Presentation on theme: "Health and Safety at Works of Marine Surveyors Marine Quality and Health and Safety management department Date : 18th of October 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Health and Safety at Works of Marine Surveyors Marine Quality and Health and Safety management department Date : 18th of October 2011
1.Group HSE Management System 2.HSE Marine Organisation 3.General recommendations for Safety of Surveys 4.Personal Protective Equipments 5.Electricity Danger 6.Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX 7.Confined space entry 8.Working at height 9.Safe Boarding of Vessels and escort by interested parties 10. Exposure to Noise 11. Driving risk
Chapter 1 Group HSE Management System
4 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Our commitment and statement by President and CEO
5 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Health, Safety & Environment Statement We recognize that the management of employees Health and Safety at work and the minimization of our adverse environmental footprint are a prime duty and responsibility of the management. We are committed to integrate this into out business activities. Bureau Veritas provides conformity assessment and certification services in the fields of Quality, Health and Safety, Environment, and Social Responsibility (QHSE), creating sustainable added value to out clients, employees and other stakeholders.
6 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Health, Safety & Environment Statement OUR PRINCIPLES: We believe that: No job is worth doing if it cannot be done safely. Health and Safety at work is the responsibility of every employee, contractor and visitor. All work related accidents can be prevented. We should all contribute to protecting the natural environment, All entities must comply with relevant HSE legislation and Group requirements. It is the responsibility of our management to provide the resources necessary to implement this policy. Every employee must follow the Group, client HSE standards and legal requirements, whichever are more stringent.
7 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Health, Safety & Environment Statement OUR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Our management system provides us with the mechanism for continuous improvement of our performance and to be recognized for being exemplary in HSE management excellence: Objective & priority setting to align the organization. Action plan development, implementation and communication. Monitoring progress of our action plans through relevant Key Performance Indicators, audits and reporting. Review, analysis and continuous improvement of our processes ad performance.
8 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Health, Safety & Environment Statement OUR COMMITMENTS: The entire line management is accountable for the implementation of this HSE policy and shall remain committed to: Protect the health & safety of our employees, visitors, contractors and clients. Risk assess our operations and activities and develpo appropriate action Plans. Reduce our adverse environmental impact through sustainable development initiatives that minimize our resource use and waste generation. Increase our employee awareness of HSE concerns and issues. Ensure that our HSE Management processes and programs are pro-active, transparent and deliver HSE requirements of this policy. Provide the tools, internal HSE resources and training necessary for the implementation of effective HSE management systems.
9 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Group HSE documents To be prepared in 2011; Policies about Medical surveillance. Behavioural Safety. Environment, HSE Indication, Drug & Alcohol. Procedures about HSE risks analysis, accident investigation.
Chapter 2 HSE Marine functional Organisation
11 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 HSE Marine organization Peter Yang Deputy Director for Marine East Zone Patrick Le-Dily Director of Marine HSE Renato Lomenso Deputy Director for Rest of World Michel Bereau Deputy Director for Head Office
Chapter 3 General recommendations for Safety of surveys
13 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 General recommendations for Safety of surveys Work environment Requirement in IACS QMSR; Suitable lighting, ventilation and access conditions shall be made a requirement to permit safe and effective survey to take place. While it is understood that the provision of such environmental conditions is not within the supply of the Society, the environmental conditions under which the survey will be permitted to take place shall be made clear to the customer prior to survey commencing. Requirements for personal protective equipment to be used at surveys, and procedures for personal safety of Surveyors at work shall be established and documented. Requirement in Rules part A, Ch 1, Sec. 1 Para 3.2.2; Interested Parties are to take the necessary measures for the Surveyors inspections and testing to be carried out safely. As a rule, the Surveyor is to be constantly accompanied during surveys by personnel of the Interested Party. Requirement in IACS URZ23 Para 6.1 – Review of the construction facility; The Society is to familiarize themselves with the yards production facilities, management process, and Safety for consideration in complying with requirements in measures for Safety and Health, such as conditions of scaffolding, nets, safety belt, lighting and ventilation.
14 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 General recommendations for Safety of surveys General ; Personal Safety must be the top priority during surveys. Many hazards can be encountered on board during surveys. Assess the risk involved before approaching or entering enclosure area and never take unnecessary risks or carry out the survey unaccompanied. Surveyor should take all necessary precautions and taking care his own safety. If safety is in doubt for whatever reason, survey should be refused. The safety requirements imposed by Local Authorities and shipyard must be strictly observed. These requirements shall not be transgressed under any circumstances, even if they prevent the Surveyor from proceeding with his surveys. The Surveyor should always require that necessary arrangements be made to allow him complete his surveys.
15 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 General recommendations for Safety of surveys Actions to be taken prior to surveys ; Surveyor must work with the yard to set safe practices in the yard and should always require that necessary arrangements are made to conduct surveys, below listed unsafe environment should not be existing and if existing should prevent the surveyors to attend; Unsafe temporary ladder (e.g. using part of cable racks as ladder), badly fixed, unsteady Ladders Unsafe (badly fixed, unsteady or unguarded) scaffoldings. Timber or wooden boards of scaffoldings in poor condition or overhauling. Missing or wobbly and unfixed temporary floor plates around the engine or equipment being testing. No or insufficient ventilation and or no light provided in confined spaces (such as tank). No checklist made available by the client before entry into confined space. Decks and openings without any railing, holes without any protection. Non protected electrical installations.
