Presentation on theme: "Mental illness is an equal opportunity threat to success happiness, and contentment in life and can be found among all people of the world irrespective."— Presentation transcript:
1 Mental illness is an equal opportunity threat to success happiness, and contentment in life and can be found among all people of the world irrespective of age, race, gender, religion, ancestry, culture, region, social class.You cannot infer personal weakness, bad breeding, a lack of character, or problematic parenting from mental illness. Both genetics and environment are apparent contributing causes for most types of mental disorders.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
2 Mental Health-Illness Mental health can be described as functioningthat results in productive activities, fulfilling relationships, the absence of serious emotional distress and reality distortion, and the resilienceto adapt and cope with adversity and change.Mental illness refers to any and all diagnosable mental disorders that (a) are characterized by abnormal thinking, feeling, or behavior and (b)limit or prevent success, comfort, or happinessin one’s personal, social, or professional lives.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
3 What Is Abnormality in Mental Health ??? Three criteriaDeviantMaladaptiveCausing personal distressA continuumfrom normal to abnormalThe medical model proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease…Thomas Szasz and others argue against this model, contending that psychological problems are “problems in living,” rather than psychological problems.In determining whether a behavior is abnormal, clinicians rely on the following criteria: 1. Is it deviant, or does it violate societal norms, 2. Is it maladaptive, that is, does it impair a person’s everyday behavior, and 3. Does it cause them personal distress?All three criteria do not have to be met for a person to be diagnosed with a psychological disorder…diagnoses involve value judgments.Antonyms such as normal vs. abnormal imply that people can be divided into two distinct groups, when in reality, it is hard to know when to draw the line.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
4 ABNORMAL NORMAL Deviance Distress/Discomfort Dysfunctional Behavior The 3 most important defining aspects of abnormality.DevianceNORMALDistress/DiscomfortABNORMALDysfunctional BehaviorThree defining aspects of abnormality on a continuum.There is no distinct or specific boundary between normality and abnormality. Behavior, thinking, and emotions are normal or abnormal by degree based on the extent to which actions, thoughts, and feelings are deviant, personally distressing, dysfunctional or maladaptive, and potentially dangerous to self or others.Similar slide retrieved at No author. This slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.
5 “Ds” Reduced: The 4 ‘D’s Discomfort/ Distress Deviance Dysfunction/ Disability/MaladaptationDangerAbnormality DefinedSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
6 “D” Elements of Abnormality Distress (emotional suffering)Discomfort (social situations)Deviancy I (statistically rare)Deviancy II (in violation of societal standards or norms)Dysfunction (maladaptation to environmental conditions)Danger (to self and/or others due to irrational, unexpected, and unpredictable responsesSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
7 Concepts of Mental Illness Mental health conceptsThis table illustrates how the concepts of mental illness changed from primative times up to the 20th CenturyTime PeriodConcepts of Mental IllnessPrimitive timesEvil spirits needed to be driven outAncient civilizations (Greek and Roman)It was thought to be a natural phenomenon - a relatively scientific and humanistic approachMiddle Ages ( in Italy and 1500 in Northern Europe)Supernatural attributions including demon possession, witchcraft, sorcery, and astrology such as the movements of the moon.Renaissance (began in the 14thcentury in Italy, and in the 16thcentury in northern Europe)A decline in the belief in demonic possession; mental problems were irreversible; scientific inquiry and humanism make progress.Eighteenth CenturyReform - chains removed; need for medicalcare recognized; the first mentally ill patient was treated rather than abused in a hospital.Nineteenth CenturyResearch began and legislation concerning mental health was enacted; long-termcustodial care hospitals were created.Twentieth CenturyThe start of the mental health movement;state hospitals were built; community health care centers established; holistic concept of care and short term care introduced; goalwas to return patients to society, so human service programs were established; focuson prevention.Source: an unnamed nursing student, A history of mental health. retrieved atSlide. prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
