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1 The Mexican Experience with NAFTA University of Texas LBJ School of Public Affairs Francisco J. Alejo Consul General of Mexico October 22, 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Mexican Experience with NAFTA University of Texas LBJ School of Public Affairs Francisco J. Alejo Consul General of Mexico October 22, 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Mexican Experience with NAFTA University of Texas LBJ School of Public Affairs Francisco J. Alejo Consul General of Mexico October 22, 2003

2 2 Contents I.Introduction The Context of NAFTA 1. Accelerated Globalization 2. Mexico/ USA: An Asymmetrical Relationship 3. The Transformations of Mexico II.Mexican Experience with NAFTA 1. Economic Performance, Trade and Investment 2. The Pending Agenda 3. Lessons and Policy Implications 4. Conclusions

3 3 I. Introduction The Context of NAFTA

4 4 I.Highlights of the Globalization 1 1.Along the last several years, until the end of 2001, global trade grew at about three times the rate of OCED economies, surpassing $7 trillion in cross- border movement of goods and services. 2. Foreign direct investment (FDI) grew even faster than international trade and actually surpassed $1 trillion in flows in Based on: Earl H. Fry, “North American Integration. Policy Options”, CSIS, Policy Papers, July 2003

5 5 3.The number of multinational corporations (MNC’s) in the World also expanded dramatically, from 7000 in the 1960’s to roughly 65,000 today. 3.The 65,000 MNC’s control 850,000 affiliates, which employ 54 million workers world wide and were responsible for producing $19 trillion in annual sales in 2001, almost three times the aggregate value of global international trade.

6 6 5. International currency transactions amount to approximately $1.5 trillion per day. Production sharing systems and stock markets constitute a 24 hour phenomena conducted by continuous, computerized automatic systems. 6. In spite of September 11, 2001 events, international tourism returned to record levels in 2002 with 715 million people spending over $460 billion

7 7 7. Immigration and refugee flows are also without parallel, and at least 175 million people currently reside in countries different from their place of birth. 8. The number of transactions through internet-crisscrossing the planet is astronomical and grows at a maddening pace.

8 8 I.2. Mexico/US: An Asymmetrical Relationship 1.The US continental land mass is equivalent to roughly 4.5 times to that of Mexico. The population of the former is almost 2.8 times more than the 100 million Mexicans living in Mexico. 2.The Mexican GDP is equivalent to one sixteenth of the US corresponding GPD. A 6.5% annual growth of the US economy aggregates additional production equivalent to the total Mexican GDP, even though the latter ranks between the 9th and 10th largest in the world.

9 9 3. After almost 10 years of NAFTA, 85% of total Mexican exports are aimed at the US economy and constitute 20% of the country’s GDP. Nearly half of the 3 million new jobs created in Mexico between 1993 and 2000 were export related. In contrast, 37% of total US exports are destined to the NAFTA partners, and contribute with only 4% of the US aggregate GDP and employment. US commitments as a global superpower increasingly spread out all over the planet.

10 10 4. The growing size of the US economy, its global corporations, and the need to keep a large global techno military edge, justifies a gigantic and unbeatable investment in science and technology. 5. In the case of Mexico, in contrast with Canada, there are also very important asymmetries in education, cultural and institutional development.

11 11 6.Of special and paramount importance are the asymmetries in physical and telecommunications infrastructure. 7. It was precisely because of the fundamental role of the asymmetries that the European Community assigned a pivotal role in the achievement of European integration to the special funds for balancing the levels of basic development among the member nations.

12 12 I.3 The Transformations of Mexico 1.Demographic Transformation: from 20 million inhabitants in 1950 to 100 million Settlements transformation: from 80% rural population to 75% urban population in only 60 years. With only one city with more than one million inhabitants to one megalopolis with 18 million inhabitants, two cities with more than 3 million and ten cities with more than one million inhabitants in the year 2000.

13 13 3. Educational Transformation: from more than 70% illiteracy level to more than 90% literacy, to almost 100% coverage by the elementary school system and to almost two thirds coverage by the high-school system in only two generations. 4. Economic Structure Transformation: from a dominantly agricultural and mining rural economy to an essentially industrial and service urban economy in only 30 years from 1950 to 1980.

14 14 5. Trading Transformation: from a tightly closed economy, with more than 90% of the importation code subject to “previous specific permit” by the government and an average customs tariff of more than 80% by 1982 to less than 5% of the code subject to previous prermission and maximun customs tariff of 20% and a weighted average tariff of less than 10% by After signing free trade agreements with Chile and the United States in the early 90’s, Mexico has signed such treaties with more than 30 countries. No other country has signed so many.

