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Reading Fluency: The Relationship between Fluency and Comprehension Beth Hoeft University of Wisconsin–La Crosse Manitowoc Learning Community.

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Presentation on theme: "Reading Fluency: The Relationship between Fluency and Comprehension Beth Hoeft University of Wisconsin–La Crosse Manitowoc Learning Community."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reading Fluency: The Relationship between Fluency and Comprehension Beth Hoeft University of Wisconsin–La Crosse Manitowoc Learning Community

2 Purpose of Study What effect will student selected vocabulary and student generated story structure questioning have on students opinions of their reading fluency rate, accuracy, and comprehension? What effect will student selected vocabulary and student generated story structure questioning have on students opinions of their reading fluency rate, accuracy, and comprehension? To what degree will student selected vocabulary words, completion of daily word work activities, and student generated story structure questioning have on students reading fluency rate, accuracy, and comprehension? To what degree will student selected vocabulary words, completion of daily word work activities, and student generated story structure questioning have on students reading fluency rate, accuracy, and comprehension? What effect will student selected vocabulary and student generated story structure questioning have on students preferred learning style during their reading What effect will student selected vocabulary and student generated story structure questioning have on students preferred learning style during their reading fluency instruction? fluency instruction?

3 Teachers should also incorporate the study of word parts and the meanings of words (Bashir & Hook, 2009; Collins & Levy, 2008; Coyne et al., 2001; Fuchs et al., 2001;Homan, Klesius, & Hite, 1993;Lagrou, Burns, Mizerek, & Mosack, 2006; NICHD, 2000; Pikulski & Chard, 2005; Roberts et al., 2008) Teachers should also incorporate the study of word parts and the meanings of words (Bashir & Hook, 2009; Collins & Levy, 2008; Coyne et al., 2001; Fuchs et al., 2001;Homan, Klesius, & Hite, 1993;Lagrou, Burns, Mizerek, & Mosack, 2006; NICHD, 2000; Pikulski & Chard, 2005; Roberts et al., 2008) Students chose their own vocabulary words based on two criteria: words they did not know how to pronounce and words they could pronounce but did not know what they meant. Students chose their own vocabulary words based on two criteria: words they did not know how to pronounce and words they could pronounce but did not know what they meant. To help with pronunciation, the students divided their words into parts or syllables. To help with pronunciation, the students divided their words into parts or syllables. Vocabulary Words

4 Defining Vocabulary Words Defining words: on the 3rd day of each week of the study, the students had to find the definition to their chosen vocabulary words and fill out their packet. Their work was then assessed on how accurate their definitions were in accordance to how the word was used in the story.

5 After choosing their words, putting them into parts, and defining them; the students had to use their words in a sentence. This was in oral or written format depending on time. When time allowed, the students taught one of their words to the class. SENTECESSENTECES

6 Comprehension Questions One way to teach inferential comprehension skills is through the question generation method. Question generation had the most evidence for effectiveness in scientific research (NICHD, 2000). One way to teach inferential comprehension skills is through the question generation method. Question generation had the most evidence for effectiveness in scientific research (NICHD, 2000). The types of questions asked are story structure questions such as: who, what, where, when, why, and how The types of questions asked are story structure questions such as: who, what, where, when, why, and how The students completed two The students completed two questions/answers a day questions/answers a day

7 Assessment of Comprehension Questions Students were assessed on how well they wrote their questions and answers. Students were assessed on how well they wrote their questions and answers. Their questions had to cover the main parts of the story Their questions had to cover the main parts of the story

8 Running Record Repeated readings are the intervention that has the broadest research base in the area of reading fluency ( Therrien, 2004; Therrien & Hughes, 2008) and are most effective with those who struggle in reading (Pikulski & Chard, 2005). Repeated readings are the intervention that has the broadest research base in the area of reading fluency ( Therrien, 2004; Therrien & Hughes, 2008) and are most effective with those who struggle in reading (Pikulski & Chard, 2005). These types of readings are the most widely used fluency procedure in special education classrooms (NICHD, 2000; O'Connor et al., 2007; Roberts et al., 2008). These types of readings are the most widely used fluency procedure in special education classrooms (NICHD, 2000; O'Connor et al., 2007; Roberts et al., 2008). Students completed repeated readings for 4 days and were given a 1 minute assessment on the 5 th day. Students completed repeated readings for 4 days and were given a 1 minute assessment on the 5 th day.

9 Retelling To seek the relationship comprehension has with reading fluency, the students were asked to do an oral retelling of the story. To seek the relationship comprehension has with reading fluency, the students were asked to do an oral retelling of the story. Students were encouraged to use the information from their questions and answers in their retelling. Students were encouraged to use the information from their questions and answers in their retelling. Students were also encouraged to tell the story in sequential format. Students were also encouraged to tell the story in sequential format.

