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Readiness for Reading and Writing at the Primary level.

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Presentation on theme: "Readiness for Reading and Writing at the Primary level."— Presentation transcript:

1 Readiness for Reading and Writing at the Primary level

2 School First major experience the child is exposed to outside the home These early experiences Mould childrens attitudes to life and learning Develop skills that aid in growth and development of their potential Hurried child syndrome Expectations and demands of schooling leave child bewildered and handicapped for growth Child needs to be prepared

3 What is readiness? Readiness –Essentially the state of receptiveness –The ability to be receptive Time when the childs –Physical, neural, intellectual, social and emotional developments have advanced to perceive the problem –to solve it with relative ease Readiness should be seen as –A means of increasing childrens capacity to meet the academic demands of the first years at school –D evelopmental orientation for learning rather than merely the development of pre requisite skills

4 School plays a vital role in readiness It is imperative that readiness activities need to be incorporated in the primary classes Inclusion of teachers in the development of such activities becomes critical

5 What happens when child is not ready?

6 Definition of reading readiness The teachable moment for reading: a point in time when the pupil is ready to learn how to read. (Dechant 1991) A transition extending over several months during which time the child (student) gradually changes from a non-reader to a beginning reader. In this case the readiness program couples the (student's) past learning with new learning and brings the (student), gradually, through the transition." (Clay 1991)

7 Importance of reading Key to success in school Stimulates thinking Creates new interests Leads to appreciation of various kinds and types of literature besides contributing to personal and social adjustment

8 Development of language skills Auditory perception Visual perception Audio-visual perceptionDirectionality Components of reading readiness

9 Development of reading readiness I) Initial stage of learning to read Knowledge of the alphabet/Letter recognition/associating sounds and symbol of the letter Children begin to develop basic sight vocabulary Directional orientation Much of the reading is oral Children realize that reading is talk written down

10 Development of reading readiness II) Rapid development of reading skills Extension and refinement of the previous stage Child develops word-recognition skills Builds a substantial sight vocabulary Development of word meaning III) Refinement of reading Development of advanced comprehension skills Attainment of study skills Increase in the reading rate

11 Preparing children to read I) Developing desirable interest and attitude Develop interest in reading By providing picture books Pictures of children reading Read aloud stories Story making Information books Childrens craft books Newspaper/childrens magazine Visiting book fair/exhibitions

12 Preparing children to read Helping children see the relationship between the text and the experience –Developing Graphic Sense (Writing carries a message) Bonding with books All types of books- Picture books/ Three dimensional books/Pop-up books/Touch and learn books/cartoon books/comic books Posters, pictures of children and adult reading Scrap books

13 Preparing children to read Providing a print-rich environment An environment with bulletin board notices, messages labels, dictated stories, notes, childrens personal files, labeling things in the classroom such as lockers, cupboards, book shelves, windows and doors Name cards Glove puppets that can be used by children Reading corner with attractively displayed books, flannel board equipped with characters from stories, newspapers and magazines Early literacy album that is filled with List of favourite toys, food, game and so on Drawing with dictated stories Special scribble messages such as letters/ lists Wish lists

14 Preparing children to read II) Developing large speaking and listening vocabulary Encouraging children to speak and experiment with different words and phrases (Free and structured conversations) Encourage small conversations between children Theme-based conversations Role playing and dramatisation Rhyming games Story telling and story making Listening games Show and tell activities to be continued even in the primary classes

15 Preparing children to read III) Development of skills Auditory perception skills Auditory perception refers to the ability of the brain to interpret and create a clear impression of sounds Good auditory skills enable children to distinguish between different pitches volumes rhythms and sources of sounds and words

16 Preparing children to read Auditory closure ability to complete indistinct or inaudible words to create a clear auditory image Auditory conceptualising ability to interpret and form a clear impression of a sound or combination of sounds Auditory discrimination ability to detect similarities and differences when listening to sounds. Auditory blending blendin g sounds into words Auditory localizatio n ability to determin e the source of a sound using only the sense of hearing Auditory memory ability to store and later recall the impressi on perceive d by the ears Auditory sequential memory ability to store a series of informat ion in the order it was heard and later recall it Auditory figure ground ability to attend to importa nt sounds in the environ ment and ignore other sounds. Auditory perception skills include

17 Children who have difficulties may have Problems identifying speech sounds Poor listening skills, especially when there is background noise Difficulty discriminating between similar words /rhyming words Poor articulation of sounds and words Kinesthetic strengths (and learn better through using concrete materials and practical experiences) Visual strengths (and enjoy learning through using visual materials such as charts, maps, videos, demonstrations) Good motor skills (and have strengths in design and technology, art, PE and games)

