Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pair-Instability Explosions: observational evidence Avishay Gal-Yam, Weizmann Institute Nikko 2012.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Pair-Instability Explosions: observational evidence Avishay Gal-Yam, Weizmann Institute Nikko 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pair-Instability Explosions: observational evidence Avishay Gal-Yam, Weizmann Institute Nikko 2012

2 The Core-Collapse Spectrum Lower mass limit unclear: <7..11 solar; stable C/O core M: 7-11 RSG=II-P M: 8-16M: W-R = Ib/c? M: GRB M: NS BH SN IIn M: PI SNe M> 150 BH No remnantNS EC SN? AIC BSG

3 Pair Instability Supernovae (PISNe) (Shaviv & Rakavi 1967; Barkat, Rakavi & Sack 1967 ; Heger & Woosley 2002; Waldman 2008 …) * Helium cores above ~50 solar masses become pair unstable “Smoking gun”: Core mass > 50 solar * In these low-density high-T cores,  e + e - wins over oxygen ignition, heat is converted to rest mass and implosion follows * “This is a uniquely calculable process” (Heger & Woosley 2002); “this is a trivial calculation” (Barkat 2009); “Pretty neat homework problem” (Gal-Yam 1996) * Inertial oxygen ignition leads to explosion and full disruption Waldman

4 Pair Instability Supernovae (PISNe) * Helium cores above the threshold robustly explode * PISNe care not for metallicity, but for mass loss * PISNe progenitors seem not to exist in our Galaxy – require M > 140 solar - (though transitional pulsational events might) * At the early Universe, M~1000 stars may have existed (or not)

5 SN 2007bi=SNF (PTF “dry run”) Core mass > 50 robustly established; Gal-Yam et al. 2009, Nature, 462, 624 * Type Ic SN. No H, He, no interaction, no dust, v=12000 km/s * Luminous peak (-21.3), slow rise (~77 days), 56 Co decay * ejected mass ~100 solar, E k ~1e53, 4-11 solar masses of 56 Ni (87A) * Well-fit by models (Kasen) * Nebular spectra: 4-6 solar mass of 56 Ni; >50 solar total (Direct comparison with 98bw; Mazzali models)

6 Alternative model? Moriya et al. 2010

7 Alternative model? Moriya et al Same amount of 56 Ni within a smaller total ejecta mass: emission lines too strong. CC model cannot explain SN 2007bi nebular spectra (caveat)

8 Implications for mass loss Yoshida & Umeda 2011 If CC model ruled out, either we have found stars with initial mass > 500 solar, or standard mass loss theory needs to be revised

9 Extreme host Neill et al. 2010

10 PTF 10nmn: new results from PTF (Yaron) SN 2007bi lookalike

11 PTF 10nmn: new results from PTF (Yaron) Complicated light curve, but slow rise (in favor of PISN)

12 PTF 10nmn: new results from PTF (Yaron) Nebular spectrum: Ni 56 =5, total=100 solar; lots of C/O (and Ca); IR: key observable (but tough)

13 PTF 10nmn: new results from PTF (Yaron) Host: another dwarf (<< LMC); HST needed

14 PTF 10nmn: new results from PTF (Yaron) Rate at low-z is about ~1 per year, these are ~5 times rarer than SLSN-I (roughly): truly at top of the IMF Roughly consistent with prediction from stellar runaway collision model (Pan, Kasen & Loeb) ~10 -9 Mpc 3

15 More local examples Gal-Yam 2012, Science Nomoto talk; Moriya model

16 PISNe at high redshift (Cooke) PISNe are also detected at high redshifts (Cooke; PS1) Cooke, Sullivan, Barton, Gal-Yam+ (Preliminary)

17 PISNe at high redshift (Cooke) PISNe are also detected at high redshifts (~4) They are also rare there At the top of the IMF also at high-z

18 Implications (Gal-Yam et al. 2009) * A helium core ~100 solar detected at Z ~ SMC Many mass loss models are wrong (c.f Langer models) * PISNe happen locally, Universally, SN models are ~ok * Dwarfs have stars above Galactic limit (>200 solar, probably) * Hydrogen efficiently removed (pulsations?)

19 19 Implications (observational)

20 Dwarf and giant galaxies: different populations of massive star explosions (Arcavi et al. 2010) Arcavi et al. 2010, ApJ, 721, 777

21 Superluminous Supernovae (SLSNe) Gal-Yam 2012, Science

22 The Weizmann Institute of Science Experimental Astrophysics Spectroscopy System (WISEASS)

23

24

25

26 WISEASS: Browse and download Archive your published spectra Dataset hosting

27 Thanks (and happy birthday Giorgios)


Download ppt "Pair-Instability Explosions: observational evidence Avishay Gal-Yam, Weizmann Institute Nikko 2012."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google