10 Exit Slips To find out what student thoughts were on reading fluency instruction, they were given a pre and post survey during the study. To find out what student thoughts were on reading fluency instruction, they were given a pre and post survey during the study. Students were also given an exit survey at the end of every week. Students were also given an exit survey at the end of every week.

11 Results The data revealed that when participants chose their own vocabulary words and wrote their own story structure questions: The data revealed that when participants chose their own vocabulary words and wrote their own story structure questions: (a) 5 out of 7 participants increased their rate, (a) 5 out of 7 participants increased their rate, (b) 4 out of 7 participants increased their accuracy, (b) 4 out of 7 participants increased their accuracy, (c) 6 out of 7 participants increased their comprehension question writing and answering, (c) 6 out of 7 participants increased their comprehension question writing and answering, (d) and 4 out of 7 participants increased their comprehension retelling of the stories. (d) and 4 out of 7 participants increased their comprehension retelling of the stories. I agree that more research needs to be done on the matter of the relationship between reading fluency and comprehension. I agree that more research needs to be done on the matter of the relationship between reading fluency and comprehension. I did find that when students were able to pick out their own vocabulary words, they find words that have important meaning to the story and were able to discover the meaning of these words which in turn helped them understand what was going on in the story. I did find that when students were able to pick out their own vocabulary words, they find words that have important meaning to the story and were able to discover the meaning of these words which in turn helped them understand what was going on in the story. When students were allowed to write their own comprehension questions using story structure questions, they were able to focus on the important structure of the story. When students were allowed to write their own comprehension questions using story structure questions, they were able to focus on the important structure of the story. For students who have a learning disability, beginning with concrete levels of understanding is a good place to start. For students who have a learning disability, beginning with concrete levels of understanding is a good place to start.

12 References Bashir, A. S., & Hook, P. E. (2009). Fluency: A key link between word identification and comprehension [Electronic version]. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 40(2), Bashir, A. S., & Hook, P. E. (2009). Fluency: A key link between word identification and comprehension [Electronic version]. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 40(2), Collins, W. M., & Levy, B. A. (2008). Developing fluent text processing with practice: Memorial influences on fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Canadian Psychology, 49(2), Collins, W. M., & Levy, B. A. (2008). Developing fluent text processing with practice: Memorial influences on fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Canadian Psychology, 49(2), Coyne, M. D., Kame'enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (2001). Prevention and intervention in beginning reading: Two complex systems [Electronic version]. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(2), Coyne, M. D., Kame'enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (2001). Prevention and intervention in beginning reading: Two complex systems [Electronic version]. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(2), Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis [Electronic version]. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis [Electronic version]. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), Homan, S. P., Klesius, J. P., & Hite, C. (1993). Effects of repeated readings and nonrepetitive strategies on students' fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), Homan, S. P., Klesius, J. P., & Hite, C. (1993). Effects of repeated readings and nonrepetitive strategies on students' fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), Lagrou, R. J., Burns, M. K., Mizerek, E. A., & Mosack, J. (2006). Effect of text presentation on reading fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(2), Lagrou, R. J., Burns, M. K., Mizerek, E. A., & Mosack, J. (2006). Effect of text presentation on reading fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(2), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implication for reading instruction (NIH Publication No ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implication for reading instruction (NIH Publication No ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. O'Connor, R. E., White, A., & Swanson, H. L. (2007). Repeated reading versus continuous reading: Influences on reading fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Exceptional Children, 74(1), O'Connor, R. E., White, A., & Swanson, H. L. (2007). Repeated reading versus continuous reading: Influences on reading fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Exceptional Children, 74(1), Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension [Electronic version]. Reading Teacher, 58(6), Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension [Electronic version]. Reading Teacher, 58(6), Roberts, G., Torgesen, J. K., Boardman, A., & Scammacca, N. (2008). Evidence-based strategies for reading instruction of older students with learning disabilities [Electronic version]. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(2), Roberts, G., Torgesen, J. K., Boardman, A., & Scammacca, N. (2008). Evidence-based strategies for reading instruction of older students with learning disabilities [Electronic version]. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(2), Therrien, W. J. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading [Electronic version]. Remedial & STherrien, W. J., & Hughes, C. (2008). Comparison of repeated reading and question generation on students' reading fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 6(1), 1-16.pecial Education, 25(4), Therrien, W. J. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading [Electronic version]. Remedial & STherrien, W. J., & Hughes, C. (2008). Comparison of repeated reading and question generation on students' reading fluency and comprehension [Electronic version]. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 6(1), 1-16.pecial Education, 25(4),


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