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How to achieve the RIGOR expected in the CCSS AAEA Susan A Gendron Senior Fellow International Center for Leadership in Education September 26, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "How to achieve the RIGOR expected in the CCSS AAEA Susan A Gendron Senior Fellow International Center for Leadership in Education September 26, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to achieve the RIGOR expected in the CCSS AAEA Susan A Gendron Senior Fellow International Center for Leadership in Education September 26, 2012

2 Rigor/Relevance For All Students 2 AB DC

3 1.Awareness 2.Comprehension 3.Application 4.Analysis 5.Synthesis 6.Evaluation Knowledge Taxonomy Knowledge Taxonomy 3

4 Application Model 1. Knowledge in one discipline 2. Application within one discipline 3. Application across disciplines 4. Application to real-world predictable situations 5. Application to real-world unpredictable situations 4

5 Action/Application Thinking /Knowledge Rigor/Relevance Framework Relevance Rigor

6 Levels CDCDABABCDCDABAB Blooms Application 6 Knowledge

7 Awareness 1 Comprehension 2 Application 3 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline A Acquisition Students gather and store bits of knowledge/information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge. Low-level Knowledge 7

8 A Quadrant name label define select identify list memorize recite locate record definition worksheet list quiz test workbook true-false reproduction recitation Verbs Products 8

9 Awareness 1 Comprehension 2 Application 3 B Application 3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply to real-world predictable situation 5 Apply to real-world unpredictable situation Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. Low-level Application 9

10 B Quadrant apply sequence demonstrate interview construct solve calculate dramatize interpret illustrate scrapbook summary interpretation collection annotation explanation solution demonstration outline Verbs Products 10

11 Application 3 Analysis 4 Synthesis 5 Evaluation 6 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline C Assimilation Students extend and refine their knowledge so that they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions. High-level Knowledge 11

12 C Quadrant sequence annotate examine report criticize paraphrase calculate expand summarize classify diagram Verbs Products essay abstract blueprint inventory report plan chart questionnaire classification diagram discussion collection annotation 12

13 3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply to real-world predictable situation 5 Apply to real-world unpredictable situation Application 3 Analysis 4 Synthesis 5 Evaluation 6 D Adaptation Students think in complex ways and apply acquired knowledge and skills, even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, to find creative solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge. High-level Application 13

14 D Quadrant evaluate validate justify rate referee infer rank dramatize argue conclude evaluation newspaper estimation trial editorial radio program play collage machine adaptation poem debate new game invention VerbsProducts 14

15 15 14 RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE AB D C Rigor/Relevance Framework Routine Memorization Four Quadrants of Learning Complex Analytical Challenging Real World Practical Hands On High Low Acquisition A Application B Adaptation D Assimilation C

16 16 Rigor/Relevance Framework History - High School 18 RI G O R RELEVANCE A B D C High Low Identify nations involved and reasons for WWII Analyze original documents and summarize reasons for US opposition to entering WWII Summarize global impacts of WWII and project impacts of Iraq war Interview local WWII veterans and describe impacts from their perspective.

17 International Center for Leadership in Education AUse color counters to solve simple computational problems BSort quantities to discover fractions of the whole CFind values in number sentences when represented by unknowns DDevelop formula for determining a large quantity without counting, such as beans in a jar. Domain: Operational Thinking for Algebra R/R Quadrant Student Performance Example Multiple Performances for Single Standard Math – K-5 Level

18 RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE A B D C Rigor/Relevance Framework TeacherWork Teacher/Student Roles StudentThinkStudent Think & Work StudentWork High Low

19 RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE A B D C Rigor/Relevance Framework RightAnswer Did Students Get it Right? RationalAnswerRightQuestions RightProcedure High Low

20 Instructional Strategies: How to Teach for Rigor and Relevance

21 KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE A P P L I C A T I O N A B D C Rigor/Relevance Framework Activities Projects Problems

22 International Center for Leadership in Education Selection of Strategies Based on Rigor/ Relevance Framework Page 1

23 International Center for Leadership in Education Selection of Strategies Based on Rigor/ Relevance Framework Page 2

24 Rigor/ Relevance Handbook

25 25

26 Relevance makes rigor possible! 26

27 PARCC Assessment Design English Language Arts/Literacy and Mathematics, Grades 3-11 End-of-Year Assessment Innovative, computer- based items Required Performance-Based Assessment (PBA) Extended tasks Applications of concepts and skills Required Diagnostic Assessment Early indicator of student knowledge and skills to inform instruction, supports, and PD Non-summative Speaking And Listening Assessment Locally scored Non-summative, required 2 Optional Assessments/Flexible Administration Mid-Year Assessment Performance-based Emphasis on hard- to-measure standards Potentially summative 27

28 Claims Driving Design: ELA/Literacy 28

29 Claims Driving Design: Mathematics Students are on-track or ready for college and careers 29

30 Advances in the PARCC ELA/Literacy Assessment August

31 I. PARCC Core Commitments, Key Shifts in the Standards, and the Corresponding Advances in PARCC 31

32 PARCC is designed to reward quality instruction aligned to the Standards, so the assessment is worthy of preparation rather than a distraction from good work. PARCCs Fundamental Advance 32

33 Texts Worth Reading: The assessments will use authentic texts worthy of study instead of artificially produced or commissioned passages. Questions Worth Answering: Sequences of questions that draw students into deeper encounters with texts will be the norm (as in an excellent classroom), rather than sets of random questions of varying quality. Better Standards Demand Better Questions: Instead of reusing existing items, PARCC will develop custom items to the Standards. Fidelity to the Standards (now in Teachers hands): PARCC evidences are rooted in the language of the Standards so that expectations remain the same in both instructional and assessment settings. PARCCs Core Commitments to ELA/Literacy Assessment Quality 33