16 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 General recommendations for Safety of surveys Actions to be taken during ship in service surveys; The Surveyor should ensure that local safety measures are actually adopted to satisfy various regulations in force. These safety measures may concern protection against falling (laying out of scaffoldings, guardrails, nets,...), protection against the risk of explosion or suffocation (gas freeing, ventilation), protection against shocks or falling objects (wearing protective helmets), etc. A communication system is to be arranged and maintained throughout the survey, between the survey party in the cargo hold, tank or space being examined, the responsible Officer on deck and, as the case may be, the navigation bridge. The fact that the Surveyor takes all precautions concerning his own safety should not prompt the crew to dissociate themselves from safety matters. The Surveyor should point out that the crew is responsible for all checkings and precautions concerning the safety during the surveys. Explosimeter, oxygen-meter, breathing apparatus, lifelines, riding belts with rope and hook and whistles together with instructions and guidance on their use are to be made available by the Owner during the survey. Safety check-list is to be provided. Adequate and safe lighting is to be provided for the safe and efficient conduct of the survey. Adequate protective clothing is to be available and used ( safety helmet, gloves, safety shoes, safety belt …) prior to the survey.
Chapter 4 Personal Protective Equipment
18 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment General The services performed by BV surveyors will expose them to one or several dangers of different natures. In order to reduce the risks related to these exposures,it is necessary to implement technical or organisational measures which will allow by order of preference; To suppress the exposure to this danger or the danger itself. If the above is not possible, to implement collective protection means, if none of the above is possible, to wear individual protective equipments. In order In the scope of BV interventions which are exposing us to dangers generated by processes and installations of our customers it is seldom possible to reduce the risk by measure 1 or 2 as above ; therefore it is compulsory to ensure the physical integrity of our surveyors by implementing an efficient and effective policy of wearing Personal Protective Equipments (PPE). There are different types of PPE depending of the danger and of the potential risks met (depends on the modes of exposure to these dangers).
19 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Personal Equipment : Always use the necessary personal safety equipment according to specific conditions and the safety being carried out: Safety hard Hat - shall always be worn outside of site office building. Safety Shoes - with steel toe caps and non-slip soles shall always be worn outside office building. Overall – should be of an easily visible type, preferable with flammability. Gloves – prevent slippery type. Eye protection – goggles should always be used when there is danger of getting solid particles or dust into the eyes. Protection against welding arc flashes and ultraviolet light should also be considered. Ear protection – ear muffs or ear plugs should be used when long staying a noisy areas with over 85 db noise level. Safety belt and line – should be worn where there is a high risk of falling from more than 3 meters height. Breathing protection – dust masks shall be used for protection against the breathing of harmful dust, paint spraying and sand blasting. Gas Detectors - they are necessary during surveys in confined spaces, poorly ventilated zones which might present a risk of presence of toxic gases or explosion.
20 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection of the head Protection helmets : To be used as soon as a risk of falling object from a higher level exist particularly in shipyards and fabrication factories. The helmets must have a role of anti penetration. The lifetime of the helmet depends on the fabrication materiel. These information are mentioned in the instruction notice. The date and the trimester of fabrication and possibly the validity date (non compulsory as per applicable standard) are visible under the visor of the helmet. They must be replaced particularly after a chock. The protection helmets for the industry should comply with standard EN397 or equivalent national standards.
21 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection of the head - Specific helmets IDRA helmet equipped with a visor resisting to the consequences of an electric arc. (cf FTP SD 002 « Danger : Electricité » et FTP M 003 « IVS Electricity »). Helmet for interventions in height without visor or chinstrap; (cf FTP SD004 « Danger : Chutes de Hauteur »). Ventilated helmet A ventilated helmet covers only the head and the shoulders of the operator. It is equipped with a device of feeding in compressed air medium range pressure supplying the breathable air with an acceptable overpressure. The protection of the body is ensured by a non ventilated clothe protecting the carrier against a possible atmospheric contamination,such protection shall be extended to the body by means of a clothe. Length of the carriage : Depends on the type of clothe used by the carrier but should normally not exceed 1h30 mn unless particular advise from the medical doctor.
22 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection of the eyes and of the face: (these EPIs protect against these projections but not against the vapours or the micro drops) These protections are used to face the following different risks: Mechanical : projection of solid particles, choc…... Chemical : projection of lquid particles, dusts…... Thermic : cold, heat, projections de welted metals, fire…… Linked to radiances : ultraviolet, infrared, laser… Different PPE are carried by the inspector, depending on the risks inherent to its activity : Mechanical : projection of solid particles, choc…... Simple glasses: frontal projections. Goggles with lateral protections : frontal and lateral projections, Goggles integrated to a helmet and Facial screen integrated to a helmet. LA FTP M N°003 « Electricity» request the potation and the wearing of a helmet equipped with a facial screen (IDRA helmet). This facial screen protect particularly against the projections of metal in fusion which happen during an electric arc further to a short circuit. The safety goggles do not guarantee this protection.
23 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection of the respiratory track The protection of the respiratory tracks is necessary when the inspector is likely to inhale air loaded with pollutants such as gaz, vapours, aerosols or dusts, two types equipment, they are; The filtering equipment : They purify the surrounding air by filtration (disposable semi-masks FFP, anti-gaz filters, etc.), The choice of the equipment and of the level of protection depends of the nature of the works involved, of the duration of the exposure, the caracteristics of the different substances involved, but also of the inspector involved (for example: Mask FFP3 adapted for an occasional carriage (disposable) in the case of samplings of materials likely to contain asbestos. The isolating respiratory equipments : These equipments function in overpressure, they are usable whatever the nature and the concentration of the atmospherics pollutants. Lenght of the carriage : The length of uninterrupted of the carriage cannot be overcome and should not exceed 4 hours per working day, depending on the conditions of intervention (arduous nature, temperature,…), this length must be fractioned.
