Presentation on theme: "The Role of Research in National and International Economic Development Dr. Ian Carter Director of Research and Enterprise University of Sussex, UK Lynne."— Presentation transcript:
The Role of Research in National and International Economic Development Dr. Ian Carter Director of Research and Enterprise University of Sussex, UK Lynne Chronister VP for Research and Economic Development University of South Alabama, USA INORMS Washington DC April 2014
Outline I. Direct and Indirect Impacts on the Economy -Education/human capital impact -Construction/production -Induced Impacts -Direct Financial impact -Research impact II. Research, Innovation, and Impact III. Building an Innovation Ecosystem for Economic Development
In the U.S. high tech firms in their communities account for the creation of 4.3 jobs to each high-tech job they established vs 1.4 jobs from manufacturing 2011 – North American incubators assisted ~49,000 start-up companies that provided ~200,000 full-time employees & generated almost $15 billion in revenue
Our Universities Sussex: -12 academic schools, covering science and medicine, social sciences, arts and humanities -2,100 staff (560 academic staff, 270 research staff) -13,000 students, of which 1,000 postgraduate research students -£180 million income ($270m), of which c£50 million research income ($75m) South Alabama: -8 academic schools, covering science and medicine, engineering, computing, social sciences, arts and humanities, 3 hospitals -5,500 staff (over 1,000 academic and research staff) -15,400 students, of which 3,000 postgraduate research students -$960 million income, of which $42 million research income
I. Direct and Indirect Impact on the Economy Human Capital Construction / Renovation / Maintenance University payroll Direct local spending Knowledge creation Development of new products and technologies Improvement of existing technologies New Business development/start-up ventures Research Parks and Incubators
What is Impact? Journal Impact Factors and article citation rates -UK: 4% of researchers; 6% of articles; 12% of citations; 16% of highly-cited [BIS/Elsevier] “Economic Impact” -Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD) as %age of GDP -UK:1.8%; EU 2%; EU target 3%; US 2.8% [OECD] -UK: 61% Business; 27% HE; 9% Government [BIS] -UK: 10 companies represent 34%; 50 for 56%; 40% is non-UK in origin [CIHE/UK~IRC] Socio-economic Innovation -Economic, Social, Public policy, Cultural, Environmental, Quality of life, Education
Economic Development through People Graduates into the workforce -What skills, knowledge and behaviours are relevant? Support of innovators -Access to expertise and facilities Skills enhancement -Provision of continuing professional development Advisors to businesses, governments, and NGOs -Enhancing policy development and environmental knowledge
Innovation Flow Chart RESEARCH INNOVATION DISSEMINATION TRADE SECRET NEW KNOWLEDGE APPLICATION INVENTION ECONOMIC (and other) BENEFIT SOCIETAL (and economic) BENEFIT INNOVATION e.g. health, welfare, workforce development
Evolving Role of Universities in Economic Development InventionsInventions Education & Research PartnershipsPartnerships Commercialization Local, Regional, National and InternationalLocal, Regional, National and International Economic Development
Why do we do research? ‘…the real and legitimate goal of the sciences is the endowment of human life with new inventions and riches’ Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, 1620 ‘ Intellectual enquiry is worthwhile for its own sake’ David Willetts, UK Minister for Universities and Science, 2010 Governments are interested in research because it: -fosters global economic performance, & specifically the country’s economic competitiveness; -increases the effectiveness of its public services & policy; -enhances quality of life, health & creative output of its citizens.
Because … If you do not engage in research, discovery and creativity, tomorrow will look just like today!
What is Innovation? ‘A new way of doing something’ ‘The translation of ideas / intellectual property (from anywhere) into socio-economically productive activities’ ‘Invention is the first occurrence of an idea for a new product or process, while innovation is the first attempt to carry it out into practice’
Types of Innovation Technology innovation OECD innovation types: -Process, Product, Marketing, Organisational Policy innovation Innovation in socio-cultural behaviours Overlapping, but different, perspectives on innovation: -Commercial, Governmental, Research Base
The Relationship of Research to Impact Research → Research outputs → Knowledge Transfer / Exchange activities → Socio-economic activity → Socio-economic impact
Chicken or Egg? Is knowledge exchange part of the research process? Or is research part of the innovation process? Governmental desire to support / initiate economic development -Interventions that are not research -Danger of individuals and institutions acting as if the activities are research -These are service contracts, with contractual deliverables Ground-breaking research and innovation both require flexibility and freedom to react -Not a standard purchase of a commodity -Overhead involved in measurement of the immeasurable
III. Building an Innovation Ecosystem for Economic Development Building the Mechanisms for Economic Development: Application-based / translational research focus Build Infrastructure to exploit research outcomes Technology transfer Entrepreneurship programs Research parks/Incubators Funding mechanisms Gap Funding Angel Investment
Company Founders Angels Strong Academic Ties Research Organization Memberships Multiple Directorships Mentoring Entrepreneurs U.S.A Support Ecosystem
The Competing Perspectives Corporate Perspective -Effect on the bottom line -New product / service / process development -Customer acquisition and retention -Competitive position -Rate of return -Timescales short to medium term; can depend on size and sector Research Base Perspective -Translation into practice research supply chain; innovation in the research process -Plurality of dissemination and impact -‘Impact’ in teaching, research, economic, social, cultural, societal areas -Timescales are often long Governmental Perspective -National (industrial) competitiveness -Employment -Tax returns -Economic effects (macro and micro) -Social cohesion effects -Standard of living -Investment for the future -Policy development -Timescales theoretically long; but sometimes driven on a shorter term, e.g. political / election / funding / ministerial cycles
Geographic Challenges or Opportunities? Is university-supported economic development constrained by geography? How can international economic development be supported?