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Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

2 Motivation versus Emotion
Emotion, a subjective sensation experienced as a type of psycho-physiological arousal, is different from motivation in that it has no goal or direction connected with it. Emotions result from the interaction of the (a) perception of environmental stimuli, (b) neural/hormonal responses to these perceptions (feelings), and (c) cognitive labeling of these feelings. There is a small core of emotions (6 to 8) that are uniquely associated with a specific facial expressions (Izard, 1992). This suggests that these are “hard-wired” in human beings. Izard, C. E. (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99 (3), Definitions of Motivation and emotion retrieved from Bill Huitt at

3 What is emotion? “Like so many psychological phenomena, emotion is easily recognized but hard to define. Most theories hold that emotion is a syndrome or complex entity with many components: physiological (autonomic nervous system), cognitive events, sensory input, behavioral correlates.” Benoit, Anthony G. (2002). Emotion and Motivation. Retrieved from   Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

4 ANGER SERIOUS SADNESS SURPRISE FEAR What good is emotion? Emotions (a) prepare us for action, (b) shape our behavior (emotions are reinforcing), (c) regulate social interaction, (d) facilitate communication nonverbally, (e) facilitate adult-child relations and thus development, (f) make life worth living by adding value to experience, and (g) allow us to respond flexibly to our environment (approaching good, avoiding bad). Emotions are usually inseparable from their communication. Most people do not have a "poker face," and we generally find a person's emotional response to be obvious. Knowing how someone feels helps us evaluate how they will act. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 SADNESS JOY ANGER FEAR SURPRISE

5 MORE ABOUT EMOTIONS ■ Emotions are largely a conscious phenomena. ■ They involve more bodily manifestations than other conscious states. ■ They vary along a number of dimensions: intensity, type, origin, arousal, value, self-regulation, etc. ■ They are reputed to be “antagonists of rationality.” ■ They protect us from a “slavish devotion” to rationality. ■ They play an indispensable role in determining the quality of life and defining our priorities. ■ They have a central place in moral education and moral life through conscience, empathy, and many specific moral emotions such as shame, guilt, and remourse. The are inextrictably linked to virtues. A paraphrased version of a list included in EMOTION by Ronald de Sousa. Retrived from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy at

6 Three Ways to Measure Emotion
Behavior – screaming, facial expressions, laughing, aggression, approach/avoidance, activity level, smiling, attention/distraction, alertness, insomnia, anhedonia, etc. Body/Physical – blood pressure, tears, heart rate, neural images, lie detector readings, posture, perspiration, adrenaline, muscle activity when smiling, frowning, etc. Thoughts – observed indirectly through: spoken and written words on rating scales; answers to open-ended questions on surveys and during interviews; responses to projective instruments, sentence stems, etc. Emotion can interfere with many cognitive operations such as rational/logical thinking and the ability to objectively self-assess or perceive the behavior and intentions of others. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

Newborns show only pleasure and distress. Social smiles are first seen at 2-3 months. Anger is first seen between 4 and 6 months. They are more fearful in unfamiliar places. Fear depends on stranger’s behavior. Stranger wariness is first seen at 6 months. Begin to identify others’ emotions at 6 months. Facial expression is associated with emotions. Looks to mother or father for proper emotion in unfamiliar situations beginning at 9 months. Click to learn more Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

8 Affection for adults Elation Joy Delight Excitement Distress Anger
Affection for children Affection for adults Elation Joy Delight Excitement Distress Anger Jealousy Disgust Fear Months Bridges (1932) found that emotions are rapidly differentiated from an initial capacity for excitement. Today, there is interest in genetically determined temperamental characteristics from which personality forms, such as sociability. K. M. B. Bridges, (1932). Emotional development in early infancy. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 37.

9 Neurophysiology Emotion Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

10 Neural Pathways of Emotion
Joseph LeDoux (1998) found evidence for two neural pathways in the processing of fear. The fast route is quick, inaccurate, life-saving: Sight → Thalamus → Amygdala The slow route is precise, complex, sluggish: Sight → Thalamus → Visual cortex → Amygdala Route one allows for instant action and is relatively inaccurate; so it produces false positives. Route two is precise and can reduce the response to fear if the situation is appraised to be safe after all factors are considered. LeDoux, J. (1998) The Emotional Brain. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Vaughan, Bell (2002). Motivation and Emotion. PPT slide retrieved from Related MS Word lecture at Written permission for use granted.

