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Everything you always wanted to know about gender Sensitization Workshop Handicap International.

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Presentation on theme: "Everything you always wanted to know about gender Sensitization Workshop Handicap International."— Presentation transcript:


2 Everything you always wanted to know about gender Sensitization Workshop Handicap International

3 Workshop Outline 1. Gender definition and concepts 2. Links between gender and disability 3. Why is it interesting to mainstream gender in HI work? 4. Conclusion

4 What is gender? … And how is it different from sex?

5 Sex Biologically determined Universal A temporal Gender Socially-constructed Learned Dynamic and modifiable Culturally conditioned Is multi-faceted

6 © Richard Chapman

7 HI Definition of gender 1. Gender describes social roles and relations between men and women in society 2. Gender changes over time and cultures (ex breastfeeding) 3. Gender refers to all aspects of life (economic, political, social) 4. Gender assigns behaviors and actions that are expected from men and women (cultural representations) 5. Gender assigns women and men position within the family, the community, the nation 6. Gender refers to how power is used and shared 7. Gender is a cross disciplinary category: interaction with other factors (age, disability, ethnicity, religion, social background…)

8 From Sexual Differences to Inequality These social inequalities are constructed on the basis of sex, which the GAD approach seek to take into account. © Le monde selon les femmes, 2002. DIFFERENCESINEQUALITIES WOMANMANWOMANMAN SmallRobustWeakStrong Sharp voice Deep voiceSubmissive voiceAuthoritative voice Limited physical strengthGreat physical strength Fragile, not able to overcome challenges Strong, capable achieving great endeavors

9 Interaction between gender and disability Why it is interesting to mainstream gender when addressing disability

10 Gender shapes the way in which disability is experienced. Women with disabilities are doubly discriminated against. Acknowledge people with disability sexuality (≠ asexual category)

11 The influence of gender on The Disability Creation Process : Catherine Dixon

12 SOCIAL PARTICIPATION According to roles and tasks given to men and women within the community Environmental factors Interaction Personal factors Human development model Intrinsic Including sexe and gender Extrinsic Including gender (RIPPH, 1996)

13 Environmental factors Life habits Interaction Disability Creation Process (RIPPH, 1996) Social participation Disabling situation Personal factors Organic systems Integrity org. impairment Aptitudes capacity funct. impairmentFacilitator Obstacle Risk factors Cause

14 Risk factors Cause « A risk factor is an element belonging to an individual or resulting from the environment that is liable to cause a disease, a trauma or any other form of deterioration in a person’s integrity or development. » Risks factors are sometimes different for men and women.

15 How Sexe and Gender influence Risk factors 1 – Biological risks : sex Eg. disability caused by pregnancy and delivery (18 millions women/year) 2 – Risks related to the physical environment: repartition of tasks within the society (gender) Eg. Mine affected area around water point 3 – Risks related to social organisation : cultural and social practices (gender) Eg :Female genital mutilation, professional risk, domestic accident 4 – Risks related to individual and social behaviour: How individual behave according to what is expected by society. Eg: road accident The main categories:

16 Facteur de risque Cause « A personal factor is a characteristic belonging to a person, such as age, sex, socio-cultural identity (including gender), organic systems, aptitudes, etc. » Personal factors Organic systems Aptitudes Capacity funct.impairmentIntegrity org.impairment Risk factor Cause « An organic system is a group of body components with a shared function. » «An impairment corresponds to the degree of anatomical, histological (structure) or physiological (functioning) deterioration to an organic system. » « An aptitude is the possibility for a person to accomplish a physical or mental activity. » Some aptitudes are also attributed by sex: -giving birth for a women (aptitude related to reproduction) -be strong for a man (aptitude related to resistance and protection)

17 Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle « An environmental factor is a social or physical dimension that determines the organisation and the context of a society. » Gender is an environmental factor that conditions roles and responsibilities of men and women « A facilitator is an environmental factor that promotes the realisation of life habits. » « An obstacle is an environmental factor that reduces the realisation of life habits

18 Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle Some beliefs and cultural perceptions can render women with disabilities ineligible to marriage and motherhood. Stereotypes on gender and disability and some cultural practices (eg. dowry) represent environmental obstacles

19 Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle In some cultural contexts the presence of female health workers facilitate the attendance of rehabilitation centers by women

20 Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle Sexual harassment and gender based violence in school environment hamper disabled girls’ access to school

21 Equal rights ! An efficient law to facilitate insertion of people with disability and which promote gender equality will have a significant impact on how women and men experience their disability. Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle

22 Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle Family can be a major facilitator

23 Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle Family environment is a major factor (overprotection, control, support…) The knowledge of the allocation of tasks, powers and responsibilities within the household between men and women is essential

24 Life habits Social participation Disabling situation « A life habit is an everyday activity or a social role which relates to and is valued by the person or his/her socio-cultural context according to his/her characteristics (age, sex, identity, etc.). It ensures a person’s survival and well-being » Gender conditions women and men’s life habits. Gender keep them in specific roles and tasks (reproductive role, productive role, community role etc..)

25 Examples differ with the cultural contexts Social participation Disabling situation A situation of social participation corresponds to the full realisation of life habits. Some of those habits are conditioned by gender Women: Looking after children Domestic tasks Field labour Supplying in basic goods dancing Men: Working Protecting his family Cattle raising Attending school Exercing sport Life habits

26 The number of women with disabilties is estimated at 300 million worldwide © G.M. B. Akash

27 20 million women become disabled each year after giving birth. Most of them live in developing countries © Francesco Cito

28 Over 100 million young girls and women in Africa have become disabled following genital mutilation © Pep Bonet

29 1 % - That is the literacy rate of women and girls with disabilities worldwide. © Trygve Bolstad

30 Women with disabilities have a higher risk of being victims of violence than men in a similar situation, and three times more risk than women without disabilities. © Jeremy Horner

31 Only ¼ of women with disabilities are estimated to have access to work. They are twice as likely to be unemployed than men with disabilities. © Jenny Matthews

32 In Bangladesh, 2% of women with disabilities get married, compared to 48% of valid women. In some African countries they are considered as non eligible for marriage. © Frederik Naumann

33 Why being gender sensitive? Gender equality : a condition to sustainable development Disadvantage of women with disability should be addressed so that they can benefit from HI activities

34 2- GAD Approach An analytic framework

35 Data generated by GAD analysis Sex-disaggregated data. Understanding of gender relations. Analysis of the differentiated impact of the sexual division of labor. Men and women have differing needs and interests.

36 The Four Stages of GAD Analysis 1. Data collection What is the current state of gender relations? 2. Analysis What are the needs? 3. Actions Who? What? How? 4. Results What changes have been made?

37 Overall Summary © Adapted by Patricia Thomas (2004 )

38 What’s the added value? To plan the activities according to men and women different needs, expectations, interests. Reduce or at least not increase inequalities between men and women in our projects Measure women participation in projects and gender impacts Adopt an thoughtful approach (≠ a donor driven approach) =>Improve the impact of our activities via an equitable benefit for men and women

39 Gender mainstreaming within HI Having gender sensitive projects does not mean creating new tools (maintream gender in existing tools: training, M&E etc.) Strenghtening capacities will be needed at first to facilitate gender mainstreaming (to develop gender sensitive practices)

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