24 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection of the feet The risks for the feet depend on the work situation and several types of safety shoes are available in order to cover all the types of risks in below, as well as basic comfort needs : Linked to the action : slipping, fall, false move. Mechanical : chocks, jamming, crushing, perforations, bites. Chemical : dusts,corrosive liquids, toxic ou irritating………. Electrical : electrical contacts, with conductors under voltage, electrostatic discharges….. Biological : allergy, irritations, development of pathogenic germs. Thermic : cold,heat,fire... The risks Shoes having a protection index S3 (cf norme EN345 révisée) are to be preferred. Specific shoes : adapted for specific interventions, particularly : During interventions in ATEX zone or in areas with possible electrostatic discharges shoes wearing the label ESD (Electrostatic discharges)
25 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Hearing Protection auditive Noises can impact the audition. There are different types of noises, which differentiate themselves depending on their frequency and the intensity of the sound. The protective equipments should comply with EN 352 or a national equivalent standard.
26 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection of the body Can be classified in two diferent categories : The protection clothes : against the chemical substances, the dangerous biological agents, in humid environment, etc. The highly visible warning clothes.
27 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection of the body Permeable non ventilated clothes These clothes are made of materials weaved or not (disposable), not equipped with internal ventilation system. Depending on the tightness of the clothes they offer a good protection against surface contaminations mostly prorogued by solid substances. Inpermeable non ventilated clothes These are disposable clothes made of impermeable material in soft thermoplastic film type PVC or similar, without internal ventilation. They ensure a good protection against surface contaminations originated by solid or liquid substances and against liquid protections. The thermic constraints generated by these clothes limit the length of their carriage which depends on the physical activity of the surveyor. Length of carriage :If these gears are associated to filtering respiratory devices and unless specific medical advise the maximum length of carriage should be limited (irrespective of the clothing and unclothing time) to maximum: 1 hour if associated to a filtering respiratory equipment, 1 hour 30 if associated to an isolating respiratory equipment, with compressed air.
28 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection against falls from heigth Working at height can encompass several working situations resulting from the location of the work (roofs, catwalks…) or of the access and the moving at heights with the use of some equipments (ladders, scaffoldings, working platforms). The individual protection against the falls at height are involving three different components (Each of these components are equally important for the effectiveness) ; The gripping of the body (harness, EN 361 or equivalent). The anti-fall links (connectors EN 362 and liaison system EN 363). The anchoring system( EN 365 : 5 classes ) Such equipments should be verified annually. Each surveyor concerned by the use of the equipments of protection against the falls at height must be trained and informed of the risk.
29 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Personal Protective Equipment Protection of the hands The manipulations carried out by a surveyor and involving various risks : Mechanical : abrasions, cuts by slicing, lacerations, perforations. Electrical : electrostatic discharges with conductors under voltage, conductivity. Chemical and microbiological : penetration of chemical products or substances Thermic : cold ;heat, fire, projection of melted metals. Biological : allergies, irritations
30 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Other Safety Equipments The gas detectors The gas detectors (mono or multi gaz : O2, CO, H2S, explosion meters) allow a verification of the atmosphere before and during the survey and alerts the surveyor in case of change. They are necessary during surveys in confined spaces, poorly ventilated zones which might present a risk of presence of toxic gases or explosion. Note: VERIFICATION of the equipment and its autonomy should be carried out before each intervention. EXTERNAL ANNUAL VERIFICATION should be carried out according to the makers manual. (Gas detectors are to be calibrated every 6 months; some suppliers are now offered some to be calibrated every year but it is for the time being the exception.)
31 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Other Safety Equipments The lamps The use of a frontal lamp is absolutely necessary to ensure a sufficient level of lightning in case of survey in an insufficiently lighted environment. For intervention in zones with risks of explosion (ATEX), the lamp should be adapted to this risk
32 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Measures to be taken by the surveyor Personal Safety must be the top priority during surveys. Many hazards can be encountered on board during New Construction. The safety requirements imposed by Local Authorities and shipyard must be strictly observed. PPEs should be carried correctly and during all the length of the survey in order to ensure maximal efficiency. Each PPE should be adapted to the particular characteristics of the danger. Each surveyor shall ensure that the PPEs are used in accordance with their purpose and strictly for professional use. Before each usage,he should verify the good visual aspect (possibly the good functioning) of his equipment. After each usage, the reusable PPEs should be maintained in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. It belongs to each surveyor to request the replacement of each PPE or of a safety equipment when it appears that it is no more fit.
33 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Measures to be taken by the surveyor The surveyor shall compulsorily carry the PPE which has been given to him and which use is made necessary by the nature of the concerned surveys. In case of doubt he should ask his manager. Depending of the nature of the survey it might be necessary to carry the following:
34 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Measures to be taken by the surveyor Periodical verifications Before any use, the surveyor shall make a careful visual check of his equipments. Some safety equipments and PPEs should be subject to compulsory periodical verifications by competent persons, in accordance with the makers instructions. Detailed inspection reports should be kept in the concerned equipments individual record.
35 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Measures to be taken by the surveyor Exceptional event Such an event is likely to reduce dramaticcally the reliability of the PPEs. It can be the consequence: Of a fall or an important impact. Of a contact with chemical agents. Of the use of the PPE outside the range of the conditions of use defined in the instruction book. etc. Further to such exceptional event the surveyor should : undertake a complete verification of the concerned equipment as per makers notice if necessary involving competent personnel. To record it in the maintenance book of the PPE. If necessary to phase out the equipment (and to identify it as defective) for repair or scrap if necessary.
