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CHAPTER 5: CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER AMERICA SETTLES THE WEST- LATE 19 TH CENTURY.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 5: CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER AMERICA SETTLES THE WEST- LATE 19 TH CENTURY."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 5: CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER AMERICA SETTLES THE WEST- LATE 19 TH CENTURY

2 5.1: CULTURES CLASH ON THE PRAIRIE Plains Indian Culture was not well known to Easterners The Osaga & the Iowa had hunted & planted the area for 100s years Tribes such as the Sioux & Cheyenne depended on buffalo THE PLAINS

3 Introduced by the Spanish (1598), Horses (and later guns) meant natives were able to travel & hunt Horse = speed + mobility, it was the Buffalo = fulfilled basic needs BUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER & CLOTHING The Horse & The Buffalo

4 FAMILY LIFE ON THE PLAINS Men--> hunters, while women helped butcher the game & prepare it Tribes: very spiritual & land was communal OSAGE TRIBE

5 SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD The white settlers who pushed westward had a different idea about land ownership Concluding that the plains were unsettled, thousands advanced to claim land Gold discovered in Colorado = rush for land A COVERED WAGON HEADS WEST

6 THE GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES As more settlers headed west: The U.S. Govt increasingly protected interests of the settlers Railroad Companies influenced government decisions RAILROADS GREATLY IMPACTED NATIVE LIFE

7 NATIVES & SETTLERS CLASH 1834: Govt set aside all of the Great Plains as Indian lands 1850s: Govt changes policy, giving natives much smaller land = Conflict Massacre at Sand Creek; US Army attack killing 150 native women & children

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9 THE DARK AREAS DEPICT NATIVE LANDS BY 1894

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11 THE DAWES ACT The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate natives Broke up of reservations & forced American culture unto Native Americans By 1932, 2/3rds of the land committed to Natives had been taken FAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE

12 DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO The worst hit to tribal life was the destruction of the buffalo Tourist & fur traders shot buffalo for sport 1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains 1890: < 1000 remained

13 OTHER CONFLICTS & BATTLES Custers Last Stand early 1876 Colonel Custer reached Little Big Horn Led by Crazy Horse & Sitting Bull, the natives crushed Custers troops ONE OF THE FEW NATIVE VICTORIES WAS LITTLE BIG HORN

14 BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE December 29, 1890, Custers old regiment rounded up 350 Sioux & took them to Wounded Knee, S.D. A shot was fired – within minutes the 7 th Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed Natives This event brought theIndian Wars– and an entire era to a bitter end HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND

15 I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still young. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A peoples dream died there. It was a beautiful dream... The nations hoop is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead. BLACK ELK SPEAKING ABOUT WOUNDED KNEE BLACK ELK

16 Homework Pg #1 & 3

17 5.2: SETTLING ON THE GREAT PLAINS The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad = fast settlement of American west 1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act 160 free acres to any head of household

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20 The transcontinental railroad was completed in The Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Promontory Point, Utah and laid a Golden Spike

21 EXODUSTERS MOVE WEST African Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas (west) were called Exodusters Many exodusters took advantage of land deals

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23 SETTLERS ENCOUNTER HARDSHIPS The frontier settlers faced extreme hardships – droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, & bandits Despite hardships, the # of people living west of the Mississippi grew from 1% of the nations pop. in 1850 to almost 30% in 1900 LOCUST SWARM

24 DUGOUTS & SODDIES Pioneers often dug their homes out of the sides of ravines or hills (Dugouts) Those in the flat plains made freestanding homes made of turf (Soddies) DUGOUT SODDY

25 INCREASED TECHNOLOGY HELPS FARMERS 1837: John Deere invented a steel plow that could slice through heavy soil 1847: Cyrus McCormick mass- produced a reaping machine Other inventions included a grain drill to plant seed, barbed wire & corn binder JOHN DEERES STEEL PLOW HAD TO BE PULLED BY A HORSE OR MULE

26 5.3: FARMERS & THE POPULIST MOVEMENT In the late 1800s, many farmers were struggling Crop prices were, debt Mortgages were being foreclosed by banks

27 Decreasing Wheat Prices YEARBushels Grown (millions) Price per bushel (dollars) $ $ $ $ $ $ $.62

28 ECONOMIC DISTRESS HITS FARMERS B/t the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 62 ¢ Railroads conspired to keep transport costs artificially high Farmers got caught in a cycle of debt

29 Price Indexes for Consumer & Farm Products:

30 FARMERS ORGANIZE FOR CHANGE 1867 – Oliver Hudson Kelley started The Grange: an organization for framers By 1870, the Grange fights the railroads Soon the Grange & other Farmer Alliances numbered over 4 million members

31 POPULIST PARTY IS BORN Leaders of the farmers realized they needed to build a base of political power Populism – the movement of the people: born in 1892 w/ the founding of the Populist, or Peoples Party THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR

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35 POPULIST REFORMS Proposed economic reforms included; increase of money supply, a rise in crop prices, lower taxes, a federal loan program Proposed political reforms included; direct election of senators, single terms for presidents Also called for an 8-hour workday & reduced immigration

36 POPULISTS MAKE GAINS In the 1892 Presidential election, the Populist candidate won almost 10% of the vote In the West, the party elected 5 senators, 3 governors & 1,500 state legislators FRED AND PHIL VOTED FOR THE PEOPLES PARTY

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38 THE PANIC OF 1893 Nationwide economic problems took center stage in America in 1893 Railroads bankrupt & stock market lost value, 15,000 businesses & 500 banks collapsed 3 million unemployed: unemployment at 20% THE STOCK MARKET CRASHED IN 1893

39 SILVER OR GOLD? The central issue of the 1896 Presidential campaign was which metal would be the basis of the nations monetary system ? Bimetallism (those who favored using both) vs. the Gold Standard alone

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41 BRYAN & THECROSS OF GOLD Republicans = Gold standard & nominated William McKinley Democrats = Bimetallism & nominated William Jennings Bryan Despite Bryans stirring words, You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold, McKinley won the 1896 election BRYANS CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH

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45 Compare & Contrast how the American Settlers were portrayed in the Video & the Comic. Compare & Contrast how Native Americans were portrayed in the Video & the Comic. Compare & Contrast how the Railroads were portrayed in the Video & the Comic.


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