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UMR8135 CNRS INaLCO Centre André-Georges Haudricourt 7 rue Guy Môquet 94801 Villejuif Cedex - France Mark.

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Presentation on theme: "UMR8135 CNRS INaLCO Centre André-Georges Haudricourt 7 rue Guy Môquet 94801 Villejuif Cedex - France Mark."— Presentation transcript:

1 UMR8135 CNRS INaLCO Centre André-Georges Haudricourt 7 rue Guy Môquet Villejuif Cedex - France Mark Van de Velde LLACAN - C.N.R.S. (Paris) WOCAL 7 – BUEA THE ORIGIN AND SPREAD OF POSSESSEE- LIKE QUALIFIERS IN CENTRAL AFRICA.

2 1. INTRODUCTION: POSSESSEE-LIKE QUALIFIERS In a number of central African languages attributive NPs have the form of genitive constructions headed by the qualifier, i.e. the qualifier is construed as a possessee.

3 1. INTRODUCTION: POSSESSEE-LIKE QUALIFIERS (1)Basaa (Bantu; Hyman 2003) a.lì-wándálí=kíŋ ɛ̂ 5-friend V. GEN =chief ‘the friend of the chief’ b.lì-k ɛ ́ŋg ɛ lí=m-u ̂ t 5-clever V. GEN =1-person ‘a clever person’ c.mà-k ɛ ́ŋg ɛ má= ɓ -o ̂ t 6-clever VI. GEN =2-persons ‘clever people’

4 1. INTRODUCTION: POSSESSEE-LIKE QUALIFIERS PLAC but not DRNA (2) Makwe (Benue-Congo, Bantu; Mozambique; Maud Devos 2008: 136) muú-nuw-á=ki-búúli 1-person I - GEN =7-silent ‘a silent person’ (literally: ‘person of silent’) (3) Zaar (Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West B3; Nigeria; Bernard Caron 2005: 227) la ̂ tkə́mu ̄ː ri ̄ skin GEN new ‘a new skin’ (literally: ‘skin of new’)

5 1. INTRODUCTION: POSSESSEE-LIKE QUALIFIERS Sometimes compared to: expressive binominal NPs (EBNPs) (Ad Foolen 2004) (4) Shingazidja (Benue-Congo, Bantu; Grande Comore; Michel Lafon 1997: 161) a.trombel-a=m-ndru [5]avorted_seed V - GEN =1-person ‘a dead loss’ b.dji-ndrul-a=meza 5-giant V - GEN =table ‘a huge table’

6 2. EXAMPLES FROM BENUE-CONGO LANGUAGES Eton (Bantu A70; Cameroon; Mark Van de Velde 2008)

7 2. EXAMPLES FROM BENUE-CONGO LANGUAGES Eton (Bantu A70; Cameroon; Mark Van de Velde 2008) (5) ɛ ̀bèŋ ɛ ́ lôŋ ɛ ̀-b ɛ ̀ŋ ɛ ́=lòŋ 5-beauty V. GEN =[5]hair ‘beautiful hair’ (6)ìŋgúŋgwál í mo ̂ d ì-ŋgúŋgwálí=m-òd 7-miserable VII. GEN =1-person ‘a miserable person’

8 2. EXAMPLES FROM BENUE-CONGO LANGUAGES (7)a.ìvèv ɛ ̀z ḿpég íté kù ì-və̀v ɛ ̀z H = ɴ ̀-p ɛ ́gí- L t ɛ L -kù 7-light VII. GEN =3-bag VII. PRINF -fall ‘The light bag falls.’ b.mèté y ɛ ́n y ɔ̂ mə̀- L t ɛ L -j ɛ ́nj- ɔ̋ 1 SG - PRINF -see VII - PRO ‘I see it.’

9 3. EXAMPLES FROM UBANGIAN LANGUAGES 3.1. Gbaya (CAR; Paulette Roulon-Doko 1987, 2008, p.c.)