34 PARCC states first developed the Model Content Frameworks to provide guidance on key elements of excellent instruction aligned with the Standards. Then, those Frameworks informed the assessment blueprint design. So, for the first time... PARCC is communicating in the same voice to teachers as it is to assessment developers! PARCC is designing the assessments around exactly the same critical content the standards expect of teachers and students. What is Different About PARCCs Development Process? 34

35 1.Complexity: Regular practice with complex text and its academic language. 2.Evidence: Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text, literary and informational. 3.Knowledge: Building knowledge through content rich nonfiction. What Are the Shifts at the Heart of PARCC Design (and the Standards)? 35

36 The CCSS Shifts Build Toward College and Career Readiness for All Students

37 Staircasing Texts Text at Low End of Grade Band Text Between Low End and Middle of Grade Band Text Near Middle of Grade Band Text Between Middle and High End of Grade Band Text at High End of Grade Band Beginning of Year End of Year Toward CCR

38 38 Overview of Text Complexity Reading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative 1.Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative 2.Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Reader and Task 3.Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned

39 39 Step 1: Qualitative Measures Measures such as: Levels of meaning Levels of purpose Structure Organization Language conventionality Language clarity Prior knowledge demands

40 SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortia

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46 46 Measures such as: Word length Word frequency Word difficulty Sentence length Text length Text cohesion Step 2: Quantitative Measures

47 Quantitative: Using Formulas Lexile ® sentence length + word frequency Spache sentence length + unfamiliar words Dale-Chall sentence length + unfamiliar words Flesch-Kincaid sentence length + word length in syllables Fry sentence length + word length in syllables

48 Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile RangesLexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectations K-1N/A CCR

49 Lexile Analyzer

50 50 Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations such as: Motivation Knowledge and experience Purpose for reading Complexity of task assigned regarding text Complexity of questions asked regarding text

51 Step 4: Recommended Placement 51 Step 4: Recommended Placement After reflecting upon all three legs of the text complexity model we can make a final recommendation of placement within a text and begin to document our thinking for future reference.

52 The CCSS Shifts Build Toward College and Career Readiness for All Students

53

54 Grade 4 Informational Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

55 Performance Task Students explain how Melvin Berger uses reasons and evidence in his book Discovering Mars: The Amazing Story of the Red Planet to support particular points regarding the topology of the planet. [RI.4.8]

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57 Key Ideas and Details RI.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. RI.7.2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. RI.7.3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). Craft and Structure RI.7.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. RI.7.5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. RI.7.6. Determine an authors point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RI.7.7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each mediums portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). RI.7.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. RI.7.9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

58 Performance Task Students determine the figurative and connotative meanings of words such as wayfaring, laconic, and taciturnity as well as of phrases such as hold his peace in John Steinbecks Travels with Charley: In Search of America. They analyze how Steinbecks specific word choices and diction impact the meaning and tone of his writing and the characterization of the individuals and places he describes. [RI.7.4 ]

59 The CCSS Shifts Build Toward College and Career Readiness for All Students

60 Text Dependent Questions Step One: Identify the Core Understandings and Key Ideas of the Text –Design Backwards –What are the major points –Essential to designing good questions and a culminating assignment –

61 Text Dependent Questions Step Two: Start Small to Build Confidence –Opening questions should be ones that help orientate students to the text – Be sufficiently specific enough for them to answer –Confidence to tackle more difficult questions later on. –

62 Text Dependent Questions Step Three: Target Vocabulary and Text Structure –Key text structures –Academic words in the text that are connected to the key ideas and understandings, and –Craft questions that illuminate these connections –

63 Text Dependent Questions Step Four: Tackle Tough Sections Head-on –Find the sections of the text that will present the greatest difficulty and craft questions that support students in mastering these sections (these could be sections with difficult syntax, particularly dense information, and tricky transitions or places that offer a variety of possible inferences). –

64 Text Dependent Questions Step Five: Create Coherent Sequences of Text Dependent Questions –Questions should not be random but should build toward more coherent understanding and analysis to ensure that students learn to stay focused on the text to bring them to a gradual understanding of its meaning.

65 Text Dependent Questions Step Six: Identify the Standards That Are Being Addressed Step Seven: Create the Culminating Assessment –(a) mastery of one or more of the standards –(b) involves writing, and – (c) is structured to be completed by students independently.

66 A Close Reading of Lincolns Gettysburg Address SECTION 1 Whats at stake: a nation as a place and an idea (1–2 days) Section 1 Activities Students first read Lincolns Gettysburg Address silently. Teacher reads out loud, student follow along Students re-read the first paragraph and translate it into their own words. Teacher asks the class a small set of guiding questions about the first paragraph of Lincolns speech. After the discussion, students rewrite their translation of Lincolns paragraph. The teacher guides discussion of first line of second paragraph. Wrap up.

67 A Close Reading of Lincolns Gettysburg Address SECTION 1 Whats at stake: a nation as a place and an idea (1–2 days) Section 1 Activities Students first read Lincolns Gettysburg Address silently. Teacher reads out loud, student follow along Students re-read the first paragraph and translate it into their own words. Teacher asks the class a small set of guiding questions about the first paragraph of Lincolns speech. After the discussion, students rewrite their translation of Lincolns paragraph. The teacher guides discussion of first line of second paragraph. Wrap up.