8 Historical reform movements in mental health treatment in the US EraSettingFocus of ReformMore humane; restorative treatment goalMoral TreatmentAsylumMental hospital or clinicMore prevention; scientific orientationMental HygieneDe-institutionalization;social integration ofmentally illCommunity Mental HealthCommunity mental health centerCommunity supportMental illness as a social welfare problem (e.g., housing, employment)Community Support1975-presentSource: Author not identified (2005). Social Policy and Mental Health, a PPT slide show prepared at the School of Social Welfare at UC Berkeley Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
9 Looked inside and outside the body for the causes of mental disorders. Hippocrates (460 – 370 B.C.)Looked inside and outsidethe body for the causes of mental disorders.Identified four humors – blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile –a balance kept the body in good shape while imbalances caused mental disorders (e.g. excessblack bile caused melancholia).Had a typology of personality/character types that was aligned with these substances – sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic.Introduced the terms: melancholia, mania, paranoia, and hysteria.Used phleboctomy, purgatives, diuretics, and hypnotics.“Statue” by Bankster Kovacs;Copied here with the artist’s written permissionSource: Fisar, Z. (2003). Introduction, Development of Psychiatry. Retrieved from Slide created by Gordon Vessels, 2005
10 The Biological Tradition (Disease Model) Hippocrates (450 B.C.): one of the first to consider that psychopathology could be a disease related to body fluids or humorsGalen (150 A.D.): extended Hippocrates work hundreds of years later.Humoral Theory = imbalance in 4 humors, e.g., too much black bile was thought to cause depression, referred to as melancholia.The Galenic-Hippocratic TraditionAnticipated current views linking abnormality with brain chemical imbalances, and provideda vocabulary used by physicians for centuriesSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
12 Background painting titled “I am the Doorway” by Steve Saugulis aka t-gar Check out this artist’s work at Used here with written permissionRenaissance (1300 to 1699) The belief that mental illness was caused by evil spirits carried into the Renaissance. Paracelsus ( ) did not believe this, but he was unable to change the status quo. The mentally ill were put in prisons and prison-like asylums. Asylums were introduced in the sixteenth century. The word “care” at this time meant removal from society. Lunatics were described as dangerous, defective and incompetent. Their condition was considered irreversible. In 1403 the Bethlem Royal Hospital in Londonbegan accepting lunatics. It was infamous for the brutaltreatment of patients. Doctors allowed visitors to viewlunatics in zoo-like cages. It wasn’t until 1700 that theinsane were called “patients.” It was not until thelast half of the 18th century that this ended.Source: an unnamed nursing student who wrote, A history of mental health. retrieved atSlide. prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
14 Franz Mesmer Coined terms “animal magnetism” Oh Franzie! You wouldn’t try to have your way with me would you big boy.Franz MesmerCoined terms “animal magnetism”Cure brought about through transmissionof an invisiblefluid ???Psychological rather than physical cause proposedI can’t believe she’s buying this invisible juice nonsense.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
15 Jean Martin Charcot (1825-93) Tried to solve hysteria puzzleUsed hypnosis to treat “hysterical” patientsWas Sigmund Freud’s teacherI also won a beauty contest. OK, your right. It was the mule category at the fair, but that doesn’t mean I’m not real pretty.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
16 The 19th Century The discovery of Syphilis (General Paresis) and its link with “madness”Syphilis causes psychoticsymptoms in late stages(delusions, hallucinations).L. Pasteur found the cause –a bacterial microorganism.Penicillin was found to be a successful treatment in 1870.This link reinforced the view that mental illness should be treated like a physical illness.Today the pendulum has swung too far in the direction of seeing mental illness only as a physical illness. This view is held by physicians and not most psychologists. Psychologists acknowledge contributing physical causes but continue to emphasize the role of the environment.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
17 Last half of the 19th century Psychiatric Disorders & Mental Retardation Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
18 Fascism and the World War II Era law about prevention of hereditable illnesses; 400,000 persons sterilized1939 – euthanasia permitted; T4 action;10,000 children murdered– 180,000 psychiatric patients murdered in GermanyFisar, Zdenek (2005). [ Dept. of Psychiatry at Charles University in Prague (Mudr Jiri Raboch, Drsc., Head), Introduction: development of psychiatry. A PPT slide presentation retrieved from Slide prepared by Gordon Vessels, 2005Art entitled “Monster” is used here with permission from Steve Saugulis aks t-gar. Check out his work at
