Presentation on theme: "Emotions in intercultural encounters during the Year Abroad Towards new perspectives on research and pedagogy SoniaGallucci University of Sheffield Sonia."— Presentation transcript:
Emotions in intercultural encounters during the Year Abroad Towards new perspectives on research and pedagogy SoniaGallucci University of Sheffield Sonia Gallucci University of Sheffield 09 July July 2009
Main aims of this presentation Highlight the role of individuals’ emotions in intercultural encounters in actual face-to-face interaction (e.g. Pavlenko: 2005). Highlight the ways in which individuals can experience cultural difference according to the concept of Intercultural Sensitivity (Bennett: 1986, 1993, 2000, 2004).
Organisation 1. The Year Abroad & the cultural turn in studies of the YA 2. A study of three British YA students in Italy 3. Some examples
1. The Year Abroad (YA) The British HE system requires students of foreign languages to spend a YA - ERASMUS exchange programme (one of the large-scale EU student mobility schemes) 1987: EU commission & academic community to promote cooperation between universities & expand EU work market (3,000 students) 1995 – 2006: ERASMUS + SOCRATES (including Schools & AE) 2007 – 2013: Lifelong Learning Programme (9 sectors including ERASMUS) (150,000 students)
THE CULTURAL TURN IN STUDIES OF THE YA Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) Hoselitz,1954; Gardner, researchers interested in technical assistance and the work of Peace Corps volunteers abroad. “[T]he ability to behave appropriately in intercultural situations, the affective and cognitive capacity to establish and maintain intercultural relationships and the ability to stabilise one’s self identity while mediating between cultures” (Byram & Feng, 2006: 211) Intercultural Awareness (IA) origins in the concept of Cross Cultural Awareness - analysis of education for a global perspective in order to enhance individuals’ abilities to understand and to become aware of their condition in the community and around the world (Hanvey, 1976: 1). Intercultural Sensitivity (IS) Developmental Model of IS (DMIS) proposed by Bennett (1986) to describe individuals’ responses to cultural difference. “The construction of reality is increasingly capable of accommodating cultural difference, and this constitutes development” (Bennett, 1993: 24)
DMIS: further details a framework to explain the observed & reported experiences of people in intercultural situations Development of Intercultural Sensitivity Experience of difference Denial Defence Minimalization Acceptance Adaptation Integration Ethnocentric Ethnorelative Stages Stages Isolation Separation DENIAL Denigration Superiority Reversal DEFENCE Physical & Transcendent universalism MINIMIZATION Respect for behavioural & Values difference ACCEPTANCE Empathy Pluralism ADAPTATION Contextual evaluation Constructive marginality INTEGRATION (adapted from Bennett: 2000)
3. A STUDY OF THREE BRITISH YA STUDENTS IN ITALY Participants Context Research questions Analytic approach
Research questions 1. How was participants’ intercultural communication evolving during the YA? Specifically, to what extent was their Intercultural Sensitivity developing? 2. To what extent were participants’ emotions bound up with the ways in which they were experiencing, and dealing with cultural difference in actual (face-to-face) encounters? 3. What range of learning environments and social networks, with opportunities for speaking in Italian, could be identified for the participants?
Analytic approach PARTICIPANTS’ SENSITIVITY TO CULTURAL DIFFERENCE Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) (Bennett: 2000) PARTICIPANTS’ COMMUNICATION OF EMOTIONS Affective Lexicon (Clore et al: 1987) / variety of cues to emotions in naturally occurring situations (Planalp et al: 1996)
CONDITION INTERNAL EXTERNAL NONMENTAL MENTAL AFFECT -FOCAL BEHAVIOUR- FOCAL COGNITION - FOCAL PHYSICAL & BODILY states e.g. aroused AFFECTIVE STATES AFFECTIVE- BEHAVIOURAL AFFECTIVE- COGNITIVE CONDITIONS CONDITIONS e.g. happy e.g. cheerful e.g. encouraged BEHAVIOURAL-COGNITIVE COGNITIVE CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS e.g. careful e.g. certain e.g. careful e.g. certain SUBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE SUBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE EVALUATION DESCRIPTION EVALUATION DESCRIPTION e.g. sexy e.g. abandoned e.g. sexy e.g. abandoned TAXONOMY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS: AFFECTIVE LEXICON (Clore et al, 1987: 753)
4. Some examples Communication of emotions Development of Intercultural Sensitivity
Communication of emotions