68 A Close Reading of Lincolns Gettysburg Address In the first sentence, what does Lincoln tell us about this new nation? Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

69 Creating Text Based Questions In small groups develop several questions that require close reading of the passage.

70 A Close Reading of Lincolns Gettysburg Address Guiding Questions: –What does Lincoln mean by four score and seven years ago? Who are our fathers? –What does conceived mean? –What does proposition mean? –What is he saying is significant about America? Is he saying that no one has been free or equal before? So what is new? –Sum up and gather what students have learned so far: have students summarize the three ways in which the nation is new.

71 Text Dependent Questions Close analytic reading of Lincolns Gettysburg Address, the following would not be text dependent questions: Why did the North fight the civil war? Have you ever been to a funeral or gravesite? Lincoln says that the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote?

72 Why Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical? Students are consistently unable to meet the demands of reading text within a particular discipline. Reading within a discipline is different than reading literature. The ability to read within the discipline is important to citizenship. Being literate across a broad range of disciplines is required to be considered College and Career Ready.

73 How is reading history/social studies different from other types of reading? History is interpretive. History is an argument in favor of a particular narrative. Who the author is matters. (sourcing) The authors purpose matters. (bias and perspective) A single text is problematic. (corroboration)

74 How is reading science and technical reading different from other types of reading? Focus is on claims and counter claims Precise details, complex details and processes Analyze results by comparing Determining what question is being raised Navigate text, graphs, tables, charts Evaluate basis for claims

75 Teaching Channel Sarah Brown Wessiling eel-discussions-texts-in-conversation eel-discussions-texts-in-conversation 75

76 What is your focus? 1. Examine your data 2.Gap Analysis 3.Identify 1-2 focus areas 4.Build from strengths 5.Define measurable criteria 6.Monitor, Monitor, Monitor 7.Support teachers! (Coaching, Professional development) 76

77 Solid Implementation Focus Fidelity of Implementation Leading and Lagging Indicators

78 Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8 th grade ELA distribution

79 Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8 th grade Math distribution

80 MCAS Math gains 8 th to 10 th grade, compared to others from the same 8 th grade decile (School Rank Percentile)

81 MCAS ELA gains 8 th to 10 th grade, compared to others from the same 8 th grade decile (School rank percentile/100)

82 OPEN RESPONSE STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. READ QUESTION CAREFULLY. 2. CIRCLE OR UNDERLINE KEY WORDS. 3. RESTATE QUESTION AS THESIS (LEAVING BLANKS). 4. READ PASSAGE CAREFULLY. 5. TAKE NOTES THAT RESPOND TO THE QUESTION. BRAINSTORM & MAP OUT YOUR ANSWER. 6. COMPLETE YOUR THESIS. 7. WRITE YOUR RESPONSE CAREFULLY, USING YOUR MAP AS A GUIDE. 8. STATEGICALLY REPEAT KEY WORDS FROM THESIS IN YOUR BODY AND IN YOUR END SENTENCE. 9. PARAGRAPH YOUR RESPONSE. 10. REREAD AND EDIT YOUR RESPONSE.

83 83 As a follow up to this activity, I am requiring Department Heads to collect from each teacher at least one student sample from each of the teachers classes. The student samples should include: Student Name Teacher Name Date Course Name and Level Period A copy of the reading selection and question Evidence of the students active reading All pre-writing work that the student has done, e.g. webs A copy of the written open response The new scoring rubric and completed assessment After you have collected the samples from each teacher and have had the opportunity to review them for quality and completeness, please send them to me in a department folder with a checklist of your teachers. Again, please be sure that your teachers clearly label their student samples. The Open Response calendar of implementation is as follows: Nov 2-6: Social Science, Social Sci Biling. Nov 30-Dec 4: Wellness, JROTC Dec 14-18: Science, Science Bilingual Jan 11-15: Business, Tech, & Career Ed. Jan 25-29: Math, Math Bilingual Feb 22-26: Foreign Lang, Special Ed Mar. 7-11: English, ESL Mar Family &Cons. Sci, ProjGrads Apr 5-9: Music, Art

84 84 981/999 Brockton High School 2012

85 Nine Specific Advances in the PARCC ELA/Literacy Assessment Demanded by the Three Core Shifts... 85

86 1.PARCC builds a staircase of text complexity to ensure students are on track each year for college and career reading. 2.PARCC rewards careful, close reading rather than racing through passages. 3.PARCC systematically focuses on the words that matter mostnot obscure vocabulary, but the academic language that pervades complex texts. Shift 1: Regular practice with complex text and its academic language 86

87 4.PARCC focuses on students rigorously citing evidence from texts throughout the assessment (including selected-response items). 5.PARCC includes questions with more than one right answer to allow students to generate a range of rich insights that are substantiated by evidence from text(s). 6.PARCC requires writing to sources rather than writing to de- contextualized expository prompts. 7.PARCC also includes rigorous expectations for narrative writing, including accuracy and precision in writing in later grades. Shift 2: Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text, literary and informational 87

88 8.PARCC assesses not just ELA but a full range of reading and writing across the disciplines of science and social studies. 9.PARCC simulates research on the assessment, including the comparison and synthesis of ideas across a range of informational sources. Shift 3: Building knowledge through content rich nonfiction 88

89 II. Sample Items Illustrating Some of the Advances 89

90 SO... Two standards are always in playwhether they be reading or writing items, selected-response or constructed-response items on any one of the four components of PARCC. They are: – Reading Standard One (Use of Evidence) – Reading Standard Ten (Complex Texts) Students Command of Evidence with Complex Texts is at the Core of Every Part of the Assessment! 90