10 3. EXAMPLES FROM UBANGIAN LANGUAGES 3.1. Gbaya (CAR; Paulette Roulon-Doko 1987, 2008, p.c.) Two genitival constructions (- H and k ɔ ), with different semantics. (8)gbã̀ ʔ ã́ f ɔ ̀ gbã̀ ʔ ã̀- H f ɔ ̀ old- REL field ‘an old field (waste land)’ (9)gásá tùà gásí-á(- H )tùà be.big- ADJ -( REL )house ‘a big house’

11 3. EXAMPLES FROM UBANGIAN LANGUAGES (10)bàfá ndàè bàfà- H ndàè male- REL cow ‘a bull’ (11)wèé yì wèè- H yì fire- REL water ‘hot water’

12 3. EXAMPLES FROM UBANGIAN LANGUAGES (12)gásáà gásí-á- H -à be.big- ADJ - REL -3 SG. POSS. INAN ‘the big one’ (lit. ‘its being big’)

13 3. EXAMPLES FROM UBANGIAN LANGUAGES (9)gásá tùà gásí-á(- H )tùà be.big- ADJ -( REL )house ‘a big house’ (13)gàsìk ɔ tùà bigness REL house ‘the bigness of the house’

14 4. EXAMPLES FROM CHADIC LANGUAGES Hausa (West Chadic; Nigeria)

15 4. EXAMPLES FROM CHADIC LANGUAGES (14)kàaká-anyáaròo grandfather- LK. MS boy[ MS ] ‘the boy’s grandfather’ (15)rìigáafár-áa gown[ FS ]white- FS ‘white gown’

16 4. EXAMPLES FROM CHADIC LANGUAGES (16)a.fár-á-rrìigáa white- FS - LK. FS gown[ FS ] ‘white gown’ b.fár-i-nzánèè white- MS - LK. MS cloth[ MS ] ‘white cloth’

17 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

18 The geographical distribution combined with the typological rarity clearly point to a contact phenomenon But given the important typological variation between instances of this construction type in the languages of Central Africa: Which feature spread? An abstract constructional scheme: use the same strategy for expressing possessees and qualities.

19 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS 3.2. Zande (DRCongo; Raymond Boyd 1987, ms.)

20 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS 3.2. Zande (DRCongo; Raymond Boyd 1987, ms.) (25)me ̄ me ̄ nya ̄ boneanimal ‘The bone of an animal’ (26)gàgbíákúmbá GEN chiefman ‘the chief’s man’

21 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS (27)pàràngákúmbá youngman ‘a boy’

22 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS (30)a.gba ̄ nga ̄ ngu ̄ à ́na ̄ àgu ̄ ru ̄ ngu ̄ à longtreewithshorttree ‘the long stick and the short stick’ b.gba ̄ nga ̄ ngu ̄ a ̌ na ̄ àgu ̄ ru ̄ hé longtreewithshort3 SG. INAN. POSS ‘the long stick and the short one’

23 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS (31)a.fu ̧ ̀àbòro ̌ wàfu ̧ ̀àángóté trackpersonliketrackdog NEG ‘A person’s track is not like a dog’s track.’ b.fu ̧ ̀àbòro ̌ wàgàángóté trackpersonlike GEN dog NEG ‘A person’s track is not like a dog’s.’

24 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS (32)a.gbi ̄ nzàkúmbáwàgbi ̄ nzàde ̄ ́té oldmanlikeoldwoman NEG ‘An old man is not like an old woman.’ b.gbi ̄ nzàkúmbáwàgàde ̄ ́té oldmanlike GEN woman NEG ‘Old men and women are not the same.’

25 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Kwakum (Bantu A93; Cameroon; Belliard 2006) (33)a.páámyá ʃ í good3-voice ‘a beautiful voice’ b.ngúmbàk ɔ̂ ndù entire3-month ‘an entire month’

26 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS “La grande majorité des qualificatifs est dérivée de thèmes nominaux ou verbaux au moyen d’une finale –áàw ɛ ̀” (34)a.càláàw ɛ ̀ ‘fast, sharp’ < cál ‘speed’ ɟ òmáàw ɛ ̀ ‘dry’ < ɟ ómó ‘to dry’ b.ì-d ɛ ́l ɔ ́ bùláàw ɛ ̀ 8-clothes many ‘many clothes’

27 6. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS A TENTATIVE SCENARIO The DRNA pattern originates in the Ubangian languages. In Gbaya, for instance, the majority of qualifiers are relational nouns derived from verbs. DRNA constructions are structurally identical to Action Nominal Constructions. This analysis does not (or rarely) work in non- Ubangian “DRNA languages” in the area. DRNA must have been borrowed from Ubangian in these languages.


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