11 So the Brain Executes an Emotional Shortcut In Crises
We feel some emotions before we think. Some neural pathways involved in emotion bypass the cortical areas involved in thinking. Two such pathways run from the eye and ear via the thalamus to the amygdala, which is the emotional control center. This shortcut enables a quick, pre-thought emotional response before the intellect gets consciously involved. The thinking cortex can eventually override the “decision” of the amygdala to react. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

12 Two Routes to Emotion 2 Appraisal 2 2 2 1 Event Emotional Response
Do they operate separately? Concurrently? Or both? Two Routes to Emotion 2 Appraisal 2 2 Lazarus / Schachter 2 1 Emotional Response Event Zajonc / LeDoux Lazarus disagrees. He says, ,no matter what, there has to be some cogntive appraisal – otherwise, how do we know what we are reacting to? This appraisal may not require conscious thinking Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

13 Primary & Secondary Emotions
A distinction between primary and secondary emotions has been proposed. Primary emotions are probably innate and universal and include fear, rage, surprise, happiness, joy, disgust (Ortony and Turner, 1990). Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What's basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, Secondary emotions are more complex and appear to be acquired or learned (Damasio, 1999) and include optimism, love, humiliation, hope, vigilance, optimism. Damasio links secondary emotions with the orbitofrontal cortex (behind the eyes). Damasio, A.R. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Orlando: Harcourt Brace. Vaughan, Bell (2002). Motivation and Emotion. PPT slide retrieved from Related MS Word lecture at Written permission granted. Damasio, A.R. (1994) Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. New York: G.P. Putnam. Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What's basic about basic emotions ? Psychological Review, 97,

14 Anterior Nuclei of Thalamus
Gyruc Cinguli Hippocampal Formation PAPEZ CIRCUIT Mamillary Body Anterior Nuclei of Thalamus In 1937 emotion was linked to the limbic system by Papez. He stated that the hypothalamus, anterior thalamic nuclei, gyrus cinguli, and hippocampus elaborate functions of emotion. MacLean used the terms "limbic system" in 1952 and identified three specific subdivisions: the amygdala, septal, and thalamocingulate. He postulated that the limbic brain responds to inputs from internal and external sources. The closed circuit between the limbic system and the thalamus and hypothalamus is the Papez circuit. The fornix connects the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus, which project to the anterior nuclei of the thalamus. The nuclei of the thalamus complete the closed circuit through fibers to the hippocampus. These interconnections combine to form the neural basis of emotion. For more detail see

15 The Amygdala LeDoux Amygdala Identified as crucial in fear
Anterior Nucleus of Dorsal Thalamus Mammillothalamic Tract Cingulate Gyrus The Amygdala LeDoux Identified as crucial in fear Fear conditioning in animals Trace route from audition Fornix Basal Forebrain Nuclei Sensory Cortex Mammillary Body Sensory Thalamus Hypothalamus, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Parahippocampal Gyrus Amygdala Hippocampus Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulb Medial Basal Forebrain and Hypothalamus Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

16 Face & Emotion: Paul Ekman
Multicultural/Evolutionary Theory 1 - Universal neurophysiology in the facial muscles 2 - Culture-specific variations in the expression of emotion Seven Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion: Anger, Happiness, Fear, Surprise, Disgust, Sadness, and Contempt Ekman, Paul (2003). Emotions Revealed : Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life. New York: Henry Holt & Company; Copy for the slide above taken from a PPT slide set by Evette Samaan available at Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels 2005.

17 Hormones and Emotion You perceive the sensory stimulus.
The adrenal gland sends out two hormones: epinephrine and norepinephrine. They activate the sympathetic nervous system. That produces arousal or alertness that provides the body with the energy to act (pupils dilate, the heart beat races, and breathing quickens. Info for this slide taken from Evette Samaan at Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

18 (1) Differential Emotions (5) Schachter-Singer Appraisal
Theories of Emotion: (1) Differential Emotions (2) James-Lange, (3) Cannon-Bard, (4) Opponent-Process, (5) Schachter-Singer Appraisal (6) OCC Model Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