91 Evidence-Based Selected Response (EBSR) Combines a traditional selected-response question with a second selected-response question that asks students to show evidence from the text that supports the answer they provided to the first question. Underscores the importance of Reading Anchor Standard 1 for implementation of the CCSS. Three Innovative Item Types That Showcase Students Command of Evidence with Complex Texts 91

92 Technology-Enhanced Constructed Response (TECR)Uses technology to capture student comprehension of texts in authentic ways that have been difficult to score by machine for large scale assessments (e.g., drag and drop, cut and paste, shade text, move items to show relationships). Three Innovative Item Types That Showcase Students Command of Evidence with Complex Texts 92

93 Technology New Purchases (as of April 2012) – Hardware – 1GHz processor, 1 GB RAM, 9.5 inch screen size (10 inch class), screen resolution of 1024 x 768 o Must have tools to temporarily disable features ( i.e.. web browser, Bluetooth connections, application switching) – Operating Systems – Windows 7, Mac 10.7, Linux (Ubuntu 11.10, Fedora 16), Chrome, iOS, Android 4.0 o Will consider older versions and Linux after survey data and cognitive labs – Network – Must be able to connect to the Internet

94 Technology New Purchases (as of April 2012) – Form Factors –Desktops, laptops, netbooks, thin-client, and tablets ) iPad, Windows and Android) that meet the above specifications – Additional Accessories – o Headphones may be required for audio support o Physical keyboards (as opposed to virtual) and/or mice may be required for use with tablets

95 Range of Prose Constructed Responses (PCR) Elicits evidence that students have understood a text or texts they have read and can communicate that understanding well both in terms of written expression and knowledge of language and conventions. There are four of these items of varying types on each annual performance-based assessment. Three Innovative Item Types That Showcase Students Command of Evidence with Complex Texts 95

96 PARCC Summative Assessment with EBSR, TECR, and PCR Items 96

97 Literary Analysis Task (Grade 10): Ovids Daedalus and Icarus and Sextons To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph 97

98 Students carefully consider two literary texts worthy of close study. They are asked to answer a few EBSR and TECR questions about each text to demonstrate their ability to do close analytic reading and to compare and synthesize ideas. Students write a literary analysis about the two texts. Understanding the Literary Analysis Task 98

99 Range: Example of assessing literature and helping to satisfy the 70%-30% split of informational text to literature at the high school grade band. Quality: The story of Daedalus and Icarus from Ovid's Metamorphoses is a classic of the genre and has proven to be inspirational to painters and poets alike, and no poets version is more striking than that of Anne Sexton. Her To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph refashions the themes of the myth in dramatic fashion, providing a powerful counterpoint for students to explore. Complexity: Quantitatively and qualitatively, the passages have been validated and deemed suitable for use at grade 10. Texts Worth Reading? 99

100 On the following pages, there are two Evidence-Based Selected- Response Items and one Prose Constructed Response Item that challenge students command of evidence with complex texts. Questions Worth Answering? 100

101 Use what you have learned from reading Daedalus and Icarus by Ovid and To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph by Anne Sexton to write an essay that provides an analysis of how Sexton transforms Daedalus and Icarus. As a starting point, you may want to consider what is emphasized, absent, or different in the two texts, but feel free to develop your own focus for analysis. Develop your essay by providing textual evidence from both texts. Be sure to follow the conventions of standard English. Grade 10 Prose Constructed-Response Item 101

102 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RL.10.1 (use of evidence); RI.10.9 (comparison of authors presentation); RL (complex texts). – W.10.2 (writing to inform and explain); W.10.4 (writing coherently); W.10.9 (drawing evidence from texts). – L (grammar and conventions). Measures the ability to explain how one text transforms ideas from another text by focusing on a specific concept presented in the texts (the transformation of ideas with regard to the experience of flying). Asks students to write to sources rather than write to a de-contextualized prompt. Focuses on students rigorously citing evidence for their answer. Requires students to demonstrate they can apply the knowledge of language and conventions when writing. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 102

103 Part A Which of the following sentences best states an important theme about human behavior as described in Ovids Daedalus and Icarus? a.Striving to achieve ones dreams is a worthwhile endeavor. b.The thoughtlessness of youth can have tragic results.* c.Imagination and creativity bring their own rewards. d.Everyone should learn from his or her mistakes. Grade 10 Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item 103

104 Part B Select three pieces of evidence from Ovids Daedalus and Icarus that support the answer to Part A. a.and by his playfulness retard the work/his anxious father planned (lines )* b.But when at last/the father finished it, he poised himself (lines ) c.he fitted on his son the plumed wings/ with trembling hands, while down his withered cheeks/the tears were falling (lines ) d.Proud of his success/the foolish Icarus forsook his guide (lines )* e.and, bold in vanity, began to soar/rising above his wings to touch the skies (lines )* f.and as the years went by the gifted youth/began to rival his instructors art (lines ) g.Wherefore Daedalus/enraged and envious, sought to slay the youth (lines ) h.The Partridge hides/in shaded places by the leafy trees…for it is mindful of its former fall (lines , 399) Grade 10 Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item 104

105 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RL.10.1 (evidence). – RL.10.2 (theme). – RL (complex text). This item helps students gather information and details for use on the Prose Constructed Response; it requires close analytical reading to answer both parts correctly (e.g., Part A of this item is challenging because it requires synthesis of several parts of the myth to determine the answer). Requires students in Part B to provide evidence for the accuracy of their answer in Part A. PARCC assessment gives students the opportunity to gain partial credit if their answers reflect genuine comprehension on their part (e.g., they identify the theme correctly and are able to identify at least 2 details). Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 105