19 The most popular current perspective about cause is a Bio-psycho-social view:Most mental disorders develop when a biological or genetic predisposition (a diasthesis) is triggered by stressful environmental events or circumstances.Biological, psychological, and social risk factors all play a role in the development of mental disorders.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
20 Bio-Psycho-Social Model of Abnormal Behavior Trigger event is a biology film that has lots of blood16 year old female studentBiological Influencesinherited over-reactive sinoaortic baroreflex arcVasovagal syncope: rateand blood pressureincrease, body over-compensatesLight headedness and queasinessJudy faintsSocial InfluencesBehavioral InfluencesJudy’s fainting causes disruptions in school andat homeFriends and family rushto help herPrincipal suspends herDoctor says nothing is physically wrongConditioned response to sight of blood: similar situations ─ even words ─ produce same reactionTendency to escape and avoid situations involving bloodPsychological InfluenceIncreased fear and anxiety supporting the diagnosis of an anxiety disorderDISORDERSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
21 Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders Psychodynamic - mental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict traceable to early childhood experiences.Medical/Biological - mental disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system.Cognitive-Behavioral - mental disorders are learned dysfunctional behavior patterns caused by cognitive distortions.Humanistic - mental disorders occur when peopleare blocked from fulfilling their potential for growth.Sociocultural - mental disorders are shaped by culture, and appear only in certain cultures.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
22 Attitudes on Mental Illness A recent survey of 650 Harris County residents shows greater empathy and awareness of mental health issuesDo you think companies that provide health insurance to their employees should or should not be required to cover mental health treatment in the same way as treatment for other illnesses?Should Should86% not6%Don’tknow/noanswer 8%In your opinion, is mental illness primarily due to . . .Brain SomethingDisorder Else63% %Don’tKnow/no Characteranswer flaw 5%How concernedwould you be if you discovered that a person being treated for a mental illnesswas living in your neighborhood?Somewhat Notconcerned concerned33% %Don’t Veryknow/no concernedAnswer 5% %Source: Houston Area Survey (2004) from the Chronicle, a local newspaperSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
23 All children face some mental health problems such as the following: Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005Problems dealing with parents & teachersAnxiety about school performanceUnhealthy peer pressureFacing tough decisionsDevelopmentaladjustment problemsSchool phobiaSuicidal ideationDrug or alcohol useWorrying about sexualityFears about starting schoolDealing with death or divorceFeeling depressed or overwhelmedConsidering dropping out of school/My Bleeding Doll by MistaBobby; Artwork used here with the artist’s writtenpermission.2
24 Major Diagnostic Categories Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence, e.g., ADHDSubstance-related disordersSexual and Gender IdentityDisordersSchizophreniaMood DisordersAnxiety DisordersSomatoform DisordersDissociative DisordersSleep DisordersEating DisordersFactitious DisordersAdjustment DisordersImpulse-control DisordersPersonality DisordersDelirium, Dementia, Amnestic,and Other Cognitive DisordersClassification describes and orders clustersof symptomsDiagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDSM-IVGoals of ClassificationDescribe a disorderPredict its future courseImply appropriate treatmentStimulate research into its causeSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
25 Top Ten Principal Causes of Years Lived with Disability in Advanced Countries 1990 Murray and Lopez (1997). Murray, C.J.L. & Lopez, A.D. (Eds) (1996). The Global Burden of Disease. Harvard University Press; Murray, C. J. L. & Lopez, A. (1996) Global Health Statistics: A Compendium of Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Estimates for over 2000 Conditions. Cambridge: Harvard School of Public Health.Fisar, Zdenek (2005). [ Dept. of Psychiatry at Charles University in Prague (Mudr Jiri Raboch, Drsc., Head), Introduction: development of psychiatry. A PPT slide presentation retrieved from Slide prepared by Gordon Vessels, 2005.
26 Common and Uncommon Phobias Percentage of people surveyed 100908070605040302010Percentage of people surveyedSnakesBeingin high,exposedplacesMiceFlyingon anairplaneBeingclosed in,in asmallplaceSpidersandinsectsThunderandlightningBeingaloneIn a houseat nightDogsDrivinga carBeingIn acrowdof peopleCatsAfraid of itBothers slightlyNot at all afraid of itFisar, Zdenek (2005). [ Dept. of Psychiatry at Charles University in Prague (Mudr Jiri Raboch, Drsc., Head), Introduction,development of psychiatry. A PPT slide presentation retrieved from Slide prepared by Gordon Vessels, 2005.
