Presentation on theme: "PERSPECTIVE: Outline of Topics"— Presentation transcript:
1PERSPECTIVE: Outline of Topics Definition of perspectiveEmpirical linear perspective: DuccioOne-point perspective: Railroad track; Alberti diagramOne-point perspective: Masaccio’s Trinity; other Renaissance examplesVenetian box perspectiveAtmospheric perspective
2Definition of PERSPECTIVE: Any systematic technique that creates an illusion of depthon a two-dimensional surface.Techniques could include the use of:- receding lines (as in linear perspective)- changes in color- changes in clarity(as in atmospheric perspective)
3Empirical Linear Perspective DUCCIO, Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, from the Maestaaltarpiece,
4Empirical Linear Perspective DUCCIO, Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, from the Maestaaltarpiece,
51-point Linear Perspective: parallel lines appearing to converge in distance
61-point Linear Perspective: parallel lines appearing to converge in distance
7Video of MARC train (courtesy of Catherine Hays, EMC) Point out how the train recedes in size as it moves into thedistance (video will stop with train partially down the tracks;can then see receding tracks).
8Alberti on One-point Linear Perspective Alberti was the first to publish a theory of one-point linear perspective (in his Della pittura, 1435).The basis for his grid was the figure of an ideal man, divided into 3 equal sections (blue arrows on diagram). This measurement was used to establish the divisions of the grid beginning at the front edge of the picture plane (Alberti refers to the picture plane as a window, hence the “frame” around the diagram).The parallel lines established by this grid would then converge according to this system at the horizon line, and at a single point - the vanishing point.(This is greatly simplified from Alberti’s text; see his text for further details.)**User’s note: you can click on the horizon line, vanishing point, and orthogonals, and a slide will appear showing that term.(Original diagram from S. Edgerton, The Renaissance Rediscovery of Linear Perspective, 1975, p.45; variationcreated by Julie Dabbs.
9Sta. Maria Novella, Florence Masaccio’s Trinity fresco is one of the earliest extant examples of the use of one-point perspective.Masaccio was friends with the architect Brunelleschi, who isbelieved to have first formulated a theory of one-point perspective c.1413, and thus may have learned the technique from him.Art historians have also speculated that Brunelleschi himself designed the fictive architectural setting of the fresco.(Photo credit: Alison Cole, Perspective, Dorling Kindersley, 1992, 14)Masaccio, The Trinity, c.1425Sta. Maria Novella, Florence
13Photo: Masaccio’s Trinity live! (Sta. Maria Novella, Florence)Notice how the spectators have automatically converged at the vanishing point of the fresco’s orthogonals.(Photo credit: Julie Dabbs)
14Donatello, The Feast of Herod, c.1425 Donatello’s relief of the Feast of Herod is one of the earliest examples of linear perspective in relief sculpture;as the next slide demonstrates, though, his orthogonals don’t quite converge at a single point.Nevertheless, it still helps to create a sense of recession into depth, and effectively carves out a shallow “stage-space” in the foreground.Donatello, The Feast of Herod, c.1425
16Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, c.1495-98 Milan, Sta. Maria della Grazie
17Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, c.1495-98 Milan, Sta. Maria della Grazie
18Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510-11 Vatican Palace, Stanza della Segnatura
19Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510-11 Vatican Palace, Stanza della Segnatura
20Venetian Box Perspective Titian, Venus of Urbino, c.1535
21Venetian Box Perspective This diagram and the subsequent images demonstrate howTitian created a sense of depth by having a rectangular area within the picture space that is lighter in overall value, as ifone were looking through another window within the picture space “window.”The use of these different planes create a seemingly more natural recession into the picture space than the use of one-point perspective.(Ask Dr. Colantuono for further explanation if this is unclear!)Titian, Venus of Urbino, c.1535
25Alberti on One-point Linear Perspective Horizon line
26Alberti on One-point Linear Perspective Vanishing point
27Alberti on One-point Linear Perspective Orthogonals
28Vanishing point Horizon line Orthogonals Alberti on One-point Linear PerspectiveVanishing pointHorizon lineOrthogonals
29Atmospheric Perspective Photo of Lake Como, Italy (credit: Julie Dabbs)A real-life example of atmospheric perspective: shows howcolors become more desaturated and hazier as one looks into the distance (due to intervening atmosphere).
30Atmospheric Perspective (in addition to 1 - pt. Perspective) Perugino, Christ Delivering the Keys to St. Peter, c.1481Sistine Chapel, Vatican
31Atmospheric Perspective (in addition to 1 - pt. Perspective) Perugino, Christ Delivering the Keys to St. Peter, c.1481Sistine Chapel, Vatican
32Detail of Perugino: close-up of middle-ground and background Detail of Perugino: close-up of middle-ground and background. Point out the mountains on the left-hand side, which like the earlier photograph, show the effects ofatmospheric perspective to give an even greater sense ofrecession into depth.