106 Part A What does the word vanity mean in these lines from the text Daedalus and Icarus? Proud of his success, the foolish Icarus forsook his guide, and, bold in vanity, began to soar (lines ) a.arrogance* b.fear c.heroism d.enthusiasm Part B Which word from the lines from the text in Part A best helps the reader understand the meaning of vanity? a.proud* b.success c.foolish d.soar Grade 10 Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item 106

107 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RL.10.1 (use of evidence). – RL.10.4 (meaning of words and phrases). – RL (complex texts). Reflects a key advance, namely focusing on the words that matter most, not obscure vocabulary, but the academic language that pervades complex texts. Rewards careful, close reading rather than requiring students to race through the passage to determine the meaning (by using the context of the text) of an academic word that is important to one of the main characters and to the central themes. Again, this item helps students gather details for use on the Prose Constructed Response. Credit for Part B (evidence) is given only if Part A is correct, signaling the importance of the connection between the claim and the evidence. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 107

108 Research Simulation Task (Grade 7): Amelia Earharts Disappearance 108

109 Session 1: – Students begin by reading an anchor text that introduces the topic. EBSR and TECR items ask students to gather key details about the passage to support their understanding. – Then, they write a summary or short analysis of the piece. Session 2: – Students read two additional sources (may include a multimedia text) and answer a few questions about each text to learn more about the topic so they are ready to write the final essay and to show their reading comprehension. – Finally, students mirror the research process by synthesizing their understandings into an analytic essay using textual evidence from several of the sources. Understanding the Research Simulation Task 109

110 Range: Example of assessing reading across the disciplines and helping to satisfy the 55%-45% split of informational text to literature at the 6-8 grade band. Quality: The texts on Amelia Earhart represent content-rich nonfiction on a topic that is historically significant. Complexity: Quantitatively and qualitatively, the passages have been validated and deemed suitable for use at grade 7. Texts Worth Reading? 110

111 On the following pages there are two Prose Constructed Response Items and one Technology Enhanced Constructed- Response Item that challenge students command of evidence with complex texts. Questions Worth Answering? 111

112 Based on the information in the text Biography of Amelia Earhart, write an essay that summarizes and explains the challenges Earhart faced throughout her life. Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas. Grade 7 Analytical Prose Constructed- Response Item #1 112

113 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RI.7.1 (use of evidence); RI.7.2 (summary of text); RI.7.10 (complex texts). – W.7.2 (writing to explain or inform); W.7.4 (writing coherently); W.7.9 (drawing evidence from texts). – L (grammar and conventions). Requires writing to sources rather than to a de-contextualized or generalized prompt (e.g., asks about a specific aspect of Earharts life). Requires students to draw evidence from the text and cite this evidence clearly. Requires students to apply the knowledge of language and conventions when writing. Purposely designed to help students gather information for writing the final analytic essay that asks students to evaluate the arguments made in three texts about Earharts bravery (i.e., her bravery can be expressed as her ability to face the many challenges). Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 113

114 You have read three texts describing Amelia Earhart. All three include the claim that Earhart was a brave, courageous person. The three texts are: Biography of Amelia Earhart Earhart's Final Resting Place Believed Found Amelia Earharts Life and Disappearance Consider the argument each author uses to demonstrate Earharts bravery. Write an essay that analyzes the strength of the arguments about Earharts bravery in at least two of the texts. Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas. Final Grade 7 Prose Constructed- Response Item #2 114

115 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RI.7.1 (use of evidence); RI.7.8 (evaluate claims in a text); RI.7.9 (comparison of authors presentation); RI.7.10 (complex texts). – W.7.2 (writing to inform and explain); W.7.4 (writing coherently); W.7.7 (conduct short research projects); W.7.8 (gather relevant information from multiple sources); W.7.9 (drawing evidence from texts). – L (grammar and conventions). Measures the ability to compare and synthesize ideas across multiple texts and the ability to analyze the strength of various arguments. Asks students to write to sources rather than write to a de-contextualized prompt. Focuses on students rigorously citing evidence for their answer. Requires students to delve deeply into multiple texts to gather evidence to analyze a given claim, simulating the research process. Requires students to demonstrate they can apply the knowledge of language and conventions when writing. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 115

116 Below are three claims that one could make based on the article Earharts Final Resting Place Believed Found. Part A Highlight the claim that is supported by the most relevant and sufficient facts withinEarharts Final Resting Place Believed Found. Part B Click on two facts within the article that best provide evidence to support the claim selected in Part A. Grade 7 Technology-Enhanced Constructed-Response Item 116

117 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RI.7.1 (use of evidence). – RI.7.8 (authors claims and evidence). – RI.7.10 (complex texts). This item helps students gather information and details for use on the first and second Prose Constructed Response. Requires students to employ reasoning skills, since all of the claims listed could be made, but only one is supported by the most relevant and sufficient facts. Reflects the key shift of reading closely and weighing evidence by offering credit for Part B only if Part A is correct. Technology enables students to highlight evidence that supports their understanding. Aligns to Standards and Reflects Good Practice 117

118 Narrative Task (Grade 6): Jean Craighead Georges Excerpt from Julie of the Wolves 118

119 Students read one or two brief texts and answer a few questions to help clarify their understanding of the text(s). Students then write either a narrative story or a narrative description (e.g., writing a historical account of important figures; detailing a scientific process; describing an account of events, scenes, or objects). Understanding the Narrative Writing Task 119

120 Range: Example of assessing literature and helping to satisfy the 55%-45% split of informational text to literature at the 6-8 grade- band. Quality: Julie of the Wolves was a winner of the Newbery Medal in This text about a young Eskimo girl surviving on her own in the tundra by communicating with wolves offers a story rich with characterization and imagery that will appeal to a diverse student population. Complexity: Quantitatively and qualitatively, the passages have been validated and deemed suitable for use at grade 6. Texts Worth Reading? 120