Chapter 5 Electricity Danger
37 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Electricity Danger Preamble The root causes of the work accidents of electrical origin come mostly from the non respect of the safety prescriptions. These accidents are on average way more serious than those of other origins as shown in the below diagram : Decease Work accidents Sick leave with permanent disability Work accidents from electrical origin Work accidents from other origins
38 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Electricity Danger Case of the low voltage Electrification by indirect contact It means electrisation by contact with objects not or poorly earthed, such objects being in contact with an element under voltage further to a electrical isolation defect. Such defects are putting in danger any person simply likely to touch this machine or equipment. Periodical verifications are bound to detect such defects it is up to the owner managing the installation to rectify these later on. Prevention of electrification by indirect contact This danger cannot be formally identified by a non specialist. The first prevention measure may consist in avoiding any contact with the equipments; should this contact be absolutely necessary it is compulsory to request the Shipyard to put these out of voltage by the electrician.
39 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Electricity Danger Case of the low voltage Electrification by direct contact The risk appears when you stand in the vicinity of naked components under voltage. It is the case during interventions inside electrical boards or boxes under voltage, but it is also the case when the isolation or the possible obstacles protecting the user of an equipment under voltage have been deteriorated. You should take this risk into account for low voltage circuits (The work on non protected high voltage installations is prohibited), but also for very low voltage (< 50 V) as long as you cannot make sure of the exact origin of the source. Caution : The accidents of electrisation /electrocution by direct contact are more frequent than those by indirect contact, such accidents are among the most serious..
40 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Electricity Danger Case of the low voltage Risks of burns These accidents, by far the more frequent, translate into burns to the hands and to the arms, and may result in injuries to the face particularly to the eyes. The burns are provoked by electric arcs which happen as soon as a short circuit is initiated between two active conductors (neutral included) or in certain cases between an active conductor and the earth (electrical mass). Depending on the conditions of the initiation of the arc, the current, although very important might be insufficient to provoke a rapid action of the thermo-magnetic circuit breaker ;this phenomenon is similar to what happens during arc welding. The electric arc has the following characteristics; - Luminous radiations, - Thermic radiations, - Projections of metal in fusion
41 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Electricity Danger Case of high voltage These installations receiving high voltage may iinclud delivery or transformation units as well as their cables ;they may also include equipments, powered under high voltage of 5 to 6 KV. Of course these installations should obey to the above rules applicable to low voltage in order to avoid risks of direct or indirect electrification and burns. However due to the powers at stake, and the particular context in which these are operated particular precautions are necessary. In this respect for Marine surveyors, it is strictly prohibited: To penetrate alone in a high voltage area without being accompanied by a qualified person. To open an electric box or board. A fortiori to carry out any manoeuvre of electric nature.
42 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Electricity Danger Personnel Protective Equipments You should wear as a minimum the following equipments: It is compulsory to wear these EPIs in case of exposure to risks of contacts of naked parts under voltage and of creation of electric arc. You need as well to maintain your EPIs in good working condition and in case of need to request their renewal to your managers. Overalls Protection against the electric arcs : Helmet with facial visor Gloves adapted to the voltage Safety shoes
Chapter 6 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX
44 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Objective In most of the cases the performance of our activities does not necessitate the use of gas or flammable liquids so called combustible. However flammable or explosive products are often present on board ships, some of our interventions may contribute to generate a source of and thereof,under certain conditions, may trigger a fire or an explosion. The following documents aim is to describe the nature of the dangers of fire or explosion and to indicate the safety rules to respect in order to avoid these on board ships during BV s interventions.
45 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Danger of fire or explosion Three conditions to meet simultaneously to generate a fire : The fire triangle – A fire may take place when the following three conditions are met : Combustible : material which may consume (wood, coal,gasoil, butane…) Oxidiser : Gas compound which in the presence of the combustible will allow the combustion (oxygen, air, peroxides, nitrates ammonium, oxides azotes,…) Source of energy or ignition : Energy necessary to start the chemical reaction of the combustion (electricity, works with hot points or naked flame, cigarette, spark) Lightning point : Minimal temperature (in °C) at which, in specified trial conditions, a liquid substance will emit sufficient flammable vapours capable of inflaming itself (spontaneous combustion) in the presence of a source of energy or of ignition. Source of energy (ignition) CombustibleOxidiser (ex : airs Oxygen) Fire
46 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Danger of fire or explosion Six conditions to simultaneously met to generate an explosion: Hexagon of explosion. The explosion is a very fast combustion which generates a pressure wave. This combustion is very fast due to ideal and specific conditions of combustion. The explosion can take place only after the formation of an explosive atmosphere resulting of a mix of air and flammable substances under gaseous form or combustible dusts in suspension in proportions such as a sufficient source of energy will produce its explosion Source of Energy (inflammation) CombustibleOxidiser (ex : Oxygen of the air) Explosion Combustible in suspension (gas, vapors aerosol, dusts) Confinement Explosivity domains (concentration of combustible between LIE et la LSE)
47 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Six conditions to simultaneously meet to generate an explosion Definition of Explosive atmosphere and exposable atmosphere; explosive atmosphere : When the proportions of gas, of vapours, of mists or of dusts in the air are such that one flame, one sparkle, one excessive temperature will produce one explosion. exposable atmosphere : Atmosphere likely to become explosive by change of one of the parameters (concentration of the combustible, of the oxidiser confinement,…)
48 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Explosive gaseous atmosphere Lower explosivity limit (LEL) :Minimal concentration of the combustible in the mix (combustible/ oxidiser ) below which the combustible cannot be inflamed (for a gas, vapours or dusts in the air). Higher explosivity limit (HEL) : Maximal concentration of combustible in the mix (combustible /oxidiser) beyond which the combustible cannot be inflamed (for a gas, vapours or some dusts in the air). Auto-inflammation temperature : The lowest temperature of a hot surface which in specific conditions may provoke the spontaneous inflammation of an explosive atmosphere. Lightning point : Minimal temperature (in°C) to which, in specified test conditions, a liquid emits sufficient gas inflammable gazes capable de spontaneously inflame in the presence of an inflammation source. Domain of explosivity : Concentrations of combustible comprised between the LEL and the HEL
49 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Explosive gaseous atmosphere The values of the lightning point, LEL,HEL of a chemical product are available in the technical description of this product or in the literature ( ex document INRS ED 911)
50 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Atmosphere of explosive dusts Most of the flammable dusts (for example : sugar, flour, coal dusts,…) are likely to explode by enflaming if these dusts are in suspension in the air up to a certain concentration specific to each of them. Minimal explosivity concentration (LEC) : Minimal Concentration of dusts in a given volume of air above which the concerned mix may explose (approx 50 g/m3) Maximal explosivity concentration (HEC) : Maximal concentration of dusts in a given volume of air above which the mix cannot explode any more (severalKg/m3).