27 Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), an Anxiety DisorderPercentageReporting SymptomType of Obsession or CompulsionObsessions (repetitive thoughts)Concern with dirt, germs, or toxins (e.g. Howard Hughes) 40Something terrible happening (fire, death, illness, rape, injurySymmetry, order, exactness, neatness (“neat freaks”; perfectionists)Compulsions (repetitive behaviors)Excessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, or groomingRepeating rituals (in/out of door, avoiding cracks in sidewalk)Checking doors, locks, car brake, homework, children, etcSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
28 Depression: Men compared to Women 2015105Around the worldwomen are moresusceptible todepressionPercentage of population aged Experiencing major depression at some point in lifeUSA Canada Puerto France West Italy Lebanon Taiwan Korea NewRico Germany Zealand2 Kessler, R. et al. (1995) Archives of General Psychiatry; Volume 52:Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
29 Co-morbidity in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, i. e Co-morbidity in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, i.e. other disorders suffered by those with PTSDMale60Female5040Comorbidity (%)302010Major Depressive EpisodeGen.AnxietyDisorderPanic DisorderSocial Anxiety DisorderAgoraphobiaAlcohol AbuseDrug Abuse/ DependenceKessler R. et al. (1995). Archives of General Psychiatry. 52:Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
30 Prevalence of Trauma and Related Probability of PTSD 401MalePrevalence of TraumaFemale30%2010Threat w/WeaponPhysicalAttackWitnessAccidentMolestationCombatRape70Probability of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder26050%40302010Threat w/WeaponPhysicalAttackWitnessAccidentMolestationCombatRape1 Kessler, R. et al. (2000) Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Volume 61(Suppl 5):4-14.2 Kessler, R. et al. (1995) Archives of General Psychiatry; Volume 52:Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
31 Prevalence of Mental Disorders Proportion of Population with Mental Disorders During LifetimeDisorder TypeAny DisorderSubstance AbuseAnxiety DisordersMood DisordersSchizophreniaPrevalence of Mental DisordersEstimated percentage of people who have suffered mental disorders during their lives. The estimatesare based on the Epidemiological Catchment Area studies and the National Co-morbidity Study, as summarized by Regier and Burke (2000) and Dew, Bromet, and Switzer (2000).Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
32 Positron emission tomography (PET) produces scanned images of the human brain.SchizophreniaNormalRed, pink, and orange indicate lower levels of brain activation; white and blue indicate higher activation levels. Activity in the schizophrenic’s brain is low in the frontal lobes, which is at the top (Velakoulis & Pantelis, 1996). Activity in the manic-depressive’s brain is low in the left hemisphere and high in the right hemisphere. The reverse is usually true for schizophrenics. Researchers are finding consistent patterns that will aid in diagnosing mental disorders.Manic-DepressionSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
33 Risk of Schizophrenia 48% 46% 17% 17% 9% 1% Contributing genetic cause – the hereditability Index is highSchizophrenia for relatives of a schizophrenicLifetime risk of developing17%17%9%1%GeneralpopulationSiblingsChildrenof one schizophrenicFraternaltwinChildrenof twoschizophrenicsIdenticaltwinSources: Lenzenweger, Mark F. and Dworkin, Robert H., Editors (1989 Origins and Development of Schizophrenia : Advances in Experimental Psychopathology; Gottesman, Irving I. and Moldin, Stephen O. (1998). Genotypes, genes, genesis, and pathogenesis in schizophrenia (first chapter in the former). Slide by Vessels 2005
34 Symptoms of Schizophrenia The severity of symptoms varies from one person to another, and, typically, symptoms will decline and then reappear.Symptoms are divided into Positive and Negative.Artwork entitled “Duality” is by Steve Saugulis aka t-gar is used here with the permission of the artist. Check out his artwork atSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
