# Daemen College Weekend Masters Program AE 500: Dimensions of Learning and Teaching At The Primary Level.

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Daemen College Weekend Masters Program AE 500: Dimensions of Learning and Teaching At The Primary Level.

Introductions Brian S. Graham MS. Ed. Principal: Fourth Year at West Middle School and completed 4 years at Winchester Elementary (K-6) Special Education Teacher 16 years Married with 4 children I have taught EDU 270, CE 500,AE 500 and CE503 in the WMP.

Find a partner and… Conduct an interview… Determine: 1. Who they are, their favorite hobby and an interesting fact. 2. Why they are pursuing teacher certification and what grades/content area they would like to teach. 3. One thing they would like to take and use from this class. 4. Be prepared to introduce your partner to the entire class.

Agenda The Weekend Masters Program is on the 2nd floor of the Thomas Reynolds Center for Special Education. The office during Friday and Saturday classes will still be in the Faculty Lounge room DS335. The bookstore will be open from 8:00 a.m. -11:00 a.m. (Check for updated times) Syllabus Hunters Model Juggling Teaching and Learning Objectives Blooms Taxonomy

How to Juggle Quiz When juggling one ball how should the ball be thrown? Name three of the four helpful hints. When juggling two balls, what should you do when the first ball peaks? When juggling three balls, what should you do when the second ball peaks?

Lets learn how to juggle! Watch this movie…

K-W-L chart K = What do you know about juggling? W= What do you want to learn about juggling? L = What have you learned about juggling?

Now read these directions… THREE BALLS Starting with the hand that has two balls, throw one across in an arc. When the first ball peaks, throw the second ball and catch the first. When the second ball peaks, throw the third ball and catch the second. And so on... NOTE: Keep throwing right-left-right-left... When you get to four throws, you're on your way. Just keep setting new goals. If you get frustrated, take a break, then try again when you're fresh. With practice and persistence, you can learn to juggle.

Okay, lets try it this way…

Madeline Hunters Lesson Plan Dr. Madeline Hunter's research showed effective teachers have a methodology when planning and presenting a lesson. Hunter found that no matter what the teacher's style, grade level, subject matter, or economic background of the students a properly taught lesson contained eight elements that enhanced and maximized learning. She labeled the elements and began two decades of teacher training. The elements, referred to as Lesson Design, Target Teaching, or Clinical Teaching, have stood the test of time - still used today in most teacher colleges and as reference for judging teacher effectiveness in many school districts.

Madeline Hunter Within each element of Lesson Design, there are many sub-skills, methods, and techniques - each demanding training, practice, and review in order to attain mastery of the Hunter model. Knowing about or reading about Lesson Design will not likely produce flawless performance.

Hunters Lesson Design 1. Standards: Standards are an explanation of the type of lesson to be presented, procedures to be followed, and behavioral expectations related to it, what the students are expected to do, what knowledge or skills are to be demonstrated and in what manner. The teacher needs to know what standards of performance are to be expected and when pupils will be held accountable. The pupils should be informed about the standards of performance. demonstrated and in what manner.

Hunters Lesson Design 2. Objectives - The purpose of today's lesson, why the students need to learn it, what they will be able to "do", and how they will show learning as a result are made clear by the teacher. Before the lesson is prepared, the teacher should have a clear idea of what the teaching objectives are. What, specifically, should the student be able to do, understand, care about as a result of the teaching informal.

Hunters Lesson Design 3) Anticipatory Set (focus) - A short activity or prompt that focuses the students' attention before the actual lesson begins. Used when students enter the room or in a transition. A hand-out given to students at the door, review question written on the board, "two problems" on the overhead are examples of AS. or Set Induction: sometimes called a "hook" to grab the student's attention: actions and statements by the teacher to relate the experiences of the students to the objectives of the lesson. To put students into a receptive frame of mind.

Hunters Lesson Design 4) Teaching/Presentation Input - The teacher provides the information needed for students to gain knowledge or skill.

Hunters Lesson Design Teaching/Presentation Modeling (show) - Once the material has been presented, the teacher uses it to show students examples of what is expected as an end product of their work. The critical aspects are explained through labeling, categorizing, comparing, etc. Students are taken to the application level (problem-solving, comparison, summarizing, etc.) The teacher shows in graphic form or demonstrates what the finished product looks like.

Hunters Lesson Design Teaching/Presentation Checking For Understanding (CFU) - The teacher uses a variety of questioning strategies to determine "Got it yet?" and to pace the lesson - move forward?/back up? It is essential that students practice doing it right so the teacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practice. If there is any doubt that the class has not understood, the concept/skill should be taught again before practice begins.

Hunters Lesson Design Teaching/Presentation Checking For Understanding Questioning strategies: asking questions that go beyond mere recall to probe for the higher levels of understanding...to ensure memory network binding and transfer. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a structure for questioning that is hierarchical and cumulative. It provides guidance to the teacher in structuring questions at the level of proximal development, i.e., a level at which the pupil is prepared to cope. Questions progress from the lowest to the highest of the six levels of the cognitive domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Hunters Lesson Design 5) Guided practice: An opportunity for each student to demonstrate new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teacher's direct supervision. The teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needed. Guided Practice (follow me) - The teacher leads the students through the steps necessary to perform the skill using the trimodal approach - hear/see/do.

Hunters Lesson Design 6) Independent practice: Once pupils have mastered the content or skill, it is time to provide for reinforcement practice. It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten. It may be home work or group or individual work in class. It can be utilized as an element in a subsequent project. It should provide for decontextualization: enough different contexts so that the skill/concept may be applied to any relevant situation...not only the context in which it was originally learned.

Hunters Lesson Design 7) Closure: Those actions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson presentation to an appropriate conclusion. Used to help students bring things together in their own minds, to make sense out of what has just been taught.