51 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Atmosphere of explosive dusts The size matters (the finer the dust is the bigger the danger), the humidity content and the quantity of energy of inflammation (in KJ) have also a significant influence of the explosivity of the flammable dusts. The dusts frequently form deposits (in the cargo holds…) which can be put in suspension by the natural wind or by ventilation or by a primary explosion. Such move could create an explosive atmosphere.
52 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Technical measures - Analysis of the risks and the zonage The zones with risks of explosion are defined in the following table according to the likehood of the formation of an explosive atmosphere (ATEX) :
53 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Technical measures – The signalisation The rules in force in some countries may impose to signal the accesses to zones, where explosive atmospheres can occur in quantities likely to harm the health of the personnel and to present a risk for their safety. However this signal is not accurate enough and might be supplemented by a zonage plan.
54 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Technical measures – Adequacy of the equipments used in risky zones. The level of protection of the equipments used should be adequate to the denomination of the zone(s) in which these will be used. For information, the following table recalls the categories of equipments to use depending on the nature of the zone. Mark CE compulsory in EC. Number of the agreement of the Notified Body : 0081 : LCIE 0080 : INERIS Equipment usable in explosive atmosphere directive 76/117/CE. Grouping : I :.Mines II : Surfaces. G for gaz ou D for Dusts Category of equipment : 1 for zone 0 et 20, 2 for zone 1 et 21 3 for zone 2.et II 2 G
55 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Organisational measures Interventions in ATEX zones imply : That the surveyors are trained to this risk. That the surveyors are authorised by the customer and possibly the authorities to attend in such zones, Not to generate sources of ignition in these zones, Installations likely to present risks of fire or explosion; Ship types : Oil tankers, Chemical carriers, LPG tankers, Other Ships carrying dangerous goods, Pyrotechnic cargoes Compartments : Tanks, Confined spaces such as pipes,sludge tanks, Industrial gases stations (oxy acetylene), Paint lockers, Maintenance workshops, Boilers, Cargo holds (dusts of sugar, flour, coal…),
56 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Measures to be taken by the management Every surveyor must be made aware of the contents of this document before any intervention on board. This initial training may be completed by practical trainings. On a general manner, our portable electric equipments do not allow to intervene in ATEX Zones; this is also true for the portable lamps. In order to ensure that all the necessary conditions are met the surveyor should: Inform the ships master about his obligations. Request formally his authorisation to intervene in these risky zones using the document « Authorisation to attend in zones ATEX »,as a check list.
57 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Personnel protective equipments When interventions occur in zones 1, 21, 2 or 22 with residual products at the origin of the zone specific personnel protective equipments might be necessary, this is to be discussed with the ship master. These can be Overalls and parkas complying with EN 1149/3. Safety shoes antistatic and conductor (with resistance between 105 et 108 Ohms less, shoes complying with DIN EN are complying). Not wear under those synthetic or conducting clothes Even thought helmets and visors might not comply (dissipation of static electricity), it is still necessary to carry these.
58 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Risk of Fire & Explosion, ATEX Inspection practices You should systematically request the masters authorisation to attend in zones using the check list. Reminder : The interventions in zones 0 and 20 are prohibited. The interventions in 1 et 21 must be made installations stopped and as much as possible, concerned zones emptied of the products at the origin of the risks. Do not generate ignition sources and during interventions in zones (duly agreed by the Master) you must : Not alter the level of protection of the equipments « Ex » of the ship, such as not smoke, not carry or use lighters or marches, not carry or use non adequate electric equipments (Ex), example : portable telephone, cameras, computers, electronic watch, dosimeters. The only equipments that you are authorised to introduce in risk 1 or 2 zones are: One portable Ex lamp and one Ex explosimeter.