35 Dimensions Schizophrenia Positive Symptoms vs Negative Symptomsdisorganized/deluded vs toneless/expressionlessinappropriate emotions vs silence/catatoniaChronic vs Acute Schizophreniaslow development/history of social inadequacyvsrapid development/reaction to specific life stressSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
36 “Positive” and “Negative” Symptoms of Schizophrenia Positive symptoms include abnormal thoughts, perceptions, language, and behavior.• Delusions: false beliefs/thoughts with no basis in realityHallucinations: disturbances of perception (hearing, seeing, or feeling things not there)Disorganized Thinking/Speech: jumping from topic to topic, responding to questions with unrelated answers, or speaking incoherently with loosely associated thoughtsDisorganized Behavior: problems in performing routine daily activitiesCatatonic Behavior: lowered environmental awareness and responsiveness; rigid and/or inappropriate postures; resistance to movement or instructions.Negative symptoms include the constricted range and intensity of emotional expression and communication, strange body language, and reduced interest in normal activities.Blunted (or flat) Affect: decreased emotional expressiveness; unresponsive immobile facial appearance; reduced eye contactAlogia: reduced speech; responses detached; dysfluent speechAvolition: lacking motivation, spontaneity, or initiative; sitting for lengthy periods or ceasing to participate in work or daily activitiesAnhedonia: lacking pleasure or interest in activities that were once enjoyableAttention Deficit: difficulty concentratingSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
37 Brain Abnormalities Schizophrenia: Still Searching for Causes Reconstructing Venus by Shelley Bergen aka Nebu is used here with the written permission of the artist.Schizophrenia:Still Searchingfor CausesUnderstandingBrain AbnormalitiesMore dopamine receptorsor more sensitive receptors;Less active in frontal lobe areas;Low activity in frontal lobes;Enlarged cerebral ventricles and/or smaller limbic areaNeurodevelopmental causation, meaning multiple causes:Genetics or a genetic predisposition could play a slightly more important causal role than environmental factors such as stressful experiences, poor early nutrition or illness, and a lack of expressed emotion in the family.1 in 100 for the general population1 in 10 chance if a sibling or parent is schizophrenic1 in 2 chance if identical twin is schizophrenic or ifboth parents are schizophrenicSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
38 There is no one cause to this complex and puzzling illness, but it is thought that acombination of genetics,biology (virus,bacteria, or aninfection) andstressors inlife all playa role.Except forthe oddsfor an identical twinof a schizophrenic or thechild of two, there is currently no reliable way to predict whether a person will develop this serious mental disorder.“Into the Depths” by Shelley Bergen aka Nebu is used here with her written permission.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
39 John Nash is now a famous Aftermath by Psychosomatks (Garetha Botha) is used here with the artist’s written permission.John Nash is now a famousSchizophrenic. His life story was made into a film, A Beautiful Mind.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
40 Subtypes of Schizophrenia Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005Subtypes of SchizophreniaParanoid: Delusions of grandeur or persecution and hallucinationsDisorganized: Disorganized speech (too vague, abstract , repetitive, unelaborated, impoverished in content; flat, blunted, orinappropriate emotion; loosely associated thoughtsCatatonic: Ranging from rigidly immobile to wildly hyperactiveUndifferentiated Symptoms include those above but symptoms as a wholeor Residual do not fit one of the above types; residual meanspreviously schizophrenic with mild carryover symptomsNerida by MistaBobby; Artwork used here with the artist’s permission.