15 15 6. Public/Private sectors roles Transformation: from an economy tightly controlled and dominated by the public sector (the public sector expenditure represented 48% of the GDP in 1982 and there were more the 1200 corporations fully or mostly owned by the federal government) to a highly decentralized economy with only a bundle of state owned corporations and public sector expenditures representing a maximum of 22% of GDP. The process of deregulation has encompassed almost all sectors of economic activity.

16 16 7. Democratic Transformation: from a highly centralized and one hegemonic party system that lasted for more than half a century to a multiparty, highly reliable and competitive political system in only 22 years. This comprised new legislation for political parties in 1978, new polling legislation in 1978, 1987 and 1995; a judiciary system for dealing with post polling disputes in 1995 and 1998; a massive transfer of financial resources from federal to state and local governments took place between 1995 and 2002; a new legislation on transparency and accessibility to public records and information as an indisputable right for citizens and the media.

17 17 8. Human Rights Transformation: constitutional reforms and new legislation allowed for a new autonomous regime for the 10 million members of the indian communities of the country and the establishment of a fully independent national commission as a watchdog for human rights plus the subscription to the Inter-American and United Nations Human Rights treaties.

18 18 II. The Mexican Experience with NAFTA 2 2/ Based on: Aldo Flores Quiroga, “The North American Free Trade Agreement…”, Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Mexico, Agosto, 2003.

19 19 1. Substantial increase in trade and investment, with a positive impact on economic growth and job creation 2. Lower vulnerability to foreign shocks, except for those that have originated in the US economy. 3. Productivity increases associated with technology transfers 4. Stable and credible legal framework for the solution of trade controversies Four favorable outcomes for Mexico stand out during NAFTA’s first 10 years

20 20 1. Integration of productive chains 2. Expand physical, financial, and informational infrastructure, especially at the borders 3. Create compensation funds to promote regionally balanced growth 4. Improve existing mechanisms for conflict resolution 5. Develop intelligent borders for the flow of goods, services, knowledge and people Much more, however, needs to be done:

21 21 Contents I. Economic performance, trade and investment II. The pending agenda III. Lessons and policy implications IV. Conclusions

22 22 A. Macroeconomic convergence 1. Inflation rates 2. Interest rates 3. Exchange rate 4. Country risk 5. Production

23 23 Mexican inflation is converging toward the US and Canadian rates… Annual inflation rates, Mexico, United States and Canada Source: INEGI 4.3% Mexico United States 2.1% Canada 2.6%

24 24 …gradually contributing to interest-rate convergence between Mexico and the United States Interest rates, Mexico and United States (One month certificated deposits) Source: INEGI 5.18% Mexico United States 1.22%

25 25 The Mexican peso has weakened but its volatility is relatively low Interbank Foreign Exchange Rate (MXP/USD) Source: Banco de México Average daily volatility in the foreign exchange market (% daily apreciation or depreciation) Source: SRE with Banxico´s data

26 26 Country risk has differentiated from other Latin American markets Country risk (Emerging Markets Bond Index EMBI+, JP Morgan) Source: JP Morgan Latin America EMBI+ Mexico

27 27 Mexico’s GDP performance is closely associated with variations in US GDP Quarterly GDP, Mexico* and USA** (seasonally adjusted series) Source: INEGI Mexico (left scale) United States (right scale) * Billions of pesos of 1993 ** Billions of dollars of 1996 Correlation coefficient: 97%

28 28 This close correlation is due to the deepening integration of US and Mexican industrial sectors Industrial production (annual % variation, three month moving average) Source: INEGI Canada USA Mexico Correlation coefficient: 97.2%

29 29 B. Trade and investment 1. Trajectory and reallocation of trade flows in the North American area 2. Mexican participation in the US market 3. Long and short term capital flows into Mexico

30 30 United States Source: INEGI Performance Period% var Total trade (MD) Period Level , , , ,360.5 Seventy-six percent of Mexico’s total trade is oriented toward the United States Africa and the Middle East Eastern Europe Western Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Asia Canada

31 31 Exports shipped to United States represent 90% of the Mexico’s total sales abroad Source: INEGI United States Mexican total exports (MD) Period Level , , , ,682 Performance Period% var Africa and the Middle East Eastern Europe Western Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Asia Canada

32 32 Sixty three percent of the Mexican imports come from the United States Western Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Asia Canada Eastern Europe Africa and the Middle East United States Performance Period% var Mexican total imports (MD) Period Level , , , ,678.7 Source: INEGI

33 33 Since 1994 Mexican exports have expanded notably and are more concentrated in the manufacturing sector Total Mexican exports (billions of dollars of 2002) Source: SRE with INEGI data NAFTA GATT Accession $ % 9% 67% 20% $32.6 Growth : 149% Growth : 80%