121 On the following pages there is one Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item, one Technology Enhanced Constructed-Response Item, and one Prose Constructed Response Item that challenge students command of evidence with complex texts. Questions Worth Answering? 121

122 In the passage, the author developed a strong character named Miyax. Think about Miyax and the details the author used to create that character. The passage ends with Miyax waiting for the black wolf to look at her. Write an original story to continue where the passage ended. In your story, be sure to use what you have learned about the character Miyax as you tell what happens to her next. Grade 6 Prose Constructed-Response Item 122

123 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RL.6.1 (use of evidence); RL.6.3 (describe how characters respond to changes); RL.6.10 (complex text). – W.6.3 (narrative writing); W.6.4 (writing coherently). – L (grammar and conventions). Includes rigorous expectations for narrative writing, including weaving details from the source text accurately into an original narrative story (students must draw evidence from the textcharacter traits and the events of the storyand apply that understanding to create a story). For students who struggle to create original stories, the source text provides ideas from which to begin; for those students who readily create imaginative experiences, the source provides a means to jump off and innovate. Focuses on students applying their knowledge of language and conventions when writing (an expectation for both college and careers). Aligns to the the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 123

124 Part A What does the word regal mean as it is used in the passage? a.generous b.threatening c.kingly* d.uninterested Grade 6 Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item #1 124

125 Part B Which of the phrases from the passage best helps the reader understand the meaning of regal? a.wagging their tales as they awoke b.the wolves, who were shy c.their sounds and movements expressed goodwill d.with his head high and his chest out* Grade 6 Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item #1 125

126 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RL.6.1 (use of evidence). – RL.6.4 (meaning of words and phrases). – RL.6.10 (complex texts). Reflects a key shift, namely focusing on the words that matter most, not obscure vocabulary, but the academic language that pervades complex texts. Rewards careful, close reading rather than requiring the students to race through the passage to determine the meaning of an academic word by showing the context within the passage that helped them determine the meaning of the word. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 126

127 Part A Based on the passage from Julie of the Wolves, how does Miyax feel about her father? a.She is angry that he left her alone. b.She blames him for her difficult childhood. c.She appreciates him for his knowledge of nature.* d.She is grateful that he planned out her future. Grade 6 Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item #2 127

128 Part B Which sentence from the passage best shows Miyaxs feelings for her father? a.She had been lost without food for many sleeps on the North Slope of Alaska. b.This could be done she knew, for her father, an Eskimo hunter, had done so.* c.Unfortunately, Miyaxs father never explained to her how he had told the wolf of his needs. d.And not long afterward he paddled his kayak into the Bering Sea to hunt for seal, and he never returned. Grade 6 Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item #2 128

129 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RL.6.1 (use of evidence). – RL.6.3 (how characters respond). – RL.6.10 (complex texts). Rewards careful, close reading to find specific information and applying understanding of a text. Focuses students on rigorously citing evidence for their answer; students must provide the context used to establish the accuracy of their answer or they dont receive credit for the item. Asks students to delve deeply into how the main character is feeling as she reflects on her predicament, helping students gather information and details for use on the Prose Constructed Response. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 129

130 Part A Choose one word that describes Miyax based on evidence from the text. There is more than one correct choice listed below. A.reckless B.lively C.imaginative* D.observant* E.impatient F.Confident Grade 6 Technology-Enhanced Selected- Response Item 130

131 Part B Find a sentence in the passage with details that support your response to Part A. Click on that sentence and drag and drop it into the box below. Part C Find a second sentence in the passage with details that support your response to Part A. Click on that sentence and drag and drop it into the box below. Grade 6 Technology-Enhanced Selected- Response Item 131

132 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RL.6.1 (use of evidence). – RL.6.3 (how characters respond). – RL.6.10 (complex texts). Rather than a single right answer, this item allows students to explore different solutions and generate varying insights about a multi- dimensional character, choosing the word they most strongly feel they can defend. The item also insists on students rigorously substantiating their conclusions/insights about the character of Miyax with two details drawn from the text, helping students gather information and details for use on the Prose Constructed Response. Technology enables students to drag and drop evidence that supports their understanding. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 132

133 End-of-Year Assessment (Grade 3):How Animals Live 133

134 Students will be given several passages to read closely. EBSR and TECR questions will be sequenced in a way that they will draw students into deeper encounters with the texts and will result in thorough comprehension of the concepts to provide models for the regular course of instruction. Will draw on higher order skills such as critical reading and analysis, the comparison and synthesis of ideas within and across texts, and determining the meaning of words and phrases in context. Understanding the End-of-Year Assessment 134

135 Range: Follows the requirements in the standards to make use of informational texts, including history, science, and technical passages (50% of the points in grades 3-5 are to come from informational texts). Quality: This is an example of a science passage from a third- grade textbook. Complexity: Quantitatively and qualitatively, the passages have been validated and deemed suitable for use at grade 3. Texts Worth Reading? 135

136 On the following pages there is one Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item and one Technology Enhanced Constructed- Response Item that challenge students command of evidence with complex texts. Questions Worth Answering? 136

137 Part A What is one main idea of How Animals Live? a.There are many types of animals on the planet. b.Animals need water to live. c.There are many ways to sort different animals.* d.Animals begin their life cycles in different forms. Grade 3 Evidence-Based Selected- Response Item #1 137 Part B Which sentence from the article best supports the answer to Part A? a.Animals get oxygen from air or water. b."Animals can be grouped by their traits.* c."Worms are invertebrates. d."All animals grow and change over time. e."Almost all animals need water, food, oxygen, and shelter to live."