42 Presynaptic Axon Terminal Postsynaptic Dendrite Dopamine normally crosses the synapse between two neurons, activating the second cell.Antipsychotic DrugPresynaptic Axon TerminalPostsynaptic DendriteReceptor SiteDopamineSynaptic VesicleAntipsychotic drugs bind to the same receptor sites as dopamine thus blocking its action. For schizophrenics, a reduction in dopamine activity can quiet agitation and psychotic symptoms.Synaptic GapSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
43 Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Mood DisordersArtwork entitled “Disgarded” by Steve Saugulis aka t-gar is used here with the artist’s permission; check out this artist’s work at
44 Symptoms of Depression Frequent or excessive cryingPersistent sad, empty, dysphoric, or irritable mood and anger (the latter two common for children)Loss of interest in activities once enjoyed (“anhedonia)Recurring thoughts of death, suicide, and self-harm; possible suicide attempts (adults and teens)Diminished ability to concentrate and make decisionsFeelings of hopelessness, helplessness, worthlessness; guilt misattributed to self; low self-esteemPoor or excessive appetite resulting in weight loss or gainInsomnia or hypersomnia (constant sleep)Fatigue, lethargy, loss of energy, lack of motivation, complacencyPsychomotor agitation or retardation; headaches and stomach aches among childrenChronic aches and painsTypes of DepressionMood DisordersMajor Depressive Disorder: experience prolonged hopelessness and lethargy,sad or dysphoric mood, etc.Bipolar Disorder or Manic-Depression: alternating between depression and mania (an overexcited andhyperactive state)Other forms of depression: Dysthymia, a chronic depressed mood; Abnormal Bereavement; Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood; Depressive Personality Disorder; Depressive Disorders NOSSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
45 SSRI medications increase serotonin, The neurotransmitter SEROTONIN is low when a person is depressed. This causes body changes:Pain Threshold Lowered: depressed people often feel more pain with no apparent cause. Back pain is very common among sufferers.Sleep Disturbance: the day of a depressed person runs on an average of 22 hours, not 24. There are spikes in body temperature throughout the night that cause a person to wake and not get enough REM sleep.SSRI medications increase serotonin,increase activity, lift depression, and may alter hormonal activity as well activity.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
46 How SSRIs work to reduce the symptoms of depression and anxiety. Neurotransmitters are held in sacs at the end of the nerve cell. An electrical signal causes the sacs to merge with the membrane causing the neurotransmitter to be released into the synapse. Molecules moves across the gap and bind receptors, which are special proteins, on the adjacent nerve cell or neuron. When enough neurotransmitters have been absorbed, the receptors release the molecules. They are then broken or re-absorbed by the initial neuron and stored away for future use.Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, and other SSRIs enhance the affect of serotoninby preventing it from being absorbed (called re-uptake). Redux and other anti-obesity drugs increase serotonin.There are at least 15 different serotonin receptors, each with a different functionSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
47 not because of their lack of control over environmental Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005Stressful situations can help cause depression, but environmental stressors aremore important causes for some types of depression than others. The environmentis least important with Bipolar Disorder, more important for Major Depression and Dysthymia,and definitive for Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood. But there is an intervening personalityfactor that determines how we respond to stressors — related to Rotter’s attribution theory of motivation.Some peoplebecome depressednot because of their lackof control over environmentalstressors but because of the waythey habitually explain good andbad events to themselves. Thisexplanatory style serves us ordisserves as a mediator therebydetermining if we experiencehelplessness and sufferdepressionThere are three dimensions to explanatory style: permanent versus temporary, universal versusspecific, and internal versus external. An internal attribution or explanation means one blamesthemselves rather than forces out of their control. If a person’s explanation of a failure orproblem is universal, she over-generalizes and gives up quickly. Self-explanationsthat see situations as permanent make one more vulnerable. This is a detaileddescription of being pessimistic, perhaps with good reason, or optimistic.Astral Blessings by by MistaBobby; Artwork used here with the artist’s permission.
48 Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 252015105Rate Per 100,000 PopulationData for 1933 through Youth in Age Range
50 ANXIETY DISORDERSApproximately 20 to 30% of people experience an anxiety disorder.Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A tense, uneasy, and apprehensive feeling that is unexplainable and unavoidable because the cause can’t be identified. May develop into “Panic Attacks.”Adjustment Disorder withAnxious Mood results froma fear producing psychosocialenvironmental stressor andEnds when the stressor is goObsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Obsessions, or recurring and unwanted thoughts, impulses, and mental images are usually connected with behavioral compulsions that only temporarily relieve anxiety. If not performed, the person is left with unbearable anxiety. Obsessions are unwanted thoughts; compulsions are behaviors the person can’t stop performing when they are known to beirrational and sure to preclude happiness.Panic Attacks: recurring andunpredictable psychophysiologicalsymptoms that appear in the absenceof an emergency that bring sweating,shaking, racing heartbeat, fear of dying,and the feeling of totally losing control.Once experienced, it brings on a fear of fear because the experience is so intense. Thiscan lead to the diagnosis of Panic Disorder.Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) results from experiencing or witnessing life threatening events that brought fear, horror, and helplessness. These events are then re-experienced vividly through recollections or dreams, or by reacting physically and emotionally to cuesof the event. Plagued by increased arousal and a fear of reliving theevent, the victim builds defensesthat interfere with normal socialand occupational functioning.Phobic Disorders: irrational fear of a specific objector situation that is out of proportion to the real danger. People often accept and live with phobias. Fear of snakes, high places, crowds, public speaking, cats, etc. Social phobia is referred to as Social Anxiety Disorder.Separation Anxiety Disorder: child cannot separate fromMother without suffering extreme distress.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005This work of art entitled “The Compounded” is by Gareth Botha aks Psychosomatiks. It is used here with permission.