34 34 Imports have also increased, driven primarily by the demand of intermediate goods Total Mexican imports (billions of dollars of 2002) Source: SRE with INEGI data NAFTA GATT Accession $ % 12% 61% 27% $40.7 Growth : 107% Growth : 237%

35 35 Intra-regional trade (billions of dollars) NAFTA has thus produced a significant trade expansion for the US, Mexico and Canada Source: SRE with USDOC, Statistics Canada and INEGI data North American trade integration : 1. Trilateral trade increased 109% 2. Mexico’s participation in intra-regional increased from 15% to 20% 3. Last year’s trade decline is due to the sluggish performance of the US economy

36 36 Mexico is the second trade partner of the United States... Main US trade partners (total trade, billons of dollars) Source: Ministry of the Economy with USDOC data Participation of Mexican products in the US market (%) NAFTA start date

37 37 …and it is the second largest export market for the US US exports (billions of dollars) Source: Ministry of the Economy with USDOC data

38 38 United States is the main investor in Mexico * Excludes the Banamex-Citigroup transaction Source: Ministry of the Economy Foreign Direct Investment (billions of dollars, cumulative : bd )

39 39 C. NAFTA’s impact by sector 1. Agriculture 2. Manufacturing

40 40 Reciprocal tariff eliminations helped Mexican exporters increase their participation in the US market… * Includes the January-October Mexican agricultural exports to the United States Product Millions of dollars TCPA * Berries % Beans (dehydrated) % Tamarind % Avocado % Vegetable (mix) % Papaya % Mango % Oranges % Turnip % Leek % Product Millions of dollars TCPA * Broccoli % Pineapple % Esqueje % Corn (sweet) % Pepper % Fresh Flowers % Artichokes % Cabbage % Chickpea % Spinach % Source: Ministry of the Economy

41 41 …placing them among the main suppliers of a diverse set of goods in the US market * January-October Mexican agricultural goods in the US market Product Participation in the US market * Avocado Garlic Onion Chickpea Corn (sweet) Mango Turnip (fresh) Okras Papaya Pepper Tomato Carrot Source: Ministry of the Economy with USDOC data

42 42 NAFTA has benefited Mexican consumers by fostering competition among suppliers, thereby lowering the prices of many goods Prices of staples in the average Mexican diet has declined Product Relative prices change (%) Pineapple6.4 Lettuce-0.5 Chickpea-8.5 Grape-11.0 Garlic-14.8 Carrot-15.1 Papaya-16.4 Melon-20.4 Mango-21.5 Corn (sweet)-25.0 Tomato-34.0 Onion-34.8 Oranges-36.4 Grapefruit-41.5 Source: Ministry of the Economy

43 43 Mexico’s manufacturing sector has also been a beneficiary of NAFTA, through greater exports and lower consumer prices Exports to the USA and Canada of manufactured products Products TCPA Electrical and electronic devices, machinery and equipment 22.3% Textiles and cloths 21.2% Auto-motors 21.0% Auto-parts 12.8% Steel Industry 12.4% Products Relative price change* Electrical devices -14.9% Electronic devices -19.9% Automotives -16.0% Auto-parts -3.3% Real price change of manufactured products Source: Ministry of the Economy Positive export performance due to NAFTA Real price decrease

44 44 NAFTA success stories Output in sectors with significant backward and forward linkages has increased Sector Annual exports (million dollars) Mexican total exports (share, %) Jobs created since NAFTA Market share in USA (%) Automotive sector33,00021%200,00015% Electrical and electronic sector 56,00036%351,00019% Textile and cloths sector 11,0007%500, % Source: Ministry of the Economy

45 45 D. Effectiveness of Mexico’s free trade agreements 1. Evolution of Mexican exports 2. Performance of Mexican imports

46 46 Mexican exports to the United States, Costa Rica and the G3 have increased notably since the launching of the respective FTAs… Source: DGREB con datos de INEGI Exports (Index based on real exports, constant dollars of 1990, semiannual moving average) EUA Costa Rica G3 Canadá Time to double sales Country Months Costa Rica 15 USA33 G35 Chile38 Canadan.d.* * Not duplicated Time to triple sales Country Months Costa Rica 41 USA76 G374 Chile39 Canadan.t.* * Not tripled Chile Number of months after FTA

47 47 Source: DGREB con datos de INEGI Unión Europea Nicaragua Bolivia Uruguay …but exports to Bolivia and Nicaragua, with whom Mexico also has FTAs, have not grown significantly Time to double sales Country Months Bolivia19 Nicaragua23 E.U.n.d. Northern Triangle n.d. Uruguayn.d. * Not doubled Triángulo del Norte Exports (Index based on real exports, constant dollars of 1990, semiannual moving average) Number of months after FTA

