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A Program for Faculty Athletic Representatives Presents.

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1 A Program for Faculty Athletic Representatives Presents

2 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #2 What is the proper and highest role of the faculty athletic representative? Role of Faculty Reps

3 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute # Liaison between academic and athletic departments with no specific agenda Assure that needs and perspectives of the athletic dept is understood by academics Assure that the needs and perspectives of the faculty and its academic mission is understood by athletic department Faculty watchdog to assure that academic goals are placed above athletic goals. Role of Faculty Reps

4 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute # Monitor policies and practices of athletic dept on behalf of the faculty Provide advice and guidance to athletic dept on how academic goals of the university can be met Provide a consistent and strong counter- pressure on the administration to assure that the sports program advances the educational and character building mission of the university. Watchdog and Advocate of Educational Priorities

5 Mission & Values of Your Sports Program?

6 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #6 Values are the core desires, beliefs, and principles that motivate actions and shape the character of individuals and institutions. Values

7 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #7 Stated vs. Operational Values  STATED VALUES: What we say we value and the level of import- ance we say we attach to the value.  OPERATIONAL VALUES: What we actually value as revealed by our actions and how we make decisions and resolve conflicts among competing values.

8 Consistency between stated and operational values is a matter of integrity. Integrity

9 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute # Athlete is a student first; academic goals and responsibilities must be placed above athletic ones It is the responsibility of both the academic and athletic departments to assure that the educational goals of the institution are given top priority in the sports program and in the activities and attitudes of each student-athlete. The Student-Athlete Ideal

10 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute # At many institutions there is a substantial gap between the rhetoric and reality of the student-athlete especially in those sports that generate revenue or are the subject of special school pride Where schools are highly competitive and concerned with winning the tendency is to treat studenthood in a minimalist way – stay eligible and maintain acceptable graduation rates. Student-Athlete Ideal: Rhetoric vs. Reality

11 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute # Recruiters focus on athleticism treating academic ability as a threshold barrier Recruiters of high profile sports often knowingly seek athletes who have little or no interest in education 3. 3.The most highly recruited athletes are the least likely to view themselves as students first The better the athlete the more likely he is to leave the university for the pros. Student-Athlete Ideal: Rhetoric vs. Reality

12 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #12 Competing Sports Models 1. 1.Recreation (fun in playing) 2. 2.Competition (pursuit of victory) 3. 3.Education (physical, mental, social and moral development) 4. 4.Personal Career (scholarship and income for athletes; compensation, bonuses and job security for coaches) 5. 5.Business (revenues and public relations)

13 SPORTS AS RECREATION

14 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #14 SPORTS AS RECREATION The objective of a sports program is to provide a physical recreational activity as a source of fun, enjoyment or excitement for the participants.

15 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #15 Recreational Programs Should Emphasize 1. 1.Playing — provide all athletes opportunity to play 2. 2.Camaraderie — team concepts to enhance sense of belonging, fellowship, togetherness, and friendship 3. 3.Balanced Competition — assuring that athletes or teams are classified so that they have a chance to win 4. 4.Positive Coaching — coaches help athletes develop confidence and pride

16 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #16 Measure of Success: Player Enjoyed Activity n The recreation model is athlete- centered -- the controlling objective of sports is that the athlete enjoys the experience. n The measure of success is the degree to which participants had fun or derived pleasure from the activity itself.

17 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #17 Why Youngsters Participate in Sports The #1 reason both boys and girls participate in high school sports is to have fun. Lack of having fun is the leading reason for dropping out of participation. -- Survey of 10,000 high school students (1990)

18 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #18 Winning is Not Essential Though winning is itself fun and losing can be painful, winning it is not essential to enjoyment or even a major incentive to participation — ranked 12 th by girls and 8 th by boys. -- Survey of 10,000 high school students (1990)

19 SPORTS AS COMPETITION

20 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #20 SPORTS AS COMPETITION The objective of a sports program is to provide athletic competition to determine how good individuals and teams are and who is best.