61 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Confined spaces entry Prior to enter a confined space, check : When opened & how long ventilated Has any hot work been performed recently using gas bottles Ventilation arrangements and means of verifying atmosphere during the survey Whether surrounding compartments are full &, if so, with what Nature of last cargo, if applicable Condition of the compartment (ballast tk. Rust) On average, there are 200 deaths per year in the Marine Industry as a result of confined space entries
63 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Never trust your senses to determine if the air in a confined space is safe !!! You can not see or smell many toxic gases and vapors, nor can you determine the level of oxygen present. Confined spaces entry
64 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Confined spaces entry Over 50% of workers who die in confined spaces are attempting to rescue other workers Rescuers must be trained in and follow established emergency procedures and use appropriate equipment and techniques (lifelines, respiratory protection, standby persons, etc) Steps for safe rescue should be included in all confined space entry procedures. Unplanned rescue, such as when someone instinctively rushes in to help a downed co-worker, can easily result in a double fatality, or even multiple fatalities if there are more than one "rescuer" Remember, an unplanned rescue will probably be your last
65 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Confined spaces entry Prior to enter a confined space, check : Safety & communication arrangements External to the compartment being surveyed Internal, during the survey Review the entry certificate / permit When was it issued and its validity (incl. times) Has any work been done inside the tank since the issuance of the gas free certificate. By whom & when next verification will be made Tankers - ISGOTT regulations to be observed International safety guide for oil tankers & terminals
66 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Confined spaces entry Check the isolation of the compartment : IG lines blanked, valves closed & marked P/V lines blanked, valves closed & marked Cargo / ballast lines, at least 2 valves closed & marked Drainage / flushing of cargo pipe lines passing through the tank Adjacent compartments not filled with toxic material Heating coils shut off
67 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Confined spaces entry Dangerous spaces Note - associated areas are considered as dangerous spaces Gas free certificate - safe for access Date / time of last verification - usually checked every 3 hours, assuming normal ventilation The certificate should be valid for the duration of the survey
68 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Confined spaces entry Toxic spaces Spaces designed to contain toxic material Loading areas also included as dangerous spaces The space must not be entered if breathing apparatus is required Special equipment for testing for toxic substances - Draeger tubes Testing for oxygen
69 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Confined spaces entry Boilers Enter when both manholes have been opened After proper ventilation & cooling If other boilers are in service check that boiler is properly isolated on steam, water and smoke sides At least two valves should be closed between the boiler under survey and the boiler under steam
70 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Confined spaces entry Do not enter a confined space until you have considered every item in below, as well as any other item of concern, and have determined the space to be safe : Confirmation that you will be accompanied during entry Verification of testing equipment and qualification of testers Testing of the atmosphere for oxygen level, toxic or flammable gases Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere during survey Ventilation of the confined space Isolation of the confined space Use of adequate clothing and safety equipment Standby and rescue procedures Entry permit Remember, the final decision is yours. If you are not confident that the space is safe for entry, do not enter it.
71 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Check-list for entering confined spaces A check-list for Entry into confined spaces is available in IACS Recommendation 72, Rev. 2 – Confined Space Safe Practice, and it is attached in below : A check-list for Entry into confined spaces is available also in MSC Circ. 1401, Appendix – Example of an enclosed space entry permit, as below attached file:
Chapter 8 Working at height
73 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Working at height Surveyor should always require that necessary arrangements are made to conduct surveys. Surveyor should take all necessary precautions and taking care his own safety, such as some dangers encountered : Badly fixed, unsteady or unguarded Scaffoldings. Badly fixed, unsteady Ladders Wooden or Timber boards of scaffoldings in poor condition or overhauling. Slippery on inclining steel block plating or wet surface. Electric shock in wet areas where electrical circuits, equipment, and tools are used. Openings on deck, floor, platform - left open and unguarded. Unprotected sides and edges (no guardrails provided)
74 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Working at height Marine Surveyors engaged in the block inspection, pre-erection and erection inspection or other inspection at height must be protected from falling. Surveyor verifies that he is protected from falling by following types of falling protection systems, when survey is located 2 meter or more above lower levels. Guardrail systems Safety new systems Personal fall protection systems Engineered Lifelines Warning line system When alternative means of access are used (e.g. Cherry Picker and portable ladder), their conditions and competency of the Operator are to be checked and verified satisfactory prior to usage.
75 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Working at height The IACS Rec. 91, Rev. 1 Guidelines for Approval / Acceptance of Alternative Means of Access covers means of access used independently or in combination with the provided permanent means of access to area to be surveyed and measured in accordance with SOLAS Ch. II-1 Reg Alternative means of access are; Hydraulic arm vehicles (Cherry Picker) Wire lift platform Portable platforms Staging Rafting Portable Ladders Innovative approach
76 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Working at height IACS Rec. 91, Rev. 1 Guidelines for Approval / Acceptance of Alternative Means of Access, stated that; It should be demonstrated by the Owner that the equipment provided has been maintained and a person operating the equipment is trained in the safe use of such equipment. These should be demonstrated to the Surveyors by the production of documents, prior to the equipment being used, that the equipment has been maintained and which indicate any limitations of the equipment. Where Cherry Pickers are used for the examination of the cargo hold structure on bulk carriers not accessible by permanent means, Cherry Pickers may be accepted as movable means, for use up to 17m above the tank top. Portable ladders should be designed based on a recognised international or national standard. The rugs and steps should be designed to minimise slipping, e.g. corrugated, knurled, dimpled or coated with skid resistance material. The feet of portable ladders should be prevented from slipping during use by securing the stiles at or near their upper and lower ends, by any anti-slip device or by their arrangements of equivalent effectiveness. The ladder should be in general raised at an angle of around 70 degrees.
77 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Working at height Personal fall protection systems Surveyor on any project that will be required to wear a personal fall arrest or restraint system, he will follow these guidelines; A full body harness will be used at all time. Any deteriorated, bent, damaged, impacted and/or harness showing excessive wear of personal fall protection system, should be removed from service.
Chapter 9 Safe Boarding of Vessels and escort by interested parties
79 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Safe Boarding of Vessels Check of your conditions before boarding of vessels; No afraid of heights. Good sense of balance, not prone to motion sickness. Physically and medically fit. Not taking any prescription medicine.
80 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Safe Boarding of Vessels Check whether you have the right personal protective equipments? Safety helmet with chin strap. Life jacket / Floatation vest with light. Gloves with good grip. Tight-fitting footwear (shoes or boots with non-slip soles and low heels).
81 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Safe Boarding of Vessels Check how to pack your belongings and equipment. Do not carry luggage or heavy backpacks during boarding. Keep you hands free. All loose items (e.g. keys, mobile phones) must be packed in appropriate luggage. Luggage will be hoisted onto the vessel.