18 Activities to enhance auditory perception skills Listening – listen to sounds on a CD/ real objects with eyes closed and then ask the pupils to: –point to a picture of the object making the sound and name it –point to a real object that makes the sound and then try it out. Sound bingo – listening to sounds and covering the correct picture Sound walk – pupils drawing pictures or writing down the names of the sounds they hear on the walk. Grouping sounds – animals, musical instruments, vehicles etc. Improvise the activity with words Odd one out – Initially with sounds such as sound that is not part of a group of sounds, eg. dogs barking, pig grunting, cow mooing, musical instrument playing. Then progress to words Musical discrimination – discriminating between loud/soft, high/low, fast/slow notes

19 Activities to enhance auditory perception skills Clapping or tapping rhythms – Can use pupils' names and polysyllable words. Linked with picture- noun recognition Pupils can work in pairs, using picture-noun cards – take turns to clap syllable beats and choose the picture-noun card to match the number of beats Same/different 1 – listen to sets of two everyday sounds and identify those that are the same and those that are different Same/different 2 – listen to sets of two words and identify those that are the same and those that are different, eg. bat/bat, bat/bet Same/different 3 – listen to sets of two words and identify those that rhyme and those that don't, eg. cat/mat, bed/bud

20 Activities to enhance auditory perception skills Hands up 1 – Children put up their hands when they hear a particular sound/words (sounds given one at a time) Hands up 2 – Children put up their hands when they hear a particular sound against a background of other sounds (figure/ground auditory discrimination) Who is it? – Blindfold a child - ask another pupil to say a short sentence Blindfolded child identifies the child by name. Proceed to sentences later Sound bingo – discriminating between initial sounds Rhyme time with word cards Telephone talk Story telling

21 Visual perception Visual perception refers to information that is perceived through the eyes Developing in preschool children and continues to develop right through primary school. Important skill especially for school success Helps to discriminate well Copy text accurately Develop visual memory of things observed Develop good eye-hand co-ordination and Integrate visual information while using other senses

22 color perception and colour constancy visual conceptualizing visual analysis and synthesis visual closure shape perception and shape constancy spatial relations visual pattern- following visual discrimination visual figure- ground distinction visual memory visual sequence Components of Visual perception skills

23 Children who have visual perception difficulties may Be unable to identify shades of colour and texture in pictures Confuse shapes and symbols in maths Confuse letters, words and objects that look similar Reverse numbers and letters when writing Have problems with learning sight vocabulary Find simple scanning activities difficult (eg. Word searches, dictionary work, using an index)

24 Have problems with comparative language (Eg. taller than, shorter than, longer than) Have difficulty completing jigsaw puzzles Have problems with copying from the board Prefer to use multisensory strategies when learning Work with small amounts of visual material at a time Predominantly use phonic strategies when reading Children who have visual perception difficulties may

25 Activities to develop visual discrimination skills Sorting – colour, shape, size and texture, move to letters and words Post-a-shape – matching shapes to the correct opening Matching silhouettes – pictorial/ shapes Pairs 1 – matching objects, shapes and pictures Pairs 2 – matching letters, using a choice of only four to six at first. Try to avoid the letters that are easily confused like b, d and p. Introduce those letters gradually Pairs 3 – matching words, using a choice of only four or five at first Odd one out – colour/ shape/ size/ pictorial (apple, orange, banana), then move on to words Spot the difference – visual similarities and differences between two pictures. Then letters &words (bat, but, bat)

26 Activities to develop visual discrimination skills Mix and match – making three-part flip- books where heads, bodies and tails of animals can be interchanged Match the detail – matching a picture of a detail (such as a window) to the picture from which the detail comes such as the house that has that window) Picture-word matching Shape words – matching high frequency words to a shape outline Snap – matching a range of pictorial cards Lotto – matching word to word Dominoes – matching picture to picture or word to word.

27 Activities to develop visual discrimination Words to sentence matching Letter change (eg. cat, cot, cut) Onset change (eg. sent, tent, went) Odd word out – both oral and written (eg. hand, land, lend, stand) Pelmanism 1 – rhyming picture pairs Pelmanism 2 – rhyming word pairs Word searches – using high frequency words or rhyming words or finding topic based words Simple crosswords Puzzles What will happen next? Through pictures Post office corner- Shoe box filled with notes, letters, cards, birthday invitations

28 Audio-visual discrimination To establish association between sounds and pictures/objects/words Activities to enhance audio-visual discrimination Listening games Matching games with pictures and then move on to words Odd one out with beginning sounds – 4cards having the same beginning word and one different- pigeon, potato, apple, parrot Command cards for action words Activity sheets which focus on Beginning sounds, ending sounds Picture housie Word housie Substitution tables

29 Directionality (Left-right/top-down orientation) The skill of working from left to right and top to down direction. Is an important skill required for both reading and writing readiness Activities that aid directionality Book handling- encourage children to quickly go through pages in the right direction Activities with pattern making, sequencing, ordering to be encouraged Children must be encouraged to work from left to right direction Worksheets which focus on working form left to right

30 Writing readiness The skills and understandings necessary for minimum success in completing a writing task. Learning to write is a difficult task. Readiness in writing begins when the child gets a good start in reading and thoroughly enjoys reading.