21 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #21 Arizona Sports Summit Accord At its best, athletic competition can hold intrinsic value for our society. It is a symbol of a great ideal: pursuing victory with honor. -- Arizona Sports Summit Accord, Preamble

22 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #22 Olympic Creed The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well. — Baron Pierre de Coubertin, founder modern Olympic Games

23 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #23 Competitive Programs Should Emphasize: 1. 1.Effort and doing one’s best 2. 2.Individual and team peak performance 3. 3.Coaching expertise 4. 4.Reverence for the sport 5. 5.Competing with honor

24 SPORTS AS EDUCATION

25 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #25 DEVELOPING POSITIVE LIFE SKILLS The objective of a sports program is to develop positive life skills that will help participants become personally successful and socially responsible.

26 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #26 Sports programs must be conducted in a manner that enhances the physical, mental, emotional, and moral development of athletes and teaches them positive life skills that will help them become personally successful and socially responsible. -- Arizona Sports Summit Accord, ¶3 Developmental Goals

27 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #27 In our effort to win, we must never forget that victory is a means not an end, that our basic purpose is to help young people grow into decent, kind and sound men and women. — Curtis Tong, coach and sports philosopher Basic Purpose

28 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #28 Developing Important Life Skills and Habits   Fitness and healthy habits.   Mental toughness, courage and perseverance.   Lifelong habits of preparation, hard work and self- discipline.   Commitment to competing according to principles of ethics and sportsmanship.   Ability to win and lose with class.   Disposition to treat everyone with respect all the time.   Leadership skills and responsibility including willingness to live up to the duty to be a role model and organizational ambassadors.   Develop healthy, realistic and balanced attitudes toward sports, education, social relationships and career alternatives.

29 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #29 Aspects of Personal Development n Physical n Mental n Emotional n Moral

30 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #30 PHYSICAL DIMENSION n Physical abilities including coordination, endurance, strength and quickness. n Sport-related techniques that enhance performance. n Overall conditioning.

31 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #31 MENTAL DIMENSION n Knowledge of rules of the game and regulations governing competition. n Ability to understand, apply and develop sport-related strategies. n Ability to make good judgments and quick decisions under pressure. n Ability to set and pursue goals with self- discipline. n Commitment to and appreciation of the value of an academic education.

32 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #32 EMOTIONAL DIMENSION n Control and manage their emotions such as desire, anger, fear, frustration, and pride. n Emotional toughness, courage, perseverance. n Deal appropriately with and learn from both winning and losing. n Develop and maintain healthy social relationships within and outside of sports. n Develop and maintain a healthy perspective about the role of sports in the context of a balanced life. Sports should assist athletes develop psychological strength by teaching them to:

33 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #33 MORAL DIMENSION n Trustworthiness –scrupulous integrity, honesty, promise-keeping and loyalty. n Respect – controlling violent instincts and treating all participants with respect. n Responsibility – contributing to team success, accountability, pursuing excellence. n Fairness – never cheating. n Caring – compassion, empathy, unselfishness n Citizenship – playing by the spirit of the rules Sports should assist athletes develop strong personal character by promoting a commitment to compete and live according to principles of sportsmanship and ethics including:

34 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #34 American Football Coaches Association The function of the coach is to educate students through participation in the game of football. This primary and basic function must always be upheld. — AFCA Code of Ethics Art. 2, Rule #1

35 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #35 American Football Coaches Association The coach should never place the value of a win above that of instilling the highest desirable ideals and character traits in his players. — American Football Coaches Association Code of Ethics, Art., 1, Rule #1

36 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #36 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #1 The essential elements of character- building and ethics in sports are embodied in the concept of sportsmanship and six core principles: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and good citizenship. The highest potential of sports is achieved when competition reflects these “six pillars of character.”

37 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #37 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #2 It is the duty of sports leadership — including coaches, athletic administrators, program directors and game officials — to promote sportsmanship and foster good character by teaching, enforcing, advocating and modeling these ethical principles.

38 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #38 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #3 To promote sportsmanship and foster the development of good character, sports programs must be conducted in a manner that enhances the mental, social and moral development of athletes and teaches them positive life skills that will help them become personally successful and socially responsible.

