10If water infiltrates soil it settles to a level called the water table.
11As ground saturates the water table rises. If you dig a well belowthe water table you canaccess the water!
12If water table rises or falls, surface water also changes.
13Which process is represented by letter F? Base your answers to questions below on the diagram, which shows a model of the water cycle. Letters A through F represent some processes of the water cycle. Letter X indicates the top of the underground zone that is saturated with water.Which process is represented by letter F?(1) capillarity (3) runoff(2) infiltration (4) freezingWhat does letter X represent?(1) the water table (3) sea level(2) a floodplain (4) impermeable rock
14(1) a decrease in the amount of groundwater Base your answers to questions below on the diagram, which shows a model of the water cycle. Letters A through F represent some processes of the water cycle. Letter X indicates the top of the underground zone that is saturated with water.If the surface soil is saturated and precipitation increases, there will be(1) a decrease in the amount of groundwater(2) an increase in the rate of capillarity(3) a decrease in the surface elevation of the lake(4) an increase in the amount of runoff
15Water infiltrates ground depending upon: Saturation, Gradient, and the GROUND!
16The ground may have different POROSITY. POROSITY is the open space in soil.
18If water cannot infiltrate it will runoff on the surface.
19Porosity IS NOT affected by size. =Less pores,but biggerMore pores,but smallerPorosity IS affected by...
20Packing of Grains Shape of Grains Mixed Sizes of Grains Less porous More porousLess porousPacking of GrainsFlatter sediments are less porousShape of GrainsMixed Sizes of Grains
21THEY HAVE EQUAL POROSITY! Which beaker has the largest sized pores?Which beaker can HOLD the most water?THEY HAVE EQUAL POROSITY!(more small pores = less big pores)
22(1) A & C (2) B & D (3) C & D (4) D & A The diagram shows columns A, B, C, and D that contain different sediments.Water was poured through each column. Which columns of sediment has the most space for water?(1) A & C (2) B & D (3) C & D (4) D & A
23The diagrams below represent three containers, A, B, and C, which were filled with equal volumes of uniformly sorted plastic beads. Water was poured into each container to determine porosity and infiltration time.
24Which data table best represents the porosity and infiltration time of the beads in the three containers?
25Size does NOT affect porosity! A student adds water to 4 different cups of sediments as shown. Which statement is probably true?The mixture of sand clay and pebbles holds the most water.The cup of sand holds more water than the cup of silt.All cups hold the same amount of water.The cups of pebbles and silt hold the same volume of water.Size does NOT affect porosity!
26Greater Porosity = Faster Infiltration Assuming equal amounts of precipitation and saturation, which soil could rain infiltrate the most readily?Greater Porosity = Faster Infiltration
27Water cannot infiltrate saturated ground, making runoff. Infiltration depends on porosity & saturation.Water cannot infiltrate saturated ground, making runoff.Infiltration also depends on permeability.
28Only a few seconds have passed! Desert soil is often impermeable. Even small amounts of rain will run-off, causing flash floods.Only a few seconds have passed!
29Which ground is more permeable? Grains are larger!Grains are rounder
30PERMEABILITY is related to POROSITY. BUT THEY MEAN DIFFERENT THINGS. Equal porosity but VERY DIFFERENT permeability!
31Into which beaker will water infiltrate at the greatest rate? More permeable!
32Which beaker retains water best (requires the most time to leave)? Easy in, easy out!Which beaker retains water best (requires the most time to leave)?
33As a rule, the slower water infiltrates, the slower it drains. Water RetentionAs a rule, the slower water infiltrates, the slower it drains.Easy in easy out!
35CapillarityWater is so sticky it can “climb” soil particles, moving up against gravity.Larger particles have less capillarity.Smaller particles have more capillarity.
36The diagram represents four identical columns filled with sediments of uniform shape and packing. They are placed over empty glass beakers.If water is poured into each column, which will have the greatest RATE of infiltration?1) A ) B ) C ) D
37The diagram represents four identical columns filled with sediments of uniform shape and packing. They are placed over empty glass beakers.If water drains from each column, which will require the most time for drainage?1) A ) B ) C ) D
38The diagram represents four identical columns filled with sediments of uniform shape and packing. They are placed over empty glass beakers.If each beaker is filled with water, which column will display the greatest RATE of capillarity?1) A ) B ) C ) D
39Results with different size particles lead to the conclusion that The diagram shows a laboratory setup. The rubber band holds filter paper across the base of the open tube to hold the soil sample. The tube was placed in the water as shown. The upward movement of water is represented by arrows.Results with different size particles lead to the conclusion thatcapillarity is greater in soilswith larger particles(2) capillarity is greater in soilswith smaller particles(3) permeability is greater insoils with larger particles(4) permeability is greater insoils with smaller particles
40The terms to know for the next few days are: Groundwater- water that enters soil.Runoff- water that does NOT enter soil.Porosity- amount of open space in soil.Permeability- difficulty water has entering soil.Infiltration- rate at which water enters soil.Retention- how fast water drains back out of soil.Capillarity- ability of water to flow up through soil.