Communication of emotions – Daphne ANGER D: Mmm... yeah... in the beginning when I first got here, it was horrible and I was, I was a bit CROSS... but [laugh] because I wanted to come here and find it when I got here and not on the internet, ‘cause you can’t.. can’t see what you are getting. But when I actually got here and I didn’t have anywhere to go... I was really cross that my family would let me come and then... that someone hadn’t told me... oh I don’t know, because if someone had told me I’d have said ‘No, I’ll be fine’, but I wish that someone I had said to me ‘it will be really difficult and you just have to wait and be patient ’ NERVOUSNESS SELF-CONFIDENCE D: [yeah..] I think, I think so, it’s quite.. I was really nervous when I arrived and I found it hard to speak to people, and I found it quite hard.. to get to know at beginning, ‘cause I was nervous of making mistakes, as soon I spoke Italian and.. but now er.. (short pause) I don’t mind if I make mistakes because.. people still understand what I’m trying to say, and everyone is really friendly and (short pause with sigh) I think I’m a lot more confident, about speaking Italian, and I just get out and meet people in general.. yeah…
Communication of emotions – Ilaria Feeling offended I: although sometimes they say to me that I’ve still got an English accent, and it’s been really hard for me to loose it. My flatmate said “you speak really good Italian” but they can still tell I’m English, because I haven’t got the intonation. S: when they said that, did you get offended? I: erm... when they FIRST said it, I was a bit offended, then they said “EVEN for someone who has been living here for five years, six years, they could still tell, an Italian can still tell if someone is English or foreign. I think I’d need to live here for a long time, before being able to pick up the intonation. Or maybe just like listen to tapes or while someone is speaking in Italian. Feeling happy and sad I: … eh… mi sento un po’ triste che fra due mesi dovrò andare a casa. Però[:] ci ho vissuto una bella esperienza qua, è una cosa che io ricorderò per sempre e allora[:] sono anche felice. […] Cioè sono ancora contenta, sto ancora migliorando l’italiano (short pause), no solo che … è cominciata l’estate, e le giornate sono più … migliori per andare al mare, diciamo. (short pause) eh.. poi non ho più lezioni, sono finite e allora.. sono più libera di godere il sole … […] S: e.. è stata un’esperienza positiva, o così-così? I: no, molto positiva, sono molto contenta con quello che ho fatto, e.. lo rifarei se avessi l’opportunità. I: … eh … I feel a bit sad that in two months I’ll have to go home. But [:] I’ll have had a good experience here, it’s a thing that I’ll remember forever and so[:] I’m also happy. […] Namely, I’m happy that I’m still improving my Italian (short pause), it’s only that … the summer has started, and days are better to go … to the seaside, let’s say. (short pause) eh..then I don’t have lessons, they’ve finished and so.. I have more time to enjoy the sun … […] S: and…has it been a positive experience, or so-so? I: no, very positive, I’m very happy with what I’ve done, and… I would do it again if I had the opportunity.
Communication of emotions – Lucy PRIDE, MIXED FEELINGS S: so how do you feel? You’ve nearly finished your experience as an ERASMUS student, in Cagliari, and how do you feel about it? L: erm … I feel a big sense of satisfaction, because it was difficult at times, and now it’s over and I feel I made it, I got through, so I’m proud of myself. […] S: And do you have a general positive feeling about this experience or negative or so-so? What is your general impression of it? L: mmm… it’s quite mixed. I feel negative … because … I think I could have got out more from this experience if I’d in Italy arrived with a more … positive attitude, because I was erm… in a bit of a dark route (eh eh) when I arrived. And I think it affected how I picked up the language and … definitively my motivation. […] I feel very positive because I still managed to gain so much from this experience. My language skills have improved, greatly, and (pause) I’ve got a lot more confidence, in general, I feel like a more a outgoing person. HOMESICKNESS S: Good. I would like to ask something, erm... first of all ‘how do you feel about this experience in Cagliari? L: erm.. (short pause) I think I’m enjoying it. Erm... it’s.. I’m finding it difficult... it’s still a challenge. And I feel…erm…I just feel I’m really looking forward to going home at the moment. And getting the first.. CHUNK of this experience out of the way. Go home and then re-assess how I feel, and then come back out here “fresh”. I feel erm … yeah.. I feel like a need a holiday. [nervous laugh] S: oh … do you miss your.. country or your family? L: erm…I don’t really miss England exactly [short pause] erm… the weather in England it’s not so nice and gets you down, but I really r e a l l y really miss my sister, and my boyfriend, especially my boyfriend, I miss him very much.