39 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #39 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #9 The highest administrative officer of organizations that offer sports programs must maintain ultimate responsibility for the quality and integrity of those programs. Such officers must assure that education and character development responsibilities are not compromised to achieve sports performance goals and that the academic, emotional, physical and moral well-being of athletes is always placed above desires and pressures to win.

40 The Coach As A Teacher & Mentor

41 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #41 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #16 The profession of coaching is a profession of teaching. In addition to teaching the mental and physical dimensions of their sport, coaches through words and example must also strive to build the character of their athletes by teaching them to be trustworthy, respectful, responsible, fair, caring and good citizens. — Arizona Accord, 16

42 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #42 Teachers Affect All Eternity... You never know where their influence stops.  — Henry Adams © 1999 Josephson Institute

43 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #43 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #10 The faculties of educational institutions must be directly involved in and committed to the academic success of student- athletes and the character- building goals of the institution.

44 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #44 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #12 The leadership of sports programs at all levels must ensure that coaches, whether paid or voluntary, are competent to coach. Minimal competence may be attained by training or experience. It includes basic knowledge of: the character-building aspects of sports, including techniques and methods of teaching and reinforcing the core values comprising sportsmanship and good character; first-aid principles and the physical capacities and limitations of the age group coached; and coaching principles and the rules and strategies of the sport.

45 SPORTS AS A CAREER

46 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #46 SPORTS AS A CAREER The objective of a sports program is to provide athletes and coaches a career as a means of making money and providing professional satisfaction.

47 SPORTS AS A BUSINESS

48 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #48 SPORTS AS A BUSINESS The objective of a sports program is to provide revenues and positive public relations for educational institutions and profit- seeking organizations.

49 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #49 Values Promoted by the Business Model 1.Revenue (TV contracts, licensing, concessions, sponsorships) 2.Positive Publicity 3.Spectator Support 4.Individual Athleticism 5.Showmanship 6.Violence 7.Exciting Contests

50 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #50 Sports as a Business Treating sports as a business has placed huge emphasis on the entertainment dimension of sports and has created a commercial culture where teams, coaches and athletes are commodities.

51 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #51 Sports Is More Than Entertainment Sports may be entertaining, but to call it entertainment demeans and mischaracterizes its true nature. It is no more entertainment than is fine art, literature or real journalism. The purpose of sports is not to entertain fans, it’s to compete nobly in pursuit of victory. — Michael Josephson

52 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #52 n n Supports University mission by providing student athletes with exceptional educational and athletic opportunities. n n Commit to national leadership, excellence and the highest ethical standards in intercollegiate athletics. n n Present outstanding teams which provide quality entertainment and a positive public identity for the University. Mission: Ohio State Department of Athletics

53 Sample Institutional Mission Statements

54 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #54 Purpose: NCAA To Promote and Develop...   Educational leadership   Physical fitness   Athletics excellence   Athletics participation as a recreational pursuit

55 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #55 To promote the education and development of students through intercollegiate athletic participation [based on] a commitment to high standards and to the principle that participation in athletics serves as an integral part of the total educational process. Purpose: NAIA — National Association of Inter-Collegiate Athletics

56 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #56 NAIA: Member Institutions Shall...  Ensure that intercollegiate athletics is an integral part of the total educational offering;  Encourage the broadest possible student involvement in the athletics program;  Maintain high ethical standards through commitment to the principle of self-reporting;

57 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #57 NAIA: Member Institutions Shall...  Evaluate the athletics program in terms of the educational purposes of the institution;  Engage in completion with other institutions having similar athletics philosophies and policies; and promote gender equity.

