"B",IF(K4>=69.5,"C",IF(K4>=59.5,"D","F")))) For the value in K5 (i.e., 79.8), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K5>=89.5,"A",IF(K5>=79.5,"B",IF(K5>=69.5,"C",IF(K5>=59.5,"D","F")))) For the value in K6 (i.e., 67.2), the conditional logic statement would be: =IF(K6>=89.5,"A",IF(K6>=79.5,"B",IF(K6>=69.5,"C",IF(K6>=59.5,"D","F")))) The conditional logic statements for all cases are: KLM 1Pct of Tot Pts Possible Ltr Grade Pass or Fail 2 89.6A 3 73C 459.4F 579.8B 667.2D

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Some Important Things to Remember About Nested Conditional Logic Statements: You are limited to a maximum of 7 logical tests when creating nested conditional logic statements. Separate the 3 parameters for each conditional logic statement with commas. For each conditional logic statement, you must enclose its parameters inside a separate set of parenthesis. For each conditional logic statement, if the “then” and “else” parameters are fixed characters (like letters or numbers), enclose them in a pair of double quotes (i.e., “).

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