51 There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV. The chart here and on the next few slides lists many of them. Click on the links and learn more.Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Late Onset, UncomplicatedDementia due to Pick's DiseaseDementia due to Creutzfeld-Jacob diseaseDementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Early Onset, UncomplicatedDementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Early Onset, With DeliriumDementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Early Onset, With DelusionsDementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Early Onset, With Depressed MoodDementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Late Onset, With DelusionsDementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Late Onset, With Depressed MoodDementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Late Onset, With DeliriumHallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (Flashbacks)Schizophrenia, Disorganized TypeSchizophrenia, Catatonic TypeSchizophrenia, Paranoid TypeSchizophreniform DisorderSchizoaffective DisorderBipolar I Disorder Single Manic EpisodeSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
52 There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV. The chart found here and on the next few slides list many of them. Click on the links and learn more.Anxiety Disorder Due to General Medical ConditionMood Disorder Due to General Medical ConditionDementia Due to Head TraumaMajor Depressive Disorder Single EpisodeMajor Depressive Disorder RecurrentBipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode HypomanicBipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode ManicBipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode DepressedBipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode MixedBipolar II DisorderDelusional DisorderShared Psychotic DisorderBrief Psychotic DisorderAutistic DisorderChildhood Disintegrative DisorderRett's DisorderAsperger's DisorderSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
53 There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV. The chart found here and on the next few slides list many of them. Click on the links and learn more.Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOSAnxiety Disorder NOSPanic Disorder Without AgoraphobiaGeneralized Anxiety DisorderConversion DisorderDissociative AmnesiaDissociative FugueDissociative Identity DisorderDissociative Disorder NOSPanic Disorder With AgoraphobiaAgoraphobia Without History of Panic DisorderSocial PhobiaSpecific PhobiaObsessive-Compulsive DisorderDysthymic DisorderSomatoform DisorderParanoid Personality DisorderSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
54 There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV. The chart found here and on the next few slides list many of them. Click on the links and learn more.Cyclothymic DisorderSchizoid Personality DisorderSchizotypal Personality DisorderObsessive-Compulsive Personality DisorderHistrionic Personality DisorderDependent Personality DisorderAntisocial Personality DisorderNarcissistic Personality DisorderAvoidant Personality DisorderBorderline Personality DisorderPedophiliaTransvestic FetishismExhibitionismGender Identity Disorder NOSGender Identity Disorder in Children or Gender Identity Disorder NOSGender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or AdultsAnorexia NervosaSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
55 There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV. The chart found here and on the next slide list many of them. Click on the links and learn more.Tic Disorder NOSTourette's DisorderSleep Terror DisorderSleepwalking DisorderAcute Stress DisorderAdjustment Disorder With Depressed MoodSeparation Anxiety DisorderAdjustment Disorder With AnxietyAdjustment Disorder With Mixed Anxiety and Depressed MoodAdjustment Disorder With Disturbance of ConductAdjustment Disorder With Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and ConductPosttraumatic Stress DisorderImpulse-Control Disorder NOSKleptomaniaIntermittent Explosive DisorderConduct DisorderOppositional Defiant DisorderSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
56 There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV There are many other diagnoses in the DSM-IV. The chart found here and on the previous slides list many of them. Click on the links and learn more.Disruptive Behavior Disorder NOSSelective MutismIdentity ProblemReactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early ChildhoodAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive TypeAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined TypeAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly hyperactive-Impulsive TypeNarcolepsyAdult Antisocial BehaviorChild or Adolescent Antisocial BehaviorMalingeringBereavementPathological GamblingEnuresis (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)Encopresis Without Constipation and Overflow IncontinenceFeeding Disorder of Infancy or Early ChildhoodPicaSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.