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1 The text of this presentation is at http://leederville.net/links/pretoria2.doc

2 TESTING AND SURVEILLANCE

3 HIV PROTEINS “...analysis of the proteins demands mass production and purification” Luc Montagnier 1997

4 Montagnier 1983 Material at 1.16 gm/ml “Purified virus” 3 proteins react with patient serum p24/25 =“HIV” No EM

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7 “I REPEAT, WE DID NOT PURIFY” NO PARTICLES “TYPICAL OF RETROVIRUSES” IN THE “PURIFIED” VIRUS Luc Montagnier Pasteur Institute Interview July 1997

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9 THE “HIV” PROTEINS p41/120/160 MONTAGNIER 1983, 1997 p41 PROTEIN IS CELLULAR ACTIN Arthur 1992; Orentas, 1993; Pearce-Pratt 1994; Sasaki 1995; Choudhury 1996 ACTIN PRESENT IN PURE HIV

10 THE “HIV” PROTEINS p41/p120/p160 Pinter 1989 J. Virology 63: 2674-79 p160, p120 IN “HIV” WB OLIGOMERS OF p41 “Confusion over the identification of these bands has resulted in incorrect conclusions…some clinical specimens may been identified erroneously as seropositive…”

11 THE “HIV” PROTEINS p24 MORTIMER 1992 p24 NON-SPECIFIC SCHUPBACH 1992 p24 IN 49/60 (82%) of "presumably uninfected but serologically indeterminate” and “5/5 seronegative blood donors” Agbalika 1992; Vincent 1993 HIGHEST LEVELS OF p24 IN NON-INFECTED ORGAN TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

12 THE “HIV” PROTEINS p32 Henderson1987 studied the p30-32 and p34-36 of "HIV purified by double banding" in sucrose density gradients. Comparison with the amino-acid sequences of these proteins with Class II histocompatability DR proteins proved that "the DR alpha and beta chains appeared to be identical to the p34-36 and p30-32 proteins respectively” Cellular origin also acknowledged by other HIV experts such as Arthur 1995.

13 THE “HIV” PROTEINS- p17/18 Stricker 1987 Sera from AIDS patients bind to a p18 protein bind to mitogenically stimulated but uninfected in uninfected lymphocytes Chassagne 1986 MCA to "HIV" p18 reacts with dendritic cells in the lymphatic tissues of a variety of patients with a number of non-AIDS related diseases Parravcini 1988 the "same pattern reactivity was present in normal tissue taken from uninfected individuals as in those taken from HIV positive subjects” Faulk 1991 MCA to “HIV” proves p17 present in normal, uninfected human placenta

14 HIV PROTEINS IN NORMAL HUMAN PLACENTA p18/p24/p120 Faulk and Labarrere 1991 Immunocytochemical reactivity using poly- and monoclonal antibodies “Placentae from 25 normal term pregnancies were collected by vaginal delivery...Antigens gp120 and p17 were identified in normal chorionic villi…Antigen p24…in villous mesenchymal cells...localized to HLA-DR positive cells”

15 WHY THE ANTIBODY REACTIONS? Infectious agents (inc. mycobact, fungi) Autoantibodies (many inc. actin & myosin) Non-specific and cross reacting antibodies ?HIV

16 GOLD STANDARD HIV ITSELF HIV ISOLATION

17 PROBLEMATIC RT (inc. mitochondria) PARTICLES ANTIGEN/ANTIBODY REACTIONS p24 ALL NON-SPECIFIC

18 NIAID Web site “Currently available HIV antibody tests are extraordinarily accurate, both in terms of sensitivity (the ability of the test to give a positive finding when a subject is truly HIV-infected) and specificity (the ability of the test to give a negative finding when a subject is truly HIV-free)”.

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22 Assay Name (Manufacturer) Global Panel Sensitivity Specificity Detect HIV 1 + II100%97.4% Cambridge99.6%99.7% Abbott 3rd generation100%100% HIV

23 The panel included 332 HIV negative specimens and 203 sera positive for HIV-1 and 60 positive for HIV-2 specimens

24 GALLO JAMA 1985

25 NO RISK HOSPITAL PATIENTS St. Louis 1988

26 BURKE NEJM 1988 1.2 MILLION/135,187 1.4 and 0.148 per 1000 HEALTHY MILITARY RECRUITS

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28 BURKE HIV POSITIVE = 2E + 2WB HIV NEGATIVE = NOT ABOVE TRULY INFECTED = 2E +2WB+4XWB NOT TRULY INFECTED= NOT ABOVE

29 THE DE FACTO HIV GOLD STANDARDS THE CLINICAL SYNDROME LOW RISK/GOOD HEALTH REPEATING THE TEST

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32 NIAID Web site “Currently available HIV antibody tests are extraordinarily accurate, both in terms of sensitivity (the ability of the test to give a positive finding when a subject is truly HIV-infected) and specificity (the ability of the test to give a negative finding when a subject is truly HIV-free)”.

33 “At present there is no recognized standard for establishing the presence or absence of HIV-1 antibody in human blood” Abbott Laboratories 1988, 1998

34 The real purpose of scientific method is to make sure Nature hasn't misled you into thinking something you don't actually know... One logical slip and an entire scientific edifice comes tumbling down. One false deduction about the machine and you can get hung up indefinitely. Robert Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

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