58 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #58 1.A focus on ethical behavior in the communities that encourages and supports participation in sport as a positive character-building activity. Citizenship Through Sports Alliance (CTSA) GOALS

59 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #59 2.To create a network of national sports organizations working together with the professional sports leagues to emphasize the values of respect for self, respect for others, teamwork, discipline, responsibility and commitment. CTSA Goals

60 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #60 To provide leadership and national coordination for the administration of interscholastic activities which will enhance the educational experiences of high school students and reduce risks of their participation. Mission Statement: National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHSA)

61 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #61 Create, establish, provide for, and conduct interscholastic athletic programs consistent with the educational values of the high school curriculums and the physical welfare and fitness of students by giving the opportunity to participate in athletics designed to meet the needs and abilities of all. Purpose: Michigan High School Athletic Association

62 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #62 We believe that the student-athlete is best served by a system which emphasizes the amateur, educational, and character-building aspects of high school sports and which recognizes that athletics is not the driving force. The students are in school primarily to obtain an education. Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association (PIAA)

63 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #63 What Do Each of the Following Constituencies Want Most From Your Sports Program? 1.Governing Board 2.Administration 3.Coaches 4.Athletes 5.Alumni or booster groups 6.Parents 7.Faculty 8.Community

64 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #64 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #7 The importance of character, ethics and sportsmanship should be emphasized In all communications relating to the recruitment of athletes, including promotional and descriptive materials.

65 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #65 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #8 In recruiting, educational institutions must specifically determine that the athlete is seriously committed to getting an education and has or will develop the academic skills and character to succeed.

66 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #66 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #9 The highest administrative officer of organizations that offer sports programs must maintain ultimate responsibility for the quality and integrity of those programs. Such officers must assure that education and character development responsibilities are not compromised to achieve sports performance goals and that the academic, emotional, physical and moral well-being of athletes is always placed above desires and pressures to win.

67 Problems in Intercollegiate Athletics

68 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #68 Problems in Intercollegiate Sports 1.Integrity: fidelity to academic and character- building objectives in a “must win” business culture 2.Character and Competency of Coaches 3.Cheating and Gamesmanship 4.Sportsmanship: On-Field Conduct 5.Modeling: Off-Field Conduct 6.Fairness: Appropriate Discipline 7.Conduct of Spectators and Spirit Groups 8.Professional Coach-Athlete Relationships 9.Excessive Commercialism 10.Title IX Gender Issues

69 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #69 Subordinating academic and character- building objectives to sports success in a business culture. Integrity Issues re: Pursuit of Stated Sports Mission  Recruiting athletes with serious academic or character deficiencies.  Unfairly favoring athletes.  Subordinating well-being of the athlete in pursuit of winning for the benefit of the institution or the coach’s career.

70 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #70   Questionable admission practices   Improper academic assistance.   Low graduation rates.   Inadequate response to misconduct.   Commercialization.   Inappropriate allocation of resources.   Dishonesty and hypocrisy. Loss of Credibility of Educational Institutions

71 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #71 Competency & Character of Coaches  Personal Character  Basic Knowledge of Game – rules, strategies, techniques  Basic Knowledge of Safety Considerations and First-Aid  Basic knowledge of character-building aspects of sports, including techniques and methods of teaching and reinforcing the core values comprising sportsmanship and good character.

72 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #72 Cheating & Gamesmanship Game-relating cheating and questionable gamesmanship tactics.  Violation of NCAA or NAIA recruiting, eligibility, compensation or other regulations.  Equipment or field tampering.  Use of performance enhancing drugs.  Less than honorable competitive techniques to get an edge.

73 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #73 Gamesmanship vs. Sportsmanship n Much of the disparity in viewpoint as to what is required of an ethical coach or athlete is a direct result of one’s philosophy about the very nature of sport. n There are two major models of sport based on very different values and assumptions: the sportsmanship model and the gamesmanship model.

74 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #74 GAMESMANSHIP n Under the gamesmanship model, all that really matters is winning. n Gamesmanship approaches adopt the values of marketplace, encouraging and sanctioning clever and effective ways of bending, evading, and breaking the rules when it provides a competitive advantage is part of the game.

75 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #75 GAMESMANSHIP n Gamesmanship coaches and athletes often believe that they have no ethical or sportsmanship obligation to abide by rules because it is the official’s job to catch violations and impose penalties. n The operational standards of gamesmanship is: “if it works it’s right,” and “its only cheating if you get caught.”