31 Prerequisites Able to firmly grasp a pencil ( small motor or fine motor skill) Have eye-hand coordination Can follow handwriting "rules" Recognize letters of the alphabet Basic stroke formation in the form of vertical and horizontal lines and circles Can follow verbal instructions Knows spatial and temporal words- above, below, on top of, and between Dominant hand use Good attention span Memory skills to remember the formation Perception skills to visualize what the letter should look like Children should also know the letters in their name and attempt to write them The willingness to try writing and drawing activities

32 Enhanced writing readiness enables the child to Colour or paint within a given shape Trace and copy letters Write letters Copy complex designs from the blackboard Copy letters with the help of cues given Discriminate differences between similar-looking letters and then similar sounding letters Writing another word below the first Interchanging the order of the letters and point out to differences between them

33 Steps and techniques involved in preparing children to write Developing interest and seeing relevance of skill of writing in daily life situation Creating a need to express through writing Developing skills

34 Developing interest and seeing relevance of skill of writing in daily life situation Develop interest in writing This facilitates the childs effort to become literate and with this the learners desire for writing grows How to develop? Posters and pictures of other children and adults writing Illustrated stories/ charts/pictures/words/labels and other visual aids displayed on the walls Bulletin boards - a good medium for fostering interest in the written word and its meaning Informative books Story books with more written content Display childrens written work

35 Writing tools Children need many experiences with tools such as paper, brushes, crayons, pencils to develop abilities not only in handling but also in making refined strokes Papers to write/coloured pencils/markers Pictures and magazines Note pad to scribble on Setting up a small writing corner

36 Seeing writing in meaningful context Recognition of words in day-to- day experiences. It is important because the child sees that writing is useful in her/his day to day experiences Activities Field visits- supermarket/ station/malls where they see the importance of labels and that they tell something Reading their names and names of other children Reading traffic signs/street signs Drawings with dictated stories

37 Creating a need to express through writing Providing a print rich environment Bulletin boards Books Value based stories Chalk and talk stories Stories made by children Post office box List of children and their phone numbers Calendars Greeting cards Invitations or advertisements for a book week

38 Creating a need to express through writing Letter perception Noticing similarities and differences and recognizing the form of letters Provide children with Books and magazines Domino cards Flashcards Various games and activities- Making small words from one big word Collage composed of pictures that begin with the same letters and then move on to words Textured /Feely letters to make words

39 Creating a need to express through writing Basic Strokes Pattern writing in the preprimary is an important prerequisite for writing readiness.

40 Developing skills Small muscle development As the children enter primary school their small muscles are fairly well developed Activities that would further foster small muscle development Jig-saw puzzles All type of creative art work/drawing painting/Clay work Lacing Paper folding Playing a musical instrument

41 Developing skills Visual-motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes & hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns & is required for writing/copying/drawing/pencil- paper tasks It involves visual perception and eye-hand co-ordination High correlation between Visual motor integration and writing readiness/handwriting skills/ coping abilities/reading/mathematical abilities and academic performance

42 Developing skills 90% of learning disabled children have visual motor defects. (Tranopol) Such children have difficulty in doing the fine activities like drawing geometric forms, cutting with scissors, tracing, copying design pasting & coloring. Can provide children with Lacing cards Joining dots Chalkboard board writing Writing in dramatic play (Providing print related props- shopping lists/tickets etc) Completing mazes More time to complete written work, or the task demand is reduced for quality, not quantity. Teaching computer skills is also a good compensatory bypass strategy

43 The teacher Cannot make the child learn until the child herself/himself is not ready to learn Has to make the child receptive to learning Has to cater to differential levels of readiness in teaching a uniform syllabus Has to understand the basic concept of readiness Dont condemn children as being dull and unintelligent Adopting methods of teaching and individualization. This problem can be overcome somewhat, but it is indeed a difficult task for the teacher

44 Summary Reading and writing follow a developmental progression in which graphic forms used convey a meaning. Each progressive stage of learning impacts the next more advanced stage. The ability to read and write depends on the methods we use to teach. If they are consistent with the developmental age, learning is bound to happen. Reading and writing readiness thus, is an important aspect in the teaching-learning process.

45 We are for children!!!! Children are like wet cement, whatever falls on them makes an impression Dr.Haim Ginott

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