138 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RI.3.1 (evidence). – RI.3.2 (main idea). – RI.3.10 (complex text). While this is an example of a less complex itemone where the main idea and details to support it are explicit and readily foundstudents must provide evidence for the accuracy of their answer in Part B, illustrating one of the key shifts: use of textual evidence. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 138

139 Drag the words from the word box into the correct locations on the graphic to show the life cycle of a butterfly as described inHow Animals Live. Words: Grade 3 Technology-Enhanced Constructed-Response Item 139

140 Specific CCSS alignment to: – RI.3.1 (use of evidence). – RI.3.3 (relationship between events). – RI.3.10 (complex texts). Reflects the key shift of building knowledge from informational text: – students must apply their understanding of the text to complete the graphic. – requires explicit references to the text as the basis for the answers rather than simply guessing. Whereas traditional items might have asked students to fill in one blank on a graphic (with three steps already provided), this technology enhanced item allows students to demonstrate understanding of the entire sequence of the life cycle because none of the steps are ordered for them. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 140

141 141 Whats different about CCSS? These Standards are not intended to be new names for old ways of doing business. They are a call to take the next step. It is time for states to work together to build on lessons learned from two decades of standards based reforms. It is time to recognize that standards are not just promises to our children, but promises we intend to keep. CCSS (2010, p.5)

142 Advances in the PARCC Mathematics Assessment August

143 Focus: PARCC assessments will focus strongly on where the Standards focus. Students will have more time to master concepts at a deeper level. Problems worth doing: Multi-step problems, conceptual questions, applications, and substantial procedures will be common, as in an excellent classroom. Better Standards Demand Better Questions: Instead of reusing existing items, PARCC will develop custom items to the Standards. Fidelity to the Standards (now in Teachers hands): PARCC evidences are rooted in the language of the Standards so that expectations remain the same in both instructional and assessment settings. PARCCs Core Commitments to Mathematics Assessment Quality 143

144 What Are the Shifts in the Math Standards at the Heart of PARCC Design? 1.Focus: The PARCC Assessment will focus strongly where the Standards focus 2.Coherence: Think across grades and link to major topics within grades 3.Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application. 144

145 What Are the Shifts in the Math Standards at the Heart of PARCC Design? Focus 145

146 146

147 147 Shift #1: Focus Strongly where the Standards Focus Significantly narrow the scope of content and deepen how time and energy is spent in the math classroom. Focus deeply on what is emphasized in the standards, so that students gain strong foundations.

148 Mathematics topics intended at each grade by at least two- thirds of A+ countries Mathematics topics intended at each grade by at least two- thirds of 21 U.S. states The shape of math in A+ countries 1 Schmidt, Houang, & Cogan, A Coherent Curriculum: The Case of Mathematics. (2002). 148

149 149 K 12 Number and Operations Measurement and Geometry Algebra and Functions Statistics and Probability Traditional U.S. Approach

150 150 Focusing Attention Within Number and Operations Operations and Algebraic Thinking Expressions and Equations Algebra Number and Operations Base Ten The Number System Number and Operations Fractions K High School

151 Grade 1 151

152 Grade 2 152

153 Grade 3 153

154 154 Grade 4

155 Grade 5

156 Grade 6

157 Fractions, Grades 3–6 3. Develop an understanding of fractions as numbers. 4. Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. 4. Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. 4. Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. 5. Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions. 5. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. 6. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions. 157

158 Grade 7

159 Grade 8

160 PARCC High School Framework Course-specific analysis. General analysis 160

161 HS Framework Individual end-of-course overviews. For each course: –Examples of key advances from previous grades or courses – Discussion of Mathematical Practices in relation to course content –Fluency recommendations 161

162 HS Framework Pathway summary table. Assessment limits table for standards assessed on more than one end-of-course test. 162

163 Algebra I 163

164 Algebra I 164

165 Geometry 165

166 Algebra II 166

167 Algebra II 167

168 Algebra II 168

169 What Are the Shifts in the Math Standards at the Heart of PARCC Design? 2. Coherence: Think across grades and link to major topics within grades 169

170 Elbow Partner Discussion Shift #2: Coherence: Think across grades, link to major topics within grades Discuss what coherence in the math curriculum means to you. Be sure to address both elements coherence within the grade and coherence across grades. Cite specific examples. 170

171 One of several staircases to algebra designed in the OA domain. Alignment in Context: Neighboring Grades and Progressions 171

172 172 Coherence: Link to Major Topics Within Grades Example: Data Representation Standard 3.MD.3

173 173 Example: Geometric Measurement 3.MD, third cluster Coherence: Link to Major Topics Within Grades

174 What Are the Shifts in the Math Standards at the Heart of PARCC Design? 3. Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application. 174

175 175 Shift #3: Rigor: In Major Topics, Pursue Conceptual Understanding, Procedural Skill and Fluency, and Application

176 Rigor -Require fluency, application, and deep understanding Conceptual understanding – solving short conceptual problems, applying math in new situations, and speaking about their understanding Procedural skill and fluency - speed and accuracy in calculation. Application - real world situations

177 Reasoning Invite Exploration of important mathematical concepts Allow students to solidify and make connections Make connections and develop coherent framework for mathematical ideas Problem formulation, problem solving and mathematical reasoning

178 Reasoning More than one solution Development of all students disposition to do math

179 Mathematically proficient students Make conjectures Build logical progressions to explore the truth of their conjectures Justify and communicate their conclusions Respond to arguments

180 Which number does not belong? Why? Instead of asking which numbers are odd? From: Math for All: Differentiating Instruction, Grades 3-5, Dacey and Lynch

