HI Definition of gender 1. Gender describes social roles and relations between men and women in society 2. Gender changes over time and cultures (ex breastfeeding) 3. Gender refers to all aspects of life (economic, political, social) 4. Gender assigns behaviors and actions that are expected from men and women (cultural representations) 5. Gender assigns women and men position within the family, the community, the nation 6. Gender refers to how power is used and shared 7. Gender is a cross disciplinary category: interaction with other factors (age, disability, ethnicity, religion, social background…)
Interaction between gender and disability Why it is interesting to mainstream gender when addressing disability
Gender shapes the way in which disability is experienced. Women with disabilities are doubly discriminated against. Acknowledge people with disability sexuality (≠ asexual category)
The influence of gender on The Disability Creation Process : Catherine Dixon
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION According to roles and tasks given to men and women within the community Environmental factors Interaction Personal factors Human development model Intrinsic Including sexe and gender Extrinsic Including gender (RIPPH, 1996)
Environmental factors Life habits Interaction Disability Creation Process (RIPPH, 1996) Social participation Disabling situation Personal factors Organic systems Integrity org. impairment Aptitudes capacity funct. impairmentFacilitator Obstacle Risk factors Cause
Risk factors Cause « A risk factor is an element belonging to an individual or resulting from the environment that is liable to cause a disease, a trauma or any other form of deterioration in a person’s integrity or development. » Risks factors are sometimes different for men and women.
How Sexe and Gender influence Risk factors 1 – Biological risks : sex Eg. disability caused by pregnancy and delivery (18 millions women/year) 2 – Risks related to the physical environment: repartition of tasks within the society (gender) Eg. Mine affected area around water point 3 – Risks related to social organisation : cultural and social practices (gender) Eg :Female genital mutilation, professional risk, domestic accident 4 – Risks related to individual and social behaviour: How individual behave according to what is expected by society. Eg: road accident The main categories:
Facteur de risque Cause « A personal factor is a characteristic belonging to a person, such as age, sex, socio-cultural identity (including gender), organic systems, aptitudes, etc. » Personal factors Organic systems Aptitudes Capacity funct.impairmentIntegrity org.impairment Risk factor Cause « An organic system is a group of body components with a shared function. » «An impairment corresponds to the degree of anatomical, histological (structure) or physiological (functioning) deterioration to an organic system. » « An aptitude is the possibility for a person to accomplish a physical or mental activity. » Some aptitudes are also attributed by sex: -giving birth for a women (aptitude related to reproduction) -be strong for a man (aptitude related to resistance and protection)
Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle « An environmental factor is a social or physical dimension that determines the organisation and the context of a society. » Gender is an environmental factor that conditions roles and responsibilities of men and women « A facilitator is an environmental factor that promotes the realisation of life habits. » « An obstacle is an environmental factor that reduces the realisation of life habits
Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle Some beliefs and cultural perceptions can render women with disabilities ineligible to marriage and motherhood. Stereotypes on gender and disability and some cultural practices (eg. dowry) represent environmental obstacles
Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle In some cultural contexts the presence of female health workers facilitate the attendance of rehabilitation centers by women
Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle Sexual harassment and gender based violence in school environment hamper disabled girls’ access to school
Equal rights ! An efficient law to facilitate insertion of people with disability and which promote gender equality will have a significant impact on how women and men experience their disability. Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle
Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle Family can be a major facilitator
Environmental factors Facilitator Obstacle Family environment is a major factor (overprotection, control, support…) The knowledge of the allocation of tasks, powers and responsibilities within the household between men and women is essential
Life habits Social participation Disabling situation « A life habit is an everyday activity or a social role which relates to and is valued by the person or his/her socio-cultural context according to his/her characteristics (age, sex, identity, etc.). It ensures a person’s survival and well-being » Gender conditions women and men’s life habits. Gender keep them in specific roles and tasks (reproductive role, productive role, community role etc..)
Examples differ with the cultural contexts Social participation Disabling situation A situation of social participation corresponds to the full realisation of life habits. Some of those habits are conditioned by gender Women: Looking after children Domestic tasks Field labour Supplying in basic goods dancing Men: Working Protecting his family Cattle raising Attending school Exercing sport Life habits
Data generated by GAD analysis Sex-disaggregated data. Understanding of gender relations. Analysis of the differentiated impact of the sexual division of labor. Men and women have differing needs and interests.
The Four Stages of GAD Analysis 1. Data collection What is the current state of gender relations? 2. Analysis What are the needs? 3. Actions Who? What? How? 4. Results What changes have been made?
What’s the added value? To plan the activities according to men and women different needs, expectations, interests. Reduce or at least not increase inequalities between men and women in our projects Measure women participation in projects and gender impacts Adopt an thoughtful approach (≠ a donor driven approach) =>Improve the impact of our activities via an equitable benefit for men and women
Gender mainstreaming within HI Having gender sensitive projects does not mean creating new tools (maintream gender in existing tools: training, M&E etc.) Strenghtening capacities will be needed at first to facilitate gender mainstreaming (to develop gender sensitive practices)