Hunters Lesson Design Closure is used: to cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson, to help organize student learning, to help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc., to reinforce the major points to be learned...to help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possibilities for cues for retrieval. Closure is the act of reviewing and clarifying the key points of a lesson, tying them together into a coherent whole, and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the student's conceptual network.

Grahams Lesson Plan (Hunter Style) Standards ELA 1. Students will read, write, listen and speak for information and understanding. Performance Indicators Gather and interpret information Ask specific questions to clarify and extend meaning Present information clearly in a variety of oral or written forms Personal health and fitness 1.Students will have the necessary knowledge and skills to establish and maintain physical fitness, participate in physical activity and maintain personal health. Performance Indicators Demonstrate mastery of fundamental motor, nonlocomotor and manipulative skills, and understand fundamental principles of movement.

Instructional Objectives An objective is a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent. An objective describes an intended result of instruction, rather than the process of instruction itself.

REASONS FOR STATING OBJECTIVES When clearly defined objectives are lacking, there is no sound basis for the selection or designing of instructional materials, content, or methods. If you don't know where you are going, it is difficult to select a suitable means for getting there

REASONS FOR STATING OBJECTIVES A second important reason for stating objectives sharply has to do with finding out whether the objective has, in fact, been accomplished.

REASONS FOR STATING OBJECTIVES Test or examinations are the mileposts along the road of learning and are supposed to tell instructors AND students whether they have been successful in achieving the course objectives. But unless objectives are stated clearly and are fixed in the minds of both parties, tests are at best misleading; at worst, they are irrelevant, unfair, or uninformative.

REASONS FOR STATING OBJECTIVES Test items designed to measure whether important instructional outcomes have been accomplished can be selected or created intelligently only when those instructional outcomes have been made explicit.

REASONS FOR STATING OBJECTIVES A third advantage of clearly defined objectives is that they provide students with a means to organize their own efforts toward accomplishment of those objectives. Experience has shown that with clear objectives in view, students at all levels are better able to decide what activities on their part will help them get to where it is important for them to go.

Qualities of Useful Objectives Useful objectives contain an Audience, the Behavior (performance), a Condition, and a Degree (criterion).

Qualities of Useful Objectives Audience (The Who) Your objectives should be directed at your audience. "The student will be able to…"

Qualities of Useful Objectives Behavior An objective always says what a learner is expected to be able to do. The objective sometimes describes the product or result of the doing

Qualities of Useful Objectives Behavior Ask yourself, what is the learner doing when demonstrating achievement of the objective?

Qualities of Useful Objectives Condition An objective always describes the important conditions (if any) under which the performance is to occur.

Qualities of Useful Objectives Degree Wherever possible, an objective describes the criterion of acceptable performance by describing how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable.

Instructional Objectives: Behavioral Objective format: Students will demonstrate their [knowledge, understanding, skill, etc.] of/to [concept, skill, etc.] by [activity performed to meet the lesson objective] according to [standard]. Example: Each student will demonstrate achievement of the skill of addition of whole numbers by adding columns of figures with paper and pencil accurately nine out of ten times individually in class.

Grahams Lesson Plan (Hunter Style) Objective(s) A-B-C-D- - Audience - Behavior - Condition - Degree The student will be able to verbally explain the mechanics of juggling three balls with two out of three steps correct. The student will be able to juggle two scarves for thirty seconds without dropping a scarf. The student will be able to juggle three scarves for thirty seconds without dropping any scarf. The student will be able to juggle one ball for thirty seconds without dropping a ball. The student will be able to juggle two balls for thirty seconds without dropping a ball. The student will be able to juggle three balls for thirty seconds without dropping a ball. The student will be able to write the steps in sequential order with 100% accuracy.

Grahams Lesson Plan (Hunter Style) Anticipatory Set The students will view a picture and share their reaction with the teacher. The students will discuss in small groups the most amazing juggling act they have ever seen. The students will attempt to identify any famous juggler.

Nels Cremean Here is a juggling video.

The Teaching… 4) Teaching/Presentation Input - The teacher provides the information needed for students to gain knowledge or skill.

Modeling Once the material has been presented, the teacher uses it to show students examples of what is expected as an end product of their work. The critical aspects are explained through labeling, categorizing, comparing, etc. Students are taken to the application level (problem-solving, comparison, summarizing, etc.) The teacher shows in graphic form or demonstrates what the finished product looks like.

Modeling Checking For Understanding (CFU) - The teacher uses a variety of questioning strategies to determine "Got it yet?" and to pace the lesson - move forward?/back up? It is essential that students practice doing it right so the teacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practice. If there is any doubt that the class has not understood, the concept/skill should be taught again before practice begins.

Modeling Checking For Understanding Questioning strategies: asking questions that go beyond mere recall to probe for the higher levels of understanding...to ensure memory network binding and transfer. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a structure for questioning that is hierarchical and cumulative. It provides guidance to the teacher in structuring questions at the level of proximal development, i.e., a level at which the pupil is prepared to cope. Questions progress from the lowest to the highest of the six levels of the cognitive domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Closure Closure is used: to cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson, to help organize student learning, to help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc., to reinforce the major points to be learned...to help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possibilities for cues for retrieval. Closure is the act of reviewing and clarifying the key points of a lesson, tying them together into a coherent whole, and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the student's conceptual network..

Independent practice 7) Independent practice: Once pupils have mastered the content or skill, it is time to provide for reinforcement practice. It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten. It may be home work or group or individual work in class. It can be utilized as an element in a subsequent project. It should provide for decontextualization: enough different contexts so that the skill/concept may be applied to any relevant situation...not only the context in which it was originally learned..

Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe (1998) Understanding by Design www.ascd.org

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