82 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Safe Boarding of Vessels Guide to Safety boarding of vessels; When preparing to board: Wear a lfe jacket. Hold the handrails and stay alert. Approach ladder from outboard side of launch. Board only when directed by launch master. When boarding via gangway; Ensure gangway is level with the launch. Board using both hands on the rails. Only 4 persons can board each time. When boarding via rope ladder: Ensure ladder is properly secured. Maintain three point of contact when climbing a ladder (two hands and one foot or one hand and two feet). Do not board if lader appears damaged. Climb ladder one person at a time. Keep body close to ladder and stay alert.
83 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Safe Boarding of Vessels Remember; Safety always comes first !! Do not board if you are feeling unwell. If life jacket is not provided, as for one from the ship/launch crew. Do not board if conditions are unfavourable for boarding. Stay alert and follow all instructions.
84 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Escort the Surveyor by interested parties Importance of the escort Legal obligations Certain local laws (for example in France) make it compulsory to our clients to proceed to a « joint inspection » concerning : - The premise the accesses and the paths, - The installations equipments and machines, - The particular risks. This concept of escort is a compulsory obligation to our customer and we cannot free him from it. Contractual obligations It is compulsory for our clients to inform us about the danger zones, applicable safety instructions and to have the works necessary to our mission done by a competent personnel placed under his responsibility. It is also compulsory for our clients to give to our surveyors all the necessary safe means of access to all installations and equipments to be verified.
85 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Escort the Surveyor by interested parties Nature of the escort This escort starts as soon as the surveyor arrives on board the vessel to be driven to the Master chief engineer or chief officer; BV introduces himself and the following points will be discussed before the surveyor can start his inspection fully accompanied by an escort who must be a ships officer duly designated by the master, the chief engineer or the chief officer. It must be made clear during this meeting that the ships officer designated to escort the surveyor will do so for the whole length of the stay of the surveyor on board. For new construction survey, the escort must be provided by a staffs (such as QC or yard Inspector) duly designated by the shipyard. The escort is compulsory for carrying out the patrol surveys as well.
86 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Escort the Surveyor by interested parties Nature of the escort - Access and paths The surveyor should use the normal paths together with an escort; he should however ensure by himself that the path is free of risks. If necessary he shall request additional lightning or others. If he should access to spaces which are not accessible under normal circumstances (carter of a main propulsion engine, boiler…), he should request the escort to avail safe means of access, adequate lightning, walkie talkie permanent communication etc… Each time it is necessary to operate an equipment or to dismantle it (tests…), such should be done by the escort or a crew member, yard people. In all such cases, the surveyor should explain very clearly what needs to be done and request the necessary safety measures to be taken.
87 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Escort the Surveyor by interested parties Nature of the escort - Access and paths Certain situations do require the permanent escort of the surveyor to ensure his safety; particularly the following situations : Work at height especially necessitating the use of a safety belt. Work in a confined space. Access in height using a mobile ladder especially to maintain a fix point at the foot of the ladder.
Chapter 10 Exposure to Noise
89 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise Definitions - The sounds Are localised variations of the air pressing, hence air vibrations which propagate in acoustic waves. They are characterised by their frequencies which express in Hertz. A noise is a collection of sounds. It is characterised by its spectrum of frequencies and its level of intensity. auditive field of the ear :
90 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise Definitions - The ear The ear is composed of three different parts, It is possible to repair the organs of transmission such as the thympan. On the contrary, when the ciliated cells are destroyed there is no possible repair. Noises of high level may destroy these cells The external ear, pavilion of conduit auditive collector, guides the sound to the ear- drum (tympanum) which separates the external ear from the internal ear and pulses under the effect of the noise. The middle ear is a bony cavity filled with air, also called tympanic drum, communicating with the larynx by the eustachian. It contains three ossicles (the hammer, the incus and the stirrup) which transmit the move of the tympan to another smaller membrane, the oval window, separating the middle ear and the internal ear. This smaller window being smaller than the tympan the vibration is amplified. The internal ear is a bony cavity filled with lymph which comprises three different functional entities : the foyer, which is the organ of the balance, and the cochlea dedicated to the audition. The vibration is transmitted by the oval window to the liquid of the cochlea. In the cochlea area the sensorial cells of the audition which are ciliated. The cilia move with the vibrations, and their moves generate an electric signal in the cell, itself transmitted to the brain by the auditive nerve. The cerebral cortex interprets the nervous message that it receives, and generates the auditive sensation, mental image of the audio message captured by the ciliated cells.
91 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise Definitions - The level of noise The human ear may perceive sounds of 20 micro-pascals, lower limit of audition, up to 20 pascals, threshold of the pain. However this unit is not very practical as long as there is a factor of between the weakest sounds and the highest perceived by the ears. For the sake of ease, one use a logarithmic scale beetween 0 and 120 (threshold of the pain). One measures physically the level of noise in decibels (dB). Attention, an increase of 3 dB means a doubling of the acoustic power ! To take into account the level of noise actually perceived by the ears, one uses a filter simulating the ear, and the measures are noted in decibel A, whose abbreviation is dB(A). 0 dB(A) = weakest noise which can be detected by a human ear. 120 dB(A) = noise which is provoking a painful sensation.
92 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise Definitions - The level of noise In the very high levels, the human ear does not filter sounds on the same manner. This matter is taken into account by the use of decibel C, noted dB(C). We measure the peak level The measures of the sound levels are principally made by means of sonometers and moreover of exposimeters carried by the workers close to their ears. However what matters is the « noise dosage over 8 hours », either the quantity of energy received by the ear over 8 hours or other one week. The exposure, even for a limited time to a high noise level can produce the same effects as an exposure to a lower level but on a 8 hours duration. Equivalent exposure duration:
93 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise Consequences of the exposure to noise Further exposure to a loud noise, one can feel temporarily a decrease of hearing acuity that will disappear in few hours. A loud noise can generate a sudden deafness more or less reversible, by destruction of the cilia cells. As soon as buzz or whizz appear in the ears, decrease of hearing acuity and feeling of cotton in the ears, one must cease immediately the exposure to the noise. Should these symptoms persist, one should consult the hospital emergencies immediately. An immediate treatment may help prevent irreversible disorders. An acute acoustic trauma must be declared as a work accident.