19 Basic Emotions Theorist(s) Basis for Inclusion Plutchik Arnold
acceptance, anger, anticipation, disgust, joy, fear, sadness, surprise Biological Adaptation Related (Evolutionary) Arnold anger, aversion, courage, dejection, desire, despair, fear, hate, hope, love, sadness Relation to action tendencies Ekman, Friesen, and Ellsworth anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise Universal Facial Expressions Frijda desire, happiness, interest, surprise, wonder, sorrow Forms of Action Readiness Gray rage and terror, anxiety, joy Hardwired Izard anger, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, guilt, interest, joy, shame, surprise James fear, grief, love, rage Bodily Involvement McDougall anger, disgust, elation, fear, subjection, tender-hearted, wonder Relation to Instincts Mowrer pain, pleasure Unlearned Oatley and Johnson-Laird anger, disgust, anxiety, happiness, sadness No Propositional Content Requirded Panksepp expectancy, fear, rage, panic Tomkins anger, interest, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, joy, shame, surprise Density of Neural Firing Watson fear, love, rage Weiner & Graham Attribution Independent Chart taken with permisson from Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What's basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97,

20 Plutchik's Psycho- Evolutionary Theory of Basic Emotions
The concept of emotion is applicable to all evolutionary levels and applies to animals as well as to humans. Emotion serves an adaptive role in helping organisms deal with key survival issues posed by the environment. There is a small number of basic primary or prototype emotions. All other emotions are mixed or derivative states; they occur as combinations, mixtures, or compounds of primary emotions. Primary emotions can be conceptualized as pairs of opposites. All emotions vary in their degree of similarity to each other. Emotions have an evolutionary history and have evolved various forms of expression in different species. Despite different forms of expression of emotions in different species, there are certain common elements, or prototype patterns, that can be identified. Primary emotions are hypothethical constructs or idealized states whose properties and characteristics can only be inferred from various kinds of evidence. Each emotion can exist in varying degrees of intensity or levels of arousal. 2 1 10 Plutchik's Psycho- Evolutionary Theory of Basic Emotions Has Ten Postulates 3 9 8 4 7 5 6 Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience: Vol. 1. Theories of emotion (pp. 3-33). New York: Academic.

21 Differential Emotions Theory (Izard & Malatesta, 1987) Slide modelled after Farmer, Marion (2002) & #13 Nine basic emotions: interest, joy, sadness, surprise, anger, fear, disgust, contempt, and shame. Three components for each: • Neural: each emotion is linked to a particular neural substratum. • Motor-expressive: each is expressed in a distinct manner. • Mental: each is associated with a specific feeling tone. For each emotion the three components are innately linked and are initially organised in a rigid, stereotypical manner. Basic emotions all have unique adaptive value, biological functions, and social functions. Emotions emerge when they first become adaptive to the individual; some are present at birth e.g. disgust. Development of emotions takes place in synchrony with perceptual, motor and cognitive development, but the link is indirect. The need for new emotions emerges with new cognition, mobility, and perceptions. The regulation of affect also moves through a development process. Emotions constitute the primary motivation for human behavior. Izard, C. E., & Malatesta, C. Z. (1987). Perspectives on emotional development I: Differential emotions theory of early emotional development. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed). Handbook of Infant Development. New York: Wiley Interscience. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

22 This theory has 4 problems.
Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion) James-Lange Theory of Emotion Physiological changes occur before the emotion and create the feelings we label as emotions: stimulating situation → physiological changes → emotion labeling. A visceral experience (gut reaction) is labeled as an emotion. We have some autonomic reactions to stimuli. We observe these physical sensations and label them as feelings. The visceral response may not occur quickly enough to account for sudden emotions Research suggests that some visceral responses are not interpreted as emotions. 3. The range of emotions is broader and more complex than the range of gut reactions. But recent PET scans suggest physiological correlates of emotional states are more specific than once thought. This theory has 4 problems. 4. Even though James predicted that the loss of bodily sensation through spinal injury would depress emotions, this is not the case. Some report an increase in emotional intensity. Benoit, Anthony G. (2002). Emotion and Motivation. Retrieved from Slide arranged by Vessels 2005.

