Presentation on theme: "UNIT 8 THE WORLD AT WAR SSWH16 The student will demonstrate an understanding of long-term causes of World War I and its global impact. a. Identify the."— Presentation transcript:
1UNIT 8 THE WORLD AT WARSSWH16 The student will demonstrate an understanding of long-term causes of World War I and its global impact.a. Identify the causes of the war; include Balkan nationalism, entangling alliances, and militarism.b. Describe conditions on the war front for soldiers; include the Battle of Verdun.c. Explain the major decisions made in the Versailles Treaty; include German reparations and the mandate system that replaced Ottoman control.d. Analyze the destabilization of Europe in the collapse of the great empires; include the Romanov and Hapsburg dynasties.
4WORLD WAR I World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe 1914 – 1918AKA , Great Warinvolved all the world's great powerstwo opposing alliances1. the Allies (formerly the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia)2. the Central Powers (formerly Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and ItalyThese alliances were both reorganized and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria the Central Powers
5CAUSE OF WORLD WAR I M A I N MILITARISM ALLIANCES IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM
6MILITARISM WHAT IS MILITARISM? BUILDING UP ALL PARTS OF MILITARY COMPETITION BETWEEN GREAT POWERS
7ALLIANCES ALLIED POWERS V. CENTRAL POWERS UK, FR, RU V. GER, AU-HUN, BUL, OERECALL, ITALY SWITCHED SIDES
8TRIPLE ENTENTELATER, ALLIED POWERSUNITED KINGDOM, GBFRANCERUSSIA (RUSSIAN EMPIRE)SERBIAJAPANUNITED STATESITALYTRIPLE ALLIANCELATER, CENTRAL POWERSGERMANYAUSTRIA-HUNGARYITALYOTTOMAN EMPIREBULGARIA(ALL EMPIRES, SOME EXCEPTIONS, ITALY SWITCHED PRIOR TO OUTBREAK OF WAR)
9IMPERIALISMGREAT POWERS SET UP COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA FOR RESOURCES AND DOMINANCE.WEALTH, DOMINANCE RESULTED IN LARGER MILITARIESALL THE “MAIN”S ARE CONNECTED.
10NATIONALISMLOYALITY TO ONE’S COUNTRY, NATION; DEVOTION TO HISTORY, CULTURE, LAND, ETHNICITYBALKAN NATIONALISM
11Geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe Many linguistic families meet in the region, including the Slavic, Romance, Hellenic, Albanian, and Turkic language familiesThe main religion is Orthodox Christianity, followed by Catholic Christianity and Sunni Islam
12Balkanizationdescribes the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other
13IMMEDIATE CAUSE:ASSASSINATION OF ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND, HEIR TO THE THRONE OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARYBY WHOM? GAVRILO PRINCIP, FROM SERBIA; HE WAS A SERBIAN TERRORIST AND MEMBER OF THE BLACK HANDBLACK HAND SUPPORTED A “GREATER SERBIA” AND EXPANSION OF A LARGER SLAVIC STATE
14THE BATTLE FRONT Trench warfare begins (1914–1915) STALEMATE!!! Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advancesArtillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground extremely difficultThe Germans were the first to use lethal poison gas on a large scale; it soon became used by both sides, though it never proved decisive in winning a battle. Its effects were brutal, causing slow and painful death, and poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the warCommanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaching entrenched positions without heavy casualties. In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as the tankThe Battle of Verdun, 1916, one of the major battles during the First World War on the Western FrontFrench victory
15According to contemporary estimates, Verdun resulted in 714,231 casualties, 377,231 on the French side and 337,000 on the German one, an average of 70,000 casualties for each of the ten months of the battleIt was the longest and one of the most devastating battles in the First World War and the history of warfare. Modern estimates increase the number of casualties to 976,000. In any case most of these casualties had been inflicted upon both sides by artillery rather than by small arms fire.
16THE END OF THE WAR THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES SETTLED BY THE “BIG 4” (IT, USA, FR, UK)one of the peace treaties at the end of World War Iended the state of war between Germany and the Allied PowersSIGNED 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
17The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties PARIS PEACE CONFERENCEmost important and controversial required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the warSEE HANDOUTS FOR HIGHLIGHTS AND RESULTS OF TREATY
18IMPORTANT PART OF TREATY OF VERSAILLES MANDATE SYSTEMmandate, an authorization granted by the League of Nations to a member nation to govern a former German or Turkish colony. The territory was called a mandated territory, or mandate
19Following the defeat of Germany and Ottoman Turkey in World War I, their Asian and African possessions were distributed among the victorious Allied powers under the authority of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations(League of Nations, an organization for international cooperation established at the initiative of the victorious Allied Powers at the end of World War I [LIKE THE UNITED NATIONS OF TODAY])
20MANDATES THREE MANDATES Class A- Consisted of the former Turkish provinces of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine, FOR GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCEClass B-Consisted of the former German-ruled African colonies, FOR GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUMClass C- consisted of various former German-held territories in Africa, south, and the Pacific, FOR SOUTH AFRICA, GREAT BRITAIN, NEW ZEALAND, AUSTRALIA, AND JAPAN
21RESULTS OF WORLD WAR I SEE HANDOUT. IMPORTANT!!!! 1)FALL OF EMPIRES AND DYNASTIESGERMAN EMPIRE (HOHENZOLLERN)RUSSIAN EMPIRE (ROMANOV)AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN (HAPSBURG)2)INSTABILITY OF EUROPE3)MAP OF EUROPE CHANGES