94 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise Consequences of the exposure to noise - Deafness The prolonged exposure to high noise levels destroys step by steps the cilia cells of the internal ears thus leading progressively to deafness which is irreversible and requires apparels of limited efficiency. A sudden loud noise, for example created by an explosion, can lead to sudden deafness, total or partial, reversible or not. The blast effect can tear off the tympana, but also damage to the bones. Such a level of noise can destroy the cells of the cochlea. The noise increases the risk of work accidents for several reasons : - The noise ask as a blind other warning signal; - The noise disturbs verbal communication. - The noise diverts the attention - The noise makes tired, it has some effect on the sleep,
95 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise Arrangements to be made by the surveyors - Choise of adequate EPIs In practice, two categories of protections are to be distinguished The protections with shells" (helmets, ear muffs, neckband) which build an obstacle at the level of the ear pavilion, The ear plugs (disposable or moulded) which obstruct the ear collector. The criteria for the choice of these equipments depend on the frequency, the duration, the nature of the exposure of the surveyor. For spot exposures, the carriage of disposable protective equipment, selected depending on their efficiency for the concerned type of exposure, is compulsory. Should you have not be given specific EPIs (helmet, moulded plugs…), disposable hearing protections are at your disposal in the office premises, it belongs to you to take such equipments for future use and do always keep these with you. If one site, you dont have hearing protections and you have to intervene in a zone where the carriage of such is compulsory you should refrain of attending in such zones. For the protection of these EPIs to be efficient, it is compulsory that they are properly positioned and permanently carried.
96 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise In the absence of such signalisation and in presence of noise it is recommended to wear PPE as soon as the ambient noise obliges you to raise your voice to make yourself heard (it is a sign that the ambient noise level is at least 80 dB (A)).
97 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Exposure to Noise Arrangements to be made by the Manager - Supply of PPEs to the surveyors One should carry PPEs adequate to the working environment. Taken into account the diversity of our fields of activities and therefore the high likehood of spot exposure to loud noises it is compulsory that the surveyors use a minima disposable hearing protections. The Marine manager will identify the surveyors frequently exposed (long stay in the engine room, environment or nature of the survey); he will give to these specific adequate hearing protections (for example :hearing protection helmet, moulded individual plugs,…). The following surveyors are particularly concerned : Those working close to noisy machines or equipments (example : compressors or boilers, trials of diesel engines, sprinkler, diesel generators, tests of fire alarms. Surveyors carrying out noise measurement.
Chapter 11 Driving risk
99 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Driving risk Respect of the Driving Rules; General - The prevention of the road accidents necessitate to respect the driving rules and the principles which are list below (non exhaustive list 1/3): Alcohol - A driver is in contradiction with the rules if his alcohol content in the blood exceeds some limits, for example in France more than 0,5 g/l or 0,25 mg/l expired air. (This corresponds for a man of 70 kg to: 2 glasses of wine on a empty stomach, or 3 glasses of wine taken during a meal). Safety belt - The belt is compulsory in front and at the back of the car. The safety belt allows to avoid that the person be ejected or projected outside the car (during a collision at 50 km/h, a belted person will face a chock equivalent to the fall of a three storey building, a non belted 75 kg person equal projectile of 2,5 tons) Drugs - The consumption of drugs is prohibited by law. Drugs alter the vision, the audition and the capacities of coordination. The reaction time gets longer, the capacity to control a path lessens and the response in urgency situation lessens too.
100 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Driving risk Respect of the Driving Rules; General - The prevention of the road accidents necessitate to respect the driving rules and the principles which are list below (non exhaustive list 2/3): Medicine - Some medicine (particularly syrups against caught containing codeine or its derivates) may lead to sleepiness. Please check the presence of the pictogram on the packaging. Sleepiness - It is useless to attempt to fight against it. As from the first signs you should STOP even though you would have a few kilo meters only to cover. (In any case it is necessary to pause every two hours). - Certain time slots are particularly prone to sleepiness :during the night from 2h to 5h, day time between 13h and 15h. - Several factors aggravate the tiredness: lack or bad quality of sleep, heavy meals (too much sugar or fat), the intake, even though moderate, of drugs or alcohol, excessive heat or cold in the car, the cigarette (which reduces the oxygen in the car)...
101 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Driving risk Respect of the Driving Rules; General - The prevention of the road accidents necessitate to respect the driving rules and the principles which are list below (non exhaustive list 3/3): Portable phone - The use of a portable phone when driving is strictly prohibited ; even though with a hand free kit your reaction time in case of unforeseen event will be multiplied by five. Speed/Breaking distance – Respect the speed limitations in force. Between two vehicles, the minimum safety distance equals to the distance made during two seconds. ( ABS breaking system does not reduce the breaking distance; It avoids the blockage of the wheels and the loss of the control of the vehicle). Eyesight – This is of paramount important, if you have eyesight problems you should consult regularly and adjust your eyesight with glasses as prescribed by the doctor.
102 MARINE HSE 31December 2010 Driving risk Car maintenance; In a general manner to take all necessary measures for the good maintenance of the car and for the respect of the safety rules. Each surveyor is responsible of the condition of the vehicle that he is using; in this respect it belongs to him to: To respect thoroughly the instructions manual of the car maker and to bring the car to the repair shop for regular maintenance as prescribed. To check and replace the tyres when necessary. To regularly wash his vehicle. To declare the damages to his insurance company and to have it repaired as necessary.