Development of intercultural sensitivity
Daphne - ADAPTATION: empathy (attempt to understand by imagining or comprehending the other’s perspective) The strange graduation parties of the Italians D: […] la foto.. due, che è della vita universitaria, questa è un’amica italiana che.. è.. ha.. si è laureata a a.. a novembre, credo. Erm.. e.. (pause) erm… (pause) mm… l’ho scelta perché.. le feste della laurea in Italia o anch.., sì in Italia, in generale, credo, sono molto.. er.. strano per un inglese (eh eh) The picture n.2 is about the university life. This is an Italian friend who.. is…has… yes she graduated in in.. November, I think. Erm.. and.. (pause) mm.. I have chosen it because the graduation parties or also.., yes in Italy, in general, I think, they are very strange for an English person (eh eh).
In her house “Adesso andiamo per pranzare in un bar dove vado praticamente ogni giorno.” At the local bar “È molto bello perché mi sento più una parte della città, perché le persone mi riconoscono. È bello sì.” […][…] “È molto bello anche perché in Inghilterra non c’è una cultura … c’è una simile, ma è diverso, perché non è di solito che le persone eh sì, si siedono per un’ora per pranzo, per due ore e si rilassano. Qui è diverso … non so se mi spiego ma … è più rilassante, sì.” Paying at the bar and interacting with the waitress (the waitress has offered the coffee ) Video Ferrara 7 June 2007 “Now we’re going to a bar where I basically go to eat every day” “it’s really nice because I feel more as a part of the city, because people recognise me. It’s really beautiful” “It’s very nice also because in England there is not such a culture … there is one, but it’s different, because usually people yeah, it’s unlikely that they sit for an hour for lunch, for two hours and they relax. Here it’s different … I don’t know if I’m clear but … it’s more relaxing, yeah”. Daphne - INTEGRATION: constructive marginality (operating outside of ‘normal’ cultural boundaries. The experience of one’s self as a constant creator of one’s own reality. Cultural marginal mediating role)
Ilaria - ADAPTATION: pluralism Internalizing different cultural worldviews/increasing the number of cultures with which one identifies. Extending /developing alternative communication skills, engaging in a new culture/developing multiple cultural frames of reference. Da noi c’è quasi sempre un’ospite a pranzo o cena, oppure qualche festa. Ci divertiamo un sacco insieme. At our place there are almost always guests for lunch or dinner, or some parties. We have a lot of fun together. Ci piace cenare fuori e cerchiamo di cenare fuori almeno una volta al mese, è sempre bello conoscere i piatti tipici sardi. We like having dinner outside and we try to have dinner ouside at least once a month, it’s always good to know typical Sardinian dishes.
Ilaria & Lucy – ACCEPTANCE Respect for behavioural difference Respect for behavioural difference “people at this stage begin to recognize differences in communication style. Phatic communication such as greeting rituals, may vary in content, length, and purpose. Description may be more linear or circular […] feelings more implicit or explicit. These differences now begin to elicit curiosity rather than animosity. One of the most dramatic discoveries in acceptance is recognising the cultural relativity of nonverbal behavior”. (Bennett, 1993: 48) Video 12 February 2007 Introducing new people (greeting rituals) Asking Lucy if she likes the place Socialising while eating and drinking Lucy imitating my nonverbal communication/kinesics (raising the glass) Ilaria & Lucy interacting with locals, imitating Italian nonverbal communication (nodding, using hands … )
Lucy – DEFENCE : superiority difference is recognised & tolerated, but not perceived as viable-own cultural pride (Bennett, 1993: 48) S: Do you feel a change in your life? L: erm … […] I think, it’s strange because it’s almost things like.. the year abroad has reinforced my English feelings as well. (long pause) And … I feel … I never before had any kind of yearning or passion towards England, but being away for a while … erm … I really have … a sort of love for my home country. At the same time there’s a soft spot for Italy as well (eh eh).
Lucy - DENIAL: isolation, separation “CD is not experienced at all or experienced as associated with a kind of undifferentiated other such as “foreigner” or “immigrant” (Bennett, 2004:154) Video Cagliari May 2007 Breakfast Leaving home Going to University (feeling silly, disappointed) “people look at me all the time anyway – it doesn’t make that much of a difference” Booking her return ticket (feeling homesick) “now I have something to look forward to”
PARTICIPANTS’ DEVELOPMENT OF IS DURING YA Integration Adaptation Acceptance Minimization Defence Denial
Implications for pedagogy Psychosocial & affective dimensions of intercultural encounters (emotions & intercultural sensitivity) Real-life observations (rather than textbooks) Action research (understanding more about the ways our students are responding to different approaches to preparation for the YA)