23 (Perception of Stimulus) Autonomic Nervous System
Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 This theory proposes that emotion-eliciting stimuli are relayed simultaneously to the cortex and organs of the sympathetic nervous system. When stimuli reach the thalamus, this part of the midbrain activates a physical reaction and an emotional response. Pounding Heart (Arousal) Sight of Oncoming Car (Perception of Stimulus) Autonomic Nervous System Cerebral CORTEX Fear (Emotion) The thalamus is a crossroads for sensory pathways, and it simultaneously signals the autonomic nervous system and the cerebral cortex. But the rest of the limbic system, particularly the hypothalamus and amygdala, are known to play a role in emotional responses. A physiological response and an emotional reaction may not be simultaneous. Cannon-Bard theory

24 Opponent Process Theory
•     Opponent Process Theory Richard Solomon’s Opponent Process Theory states that once a particular emotional reaction has been activated, the brain tries to regain homeostasis by initiating the opposite reaction. First Exposure } Adaptation A Response A Response B - Response } Negative After Image Stimulus Later Exposure A - Response B - Response Stimulus Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

25 APPRAISAL THEORIES Arnold (1960) introduced appraisal into psychology by describing it as the process by which a person determines the significance of their situation. Appraisal gives rise to attraction or aversion, and emotion is equated with a "felt tendency toward anything intuitively appraised as good (beneficial), or away from anything intuitively appraised as bad (harmful)." Lazarus (1991) said appraisals are necessary and sufficient for emotion, and he saw each emotion as being completely determined by the patterns of appraisal giving rise to them. Appraisal theorists think the cognitive processes underlying emotion are conscious or unconscious, and propositional or non-propositional. Cognitivists say emotions involve propositional attitudes: one can't be angry unless another is guilty; one can't be envious unless another has something good. By Ronald de Sousa, Retrived from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 3-05

26 EMOTION Cognition: Appraisal Expression: Overt Physiology: Arousal
Expression – overt display – facial feedback hypothesis Created by Dr. Gordon Vesselss 2005

27 Appraisal Theory: Schachter-Singer
Pounding Heart (Arousal) Sight of Oncoming Car (Perception of Stimulus) Appraisal Theory: Schachter-Singer “two factor” or “social-environmental context and arousal” theory Fear (emotion) Cognitive Label After Appraising Social- Environmental Context: “I’m afraid” This is the theoretical basis for canned laughter. A stimulus causes physiological arousal; this stimulus is considered in light of environmental and social cues. The arousal is then interpreted as an emotional state based on these cues. In other words, the environment, particularly the behavior of other people, is used to explain the physiological state. Events relevant to one’s well-being are important factors in determining their emotional response. Benoit, Anthony G. (2002). Emotion and Motivation. Retrieved from Slide arranged by Vessels 2005.

28 Appraisal Theories Arnold (1960) was concerned with the missing piece of the puzzle in explaining emotion. What causes the reaction in the first place ? He concluded there must be some sort of appraisal process by which we analyze a situation. This produces an action tendency (bear → run). Emotion is the outcome of this process. He proposed that this is unconscious as it happens, but we should be able to reflect back on the appraisal process afterwards to examine what happened. Arnold, M.B. (1960) Emotion and Personality. New York: Columbia University Press. Vaughan, Bell (2002). Motivation and Emotion. PPT slide retrieved from Related MS word lecture at Written for use permission granted.

29 OCC Model Event, Agent, or Object of Appraisal Goals (events)
Ortony, Clore and Collins's theory proposes that the emotions we experience depend on what we focus on in situations. Emotions are seen as pos. or neg. reactions to things. They are descriptions of a person's reaction to events, people, and objects in the environment. These appraisals are reactions to the environment. This theory yields different types of emotions represented by token words. It makes a distinction between examining emotion words and examining the emotions. This circumplex approach focuses on emotion words and how they are used rather than on emotions and how they are created. OCC Model Event, Agent, or Object of Appraisal appraised in terms of Goals (events) Norms/Standards (agents’ actions) Tastes/Attitude (objects) joy distress hope anxiety relief optimism anger gratitude gratification remorse vigilance pride shame admiration reproach guilt love hate Loathing awe interest GOAL-BASED EMOTIONS COMPOUND EMOTIONS STANDARDS-BASED EMOTION ATTITUDE-BASED EMOTIONS Ruebenstrunk, Gerd (n.d.). PPT slide found at used as a model by Vessels 2005.

30 Level of social support
Life events Personal appraisal Challenge Threat Personality type Easygoing Non-Depressed Optimistic Hostile Depressed Pessimistic Personality habits Nonsmoking Regular Exercise Good Nutrition Smoking Sedentary Poor Nutrition Level of social support Close, Enduring Lacking Tendency toward Health Illness Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels


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