76 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #76 SPORTSMANSHIP n Under the sportsmanship model of sports, the way one plays the game is central. n Sport is seen as a very special activity where nobility and glory is found, not in winning, but in honorable competition in pursuit of victory.

77 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #77 SPORTSMANSHIP The sportsmanship model demands a commitment to principles of scrupulous integrity (including compliance with the letter and spirit of the rules even when one could get away with violations), fair play, respectfulness and grace.

78 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #78 SPORTSMANSHIP: Disadvantages n One who plays by the sportsmanship model is often at a substantial disadvantage when competing against others who adopt the gamesmanship theory of sport. n Gamesmanship coaches may gain advantages by violating eligibility, recruiting, and practice rules just as gamesmanship athletes gain an advantage using illegal performance enhancing drugs.

79 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #79 SPORTSMANSHIP n In sports, as in business and politics, the more important it is to win, the higher the stakes, the harder it is to adhere to ethical standards. n A true sportsman/woman must be willing to lose rather than sacrifice ethical principles — even when the stakes are high.

80 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #80 SPORTSMANSHIP n A victory attained by cheating or other forms of unethical conduct is counterfeit. n A sportsman/woman believes that winning without honor is not a true victory. n Coaches must remind themselves and their athletes that true sports is a process of pursuing victory with honor.

81 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #81 Sportsmanship: On-Field Conduct  Attempts to injure, fighting and other improper use of violence.  Belligerent taunting and trash-talking that demeans competition and spawns violence.  Disrespectful conduct by athletes and coaches to sports officials, opponents, teammates or spectators including profanity and obscene gestures and disrespectful displays/gestures of celebration.

82 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #82 Modeling: Off-field Conduct  Academic cheating.  Legal use of alcohol and tobacco.  Sexual misconduct including harassment and sexual assaults.  Criminal activity including assaults, theft, domestic violence, alcohol abuse, and use of illegal drugs.  Gambling

83 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #83 Fairness: Appropriate Discipline  Bad sportsmanship or cheating.  Violating team or school rules.  Academic cheating.  Sexual misconduct including harassment and sexual assaults.  Gambling  Interacting with court system, NCAA or NAIA, and university discipline process re: criminal conduct (e.g., assaults, theft, domestic violence, DUI, illegal drugs).

84 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #84 Improper Conduct by Spectators & Spirit Groups  Fighting and other violent activity  Inappropriate and vicious taunting  Disrespectful and offensive cheers  Drinking in stands n Intimidating or assaulting officials

85 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #85 Excessive Commercialization  Exploitation of institutional name or stature to promote products.  Undignified intrusion of commercial messages and concerns in athletic decisions.  Distraction from main goals and mission to court and please sponsors.  Conveying the message that everything is ultimately about money.

86 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #86 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #15 Though economic relationships between sports programs and corporate entities are often mutually beneficial, institutions and organizations that offer athletic programs must safeguard the integrity of their programs. Commercial relationships should be continually monitored to ensure against inappropriate exploitation of the organization’s name or reputation and undue interference or influence of commercial interests. In addition, sports programs must be prudent, avoiding undue financial dependency on particular companies or sponsors.

87 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #87 Professional Coach- Athlete Relationships  Romantic and sexual relationships  Financial relationships  Conflicts of interest  Loyalty  Honesty and candor  Fair and nondiscriminatory

88 What You Should Know About Today’s Student Athletes

89 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #89 Propensities Toward Violence 70% of high school and middle school makes say they hit a person within the last 12 months because they were angry. 24% of high schoolers and 18% of middle schoolers took a weapon to school at least once in the past year.

90 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #90 Use of Illegal Drugs 48% of the high school graduating class in 1995 used an illicit drug at least once (up from 40% in 1992). 26% of high school seniors used an illicit drug at least once a month during their senior year.

91 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #91 Use of Alcohol 22% of high schoolers say they have been drunk at school at least once in the past year. 9% of middle schoolers came to school drunk at least once.

