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A Management Algorithm for Temporal Arteritis How Not to Miss this Blinding Disease Duncan P. Anderson, MD University of British Columbia Division of Neuro-Ophthalmology.

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Presentation on theme: "A Management Algorithm for Temporal Arteritis How Not to Miss this Blinding Disease Duncan P. Anderson, MD University of British Columbia Division of Neuro-Ophthalmology."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Management Algorithm for Temporal Arteritis How Not to Miss this Blinding Disease Duncan P. Anderson, MD University of British Columbia Division of Neuro-Ophthalmology

2 55 year old female : Frontal headache – acetaminophen : Diplopia, left ptosis, 20 minutes of blurred vision after bending/lifting : Increased headache (10/10), photophobia, diplopia, blurred vision, Left III palsy, dilated pupil, 20/100 OS Case Presentation, TA

3 : Admitted to hospital. Normal head CT head, normal fundi, blind OS Angiogram requested. ESR 28 Left III palsy, 20/20 – NLP, Left afferent + efferent pupil defects Ophthalmodynanometry 50/20 – 0/0 Left Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Admits decreased appetite, weight, jaw pain treated with i.v. methylprednisolone, heparin temporal artery biopsy requested Case Presentation, TA

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5 : temporal artery biopsy positive 20/20 OD, no light perception OS ophthalmodynamometry 40/20 OD, 1/10 OS intraocular pressure 10mmHg OD, 2mmHg OS left ophthalmic artery occlusion, bilateral carotid stenosis : 20/20 OD, no light perception OS ophthalmodynamometry 40/20 OD, 10/5 OS intraocular pressure 15mmHg OD, 6mmHg OS treated with prednisone and coumadin Case Presentation, TA

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7 : 20/20 OD, no light perception OS ophthalmodynanometry 70/30 OD, 35/10 OS intraocular pressure 16 OD, 12 OS mmHg left III palsy improving Prednisone 80 mg/day : stopped steroids Blurriness ]right eye, headache, ESR 42 Prednisone re-started at 60 mg/day : tapered to Prednisone 10 mg/day Case Presentation, TA

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9 HISTORY 91 year-old male awoke with decrease vision OD 6 days ago, involving superior field Bad vision OS due to infection at age of six Past history: hypertension, diabetes, well controlled No eye pain, headache, jaw claudication, muscle pain, fatigue, malaise, fever, temporal artery tenderness, pain on combing hair, or anorexia

10 EXAMINATION Visual acuity: 20/200 OD, 20/100 OS Right relative afferent pupil defect Fundus: pale swollen disc OD normal OS normal retinal artery pressure No temporal artery tenderness ESR 22mm/hr

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12 Diagnosis –1.Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy RE - 2. left corneal scar No evidence to suggest temporal arteritis Treatment: prednisone 60 mg/day to reduce swelling for 5 days

13 1 week after finished prednisone he developed decrease vision OS on awakening, now can’t get around the house No other symptoms of temporal arteritis VA: hand motion OD, light perception OS Fundus: pale flat right optic disc swollen pale left disc Diagnosis 1.Bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy suspect arteritic cause

14 Plan: immediate temporal artery biopsy Rx: predisone 1000 mg/day x 2 day then taper off Temporal artery biopsy positive for arteritis ESR 34/hr Final visual acuity: count fingers OD, hand motion OS.

15 JW 85 YEAR OLD ♀ Sept 25Flashes & Blur OD 26Flashes & Blur OS ESR 71 – No arteritic symptoms i.v. methylprednisolone 1gm/day for 6 days then oral prednisone 100mg/day Oct 2ESR 24 TAB Positive 12Visual Hallucinations ESR 8 V HM

16 EP 77 YEAR OLD ♀ Late Augheadache, Fatigue, jaw claudication, weight loss Sept 23Blur OD 25ESR > 100 IV methylprednisolone 1gm/day x 3days 27Blur OS IV methylprednisolone 1gm/day x 3days oral prednisone 100mg/day Oct 2temporal artery biopsy positive 18tapered to prednisone 20mg/day V LP

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24 AGE Prevalence of giant cell arteritis (%) 50 – – – –

25 CLINICAL positive LR* negative LR Headache Jaw Claudication Abn. temporal artery Decreased Vision Diplopia Polymyalgia rheum. Fatigue/weight loss * LR = Likelihood Ratio

26 LAB positive LR* negative LR ESR <50 50 – 100 >100 ↑ Platelets *LR = Likelihood Ratio

27 TEMPORAL ARTERITIS GCA does not equal PMR symptoms to diagnosis: diagnosis to Biopsy: Arteritic ION without GCA symptoms: False Negative biopsy5% 3 – 4 mos 1 wk 20%

28 THINK Temporal Arteritis 1) Age > 50 2) Ischemic Optic Neuropathy 3) Amaurosis Fugax 4)ION with ↓↓ acuity/White Disc 5)ION with CRAO/Choroidal Ischemia 6) ↑ ESR, Creactive Protein, Platelets

29 TEMPORAL ARTERITIS 5 – 10% Arteritic ION lose acuity after Steroids (5d) 0.5% temporal arteritis lose acuity Post Steroids IV = PO Steroid Effect temporal arteritis can remain active ½ - 10 years Taper Steroids while following symptoms & ESR/CRP Re – Biopsy for Confirmation if necessary

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32 TREATMENT p.o. Prednisone 80 mg/d weeks 40 mg/d months 10 mg/d years

33 TREATMENT bilateral disease second eye progressive disease IV Methylprednisolone 1 gm/day for:

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35 SUMMARY - TEMPORAL ARTERITIS Diagnosis: history temporal artery biopsy within weeks Treatment: steroids (STAT) medical emergency taper slowly (mos) manage steroid complications switch to methotrexate

36 BIBLIOGRAPHY Niederkohr, R.D. & Levin, L.A. (2005). Management of the Patient with Suspected Temporal Arteritis: A Decision – Analytic Approach. Ophthalmology, 112(5), 744 – Younge, B.R., Cook Jr., B.E., Bartley, G.B., Hodge, D.O., Hunder, G.G. (2004). Initiation of Glucocorticoid Therapy: Before or After Temporal Artery Biopsy? Mayo Clin Proc, 79, 483 – 491. Hayreh, S.S., Zimmerman, B. (2003). Visual Deterioration in Giant Cell Arteritis Patients While on High Doses of Corticosteroid Therapy. Ophthalmology, 110(6), 1204 – Smetana, G.W., Shmerling, R.H. (2002). Does This Patient Have Temporal Arteritis? JAMA, 287(1), 92 – 101. Riordan-Eva, P., Landau, K., O’Day, J. (2001). Temporal artery biopsy in the management of giant cell arteritis with neuro-ophthalmic complications. Br J Ophthalmol, 85, 1248 – Hayreh, S.S., Podhajsky, P.A., Zimmerman, B. (1998). Ocular Manifestations of Giant Cell Arteritis. Am J Ophthalmol, 125(4), 509 – 520. Hayreh, S.S., Podhajsky, P.A., Zimmerman, B. (1998). Occult Giant Cell Arteritis: Ocular Manifestations. Am J Ophthalmol, 125(4), 521 – 526.


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