181 Procedural Fluency Knowledgeable about procedures Know when and how to use them Skill in performing procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and with understanding

182 Advances in Assessment Specific advances in the PARCC mathematics assessments demanded by the three shifts… 182

183 Advances in Assessment Demanded by the Shifts Shift #1 – Focus: The PARCC assessments will focus strongly where the Standards focus Advance: PARCC assessments will focus strongly where the Standards focus (70% or more on the major work in grades 3-8). Focus allows for a variety of problem types to get at concept in multiple ways. Students will have more time to master concepts at a deeper level. 183

184 GradeFluency KAdd/subtract within 5 1Add/subtract within 10 2Add/subtract within 20 Add/subtract within 100 (pencil and paper) 3Multiply/divide within 100 Add/subtract within Add/subtract within 1,000,000 5Multidigit multiplication 6Multidigit division Multidigit decimal operations 7 8Solve simple 2 2 systems by inspection 184

185 Advances in Assessment Demanded by the Shifts Shift #2 - Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics within grades Advance: The assessment design is informed by multi-grade progressions in the Standards and the Model Content Frameworks. Key beginnings are stressed (e.g., ratio concepts in grade 6), as are key endpoints and takeaway skills (e.g., fluency with the multiplication table in grade 3). 185

186 Advances in Assessment Demanded by the Shifts Shift #2 - Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics within grades Advance: Integrative tasks draw on multiple standards to ensure students are making important connections. The Standards are not treated as a checklist. 186

187 Advances in assessment demanded by the shifts Shift #3 - Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application Advance: PARCC assessments will reach the rigor in the Standards through innovations in technology and item design… 187

188 Using Technology to Advance Assessment and the Shifts Technology enhancements supporting accessibility (e.g., the ability to hover over a word to see and/or hear its definition, etc.) Transformative formats making possible what can not be done with traditional paper-pencil assessments (e.g., simulations to improve a model, game-like environments, drawing/constructing diagrams or visual models, etc.) Getting beyond the bubble and avoiding drawbacks of traditional selected response such as guessing or choice elimination. 188

189 Using Technology to Advance Assessment and the Shifts Capturing complex student responses through a device interface (e.g., using drawing tools, symbol palettes, etc.) Machine scorable multi-step tasks are more efficient to administer and score. 189

190 Sample Items Illustrating the Advances in Assessment The next section of this presentation is comprised of sample items that illustrate some of the advances called for by the three shifts. 190

191 Overview of Mathematics Task Types PARCC mathematics assessments will include three types of tasks. 191 Task TypeDescription of Task Type I. Tasks assessing concepts, skills and procedures Balance of conceptual understanding, fluency, and application Can involve any or all mathematical practice standards Machine scorable including innovative, computer-based formats Will appear on the End of Year and Performance Based Assessment components II. Tasks assessing expressing mathematical reasoning Each task calls for written arguments / justifications, critique of reasoning, or precision in mathematical statements (MP.3, 6). Can involve other mathematical practice standards May include a mix of machine scored and hand scored responses Included on the Performance Based Assessment component III. Tasks assessing modeling / applications Each task calls for modeling/application in a real-world context or scenario (MP.4) Can involve other mathematical practice standards. May include a mix of machine scored and hand scored responses Included on the Performance Based Assessment component For more information see PARCC Item Development ITN Appendix D.

192 Grade 7 Illustrative Sample Item 192

193 Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 193 Grade 7 Sample Illustrative Item: Speed Task Type I: Tasks assessing concepts, skills and procedures Alignment: Most Relevant Content Standard(s) 7.RP.2b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships. In addition, see 7.RP.2d: Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r is the unit rate. (The explain portion is not required in the task, but the task involves some of the concepts detailed here.) Alignment: Most Relevant Mathematical Practice(s) MP.2 enters (Reason abstractly and quantitatively), as students must relate the graphs and tables to each other via the unit rate and then to the context at hand.

194 Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 194 Grade 7 Sample Illustrative Item Key Features and Assessment Advances The PARCC assessment will seek to preserve the focus of the Standards by thoroughly exploring the major work of the grade. In this case, a multi-point problem is devoted to a single standard about proportional relationships, which are a major focus in grades 6 and 7. Unlike traditional multiple choice, it is difficult to guess the correct answer or use a choice elimination strategy. Variants of the task could probe understanding of unit rates and representations of proportional relationships by showing different scales on the two graphs, and/or by presenting the data in tables C and D with the ordered pairs not equally spaced in time.

195 High School Illustrative Sample Item 195 Seeing Structure in a Quadratic Equation

196 Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 196 High School Sample Illustrative Item: Seeing Structure in a Quadratic Equation Task Type I: Tasks assessing concepts, skills and procedures Alignment: Most Relevant Content Standard(s) A-REI.4. Solve quadratic equations in one variable. a)Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p) 2 = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form. b)Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x 2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula, and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a bi for real numbers a and b. Alignment: Most Relevant Mathematical Practice(s) Students taking a brute-force approach to this task will need considerable symbolic fluency to obtain the solutions. In this sense, the task rewards looking for and making use of structure (MP.7).

197 Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice 197

198 198

199 199

200 Resources PARCC Resources: Progressions & Common Core Tools \ Illustrative Mathematics

201 Resources National Council of Supervisors of Math: Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP): und.php Inside mathematics:

202 Prototype math items

203 Practical strategies to support school and district leaders: Supporting teachers in changing instruction to meet the requirements of the Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Assessments Approaching evaluation from the broader perspective of selection, support, and evaluation of all educators Providing meaningful Teacher Evaluations even with limited time and resources

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