48 48 The FTAs with Chile and Costa Rica have generated a substantial increase in Mexican imports from them… Source: DGREB con datos de INEGI Costa Rica Time to doubled purchases Country Months Costa Rica 6 Chile11 Time to triple purchases Country Months Costa Rica 12 Chile14 Chile Imports (Index based on real imports, constant dollars of 1990, semiannual moving average) Number of months after FTA

49 49 …just like the FTAs with the United States, Canada, Venezuela, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador Source: DGREB con datos de INEGI EUA Nicaragua G3 Canadá Time to double purchases Country Months Nicaragua13 Canadá69 G379 USA65 Uruguayn.d. Time to triple purchases Country Months Nicaragua13 Canadán.t. G3n.t. USAn.t. Uruguayn.t. Uruguay TN Imports (Index based on real imports, constant dollars of 1990, semiannual moving average) Number of months after FTA

50 50 The trend in imports from Bolivia and Israel, however, has not changed with the FTAs Source: DGREB con datos de INEGI UE Bolivia Time for a 50% increase Country Months Northern Triangle 2 E.U.N.A. BoliviaN.A. IsraelN.A. * Not reached Time to double purchases Country Months Northern Triangle n.d. E.U.n.d. Bolivian.d. Israeln.d. * Not doubled Israel Imports (Index based on real imports, constant dollars of 1990, semiannual moving average) Number of months after FTA

51 51 Contents II. The pending agenda III. Lessons and policy implications IV. Conclusions I. Economic performance, trade and investment

52 52 A. Low domestic-content integration of Mexican products 1. Relevance of the in-bond sector for manufacturing exports 2. Low domestic-content of goods produced in in-bond plants

53 53 The in-bond industry generates more than 50% of manufacturing exports… Source: SRE with INEGI data Mexican exports of manufactured goods (constant billion dollars of 2000) % 45.5% 49.9% 50.1% 145

54 54 …but it uses very few domestic components… Source: SRE with INEGI data In-bond industry inputs (billions of pesos of 2002) % 3.7% 533

55 55 Contents II. The pending agenda III. Lessons and policy implications IV. Conclusions I. Economic performance, trade and investment

56 56 1. Mexico’s unilateral trade liberalization that took place during the late 1980’s was too fast, too abrupt and without being accompanied with appropriate promotional and supporting policies as well as the necessary sequencing of such policies as to avoid excessive destruction of productive industrial chains and linkages as in effect happened. 2. By the time the NAFTA was enacted, beginning in 1994, a large proportion of previously existing productive chains in the country’s manufacturing industry had been obliterated by foreign competition. Lessons

57 57 3. Free trade cannot address every development problem -it is just one instrument among many in the policymaker’s tool kit 4.Productivity increased by time requires continuous technological innovation and expansion of human capital 5.Export promotion alone does not guarantee the integration of productive chains

58 58 1. Implement domestic policies to redistribute incomes between the north and the south of the country, which implies the reduction of differences in productivity levels. 2. Consider the establishment of cross-border, social-cohesion funds to help balance the development process and provide adjustment assistance: the leveling out of availability and quality of physical and telecommunications infrastructure, a drastic reduction in the “digital divide”, and the expansion and spreading of human capital. Implications: A few examples

59 59 3.Create an environment that favors continuous productivity increases a. Invest more in education and training b. Improve production processes c. Modernize physical and financial infrastructure d. Promote technology transfers 4.Seriously consider the possibility of “NAFTA plus” with structural adjustment assistance funds, a customs union, a common market including labor or even EU-style arrangements.

60 60 Contents II. The pending agenda III. Lessons and implications IV. Conclusions I. Economic performance, trade and investment

61 61 1. Free trade has yet to benefit the Mexican south and that is essentially dependent on appropriate development policies adopted by Mexico and development assistance provided by the other NAFTA partners. 2. Existing dispute settlement procedures have been insufficient to address notable trade controversies (cross-border transportation, agriculture), hence it is necessary to consider the creation of a North American Commission, a permanent North American Court on Trade and Investment that replaces the current NAFTA panels, and possibly even a North American Parliamentary Group. Conclusions - The bad

62 62 3. The absence of adjustment assistance funds slows down the process of factor reallocation and trade integration and the overall growth potential of the region. 4. Mexico’s growth has become excessively dependent on the dynamics of the US economy. It has to rely more on its own domestic and third international markets and keep in tune with the US economy’s pace of technological change.

63 63 1. NAFTA provides a stable legal framework for the expansion of trade and investment a. Significant increase in Mexican trade and benefits for the three parties involved. b. Significant increase in FDI flows c. Greater competitiveness of the manufacturing sector 2. NAFTA has helped to spur growth and job creation in Mexico 3. Mexico’s trade negotiating stance in world markets has improved because of NAFTA Conclusions - The good


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