92 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #92 Irresponsible Sex Nearly 400,000 unmarried teens give birth each year. Many high profile male athletes have fathered one or more children while in their teens. Some of the biggest stars in pro sports have fathered multiple children with multiple women out of wedlock.

93 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #93 Irresponsible Sex Three million teenagers contract sexually transmitted diseases each year.

94 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #94 Academic Cheating 70% of all high school students admit they have cheated on an exam at least once in the past year. About one in three college students admit cheating on an exam in the past year. High profile cheating scandals of college athletes are recurrent.

95 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #95 Theft and Fraud 47% of all high school students admit they have stolen something from a store in the past year. About one in five (17%) of college students admit shoplifting in the past year. Nearly a dozen UCLA football players were convicted of committing fraud to get undeserved handicapped parking permits.

96 The Life of Student-Athletes

97 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #97 -- University of Arizona Student-Athlete handbook Special Issues & Obstacles for Student Athletes Limited time Competitive pressures Visibility Fear of injury Pressures to take performance enhancing drugs Social pressures Travel schedules Need to follow orders to achieve athletic success Stress created by pressures to succeed academically and athletically

98 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #98 The Life of Student-Athletes Because many student-athletes face pervasive pressures and temptations relating to their status as athletes, sports programs should assure that they are given tools to help them anticipate and deal with situations that could cause them harm, injure their reputations, hurt their team, or damage their school through unwise decisions or improper conduct.

99 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #99 Sport-Related Temptations and Dangers for Student- Athletes Use of performance enhancing drugs. Unhealthy practices to gain or lose weight. Win-at-any-cost attitudes that promote violent and unsporting conduct. Cheating to maintain eligibility. Gambling.

100 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #100 Special 0ff-the-Field Temptations and Dangers for Student-Athletes Distraction and minimization of importance of academic performance and education Ignoring social and emotional needs Recreational drugs including alcohol and tobacco Gambling and dealing with gamblers (e.g., point shaving) Sexual promiscuity and related concerns including pregnancy and disease Violence including fighting and sexual assaults Being challenged or taunted Dealing with untrue and unfair accusations Unrealistic or imprudent dependency on making a living as an athlete

101 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #101 Special Temptations and Pressures for Coaches Putting winning above the long-term well- being of an individual student-athlete NCAA violations especially re: recruiting, practice limitations, work, and scholarships Encouraging or looking the other way at performance enhancing drugs Tolerating violence, recreational drug use or other misconduct rather than risk losing Disrespect including verbal abuse or violence towards athletes or officials Sexual relationships with athletes and former athletes Improper financial relationships with athletes

102 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #102 Core Elements of Athlete’s Training Clear and specific standards of conduct. Instruction regarding rules, regulations, and policies. Instruction regarding ethical obligations and principles of sportsmanship. Instruction in leadership and critical reasoning skills.

103 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #103 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #4 Participation in athletic programs is a privilege, not a right. To earn that privilege, athletes must conduct themselves, on and off the field, as positive role models who exemplify good character.

104 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #104 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #5 Sports programs should establish standards for participation by adopting codes of conduct for coaches, athletes, parents, spectators and other groups that impact the quality of athletic programs.

105 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #105 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #6 All sports participants must consistently demonstrate and demand scrupulous integrity and observe and enforce the spirit as well as the letter of the rules.

106 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #106 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #11 Everyone involved in athletic competition has a duty to treat the traditions of the sport and other participants with respect. Coaches have a special responsibility to model respectful behavior and the duty to demand that their athletes refrain from disrespectful conduct including verbal abuse of opponents and officials, profane or belligerent trash-talking, taunting and unseemly celebrations.

107 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #107 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #13 Because of the powerful potential of sports as a vehicle for positive personal growth, a broad spectrum of sports experiences should be made available to all of our diverse communities.

108 Faculty Athletic Representatives 0100 © 2000 Josephson Institute #108 Arizona Sports Summit Accord: Principle #14 To safeguard the health of athletes and the integrity of the sport, athletic programs must discourage the use of alcohol and tobacco and demand compliance with all laws and regulations, including those relating to gambling and the use of drugs.


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