Presentation on theme: "A Teacher’s Guide THE SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM"— Presentation transcript:
1A Teacher’s Guide THE SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM Slide 1 - The Military Selective Service ActWhat’s it called?The Military Selective Service Act (Title 50 U.S. Code, appendix )What did it do?It set up the Selective Service System in its current form and gave it a twofold mission.(1) Delivers manpower to the Armed Forces in time of emergency(2) Administers an Alternative Service Program for Conscientious Objectors
2The Military Selective Service Act THE LAWThe Military Selective Service ActEstablishes the Selective Service System (SSS)Mandates that SSS missions include delivery of manpower to Armed Forces in emergencies and administers the Alternative Service Program.Slide 1 - The Military Selective Service ActWhat’s it called?The Military Selective Service Act (Title 50 U.S. Code, appendix )What did it do?It set up the Selective Service System in its current form and gave it a twofold mission.(1) Delivers manpower to the Armed Forces in time of emergency(2) Administers an Alternative Service Program for Conscientious ObjectorsPresident Franklin Rooseveltsigned the Military SelectiveService Act
3Who gets drafted now? THE LAW Nobody right now Congress must act to reinstate the draftOnly males are required to register with the Selective Service SystemSlide 2 - Registration RequirementsWho gets drafted now?Authority for the President to induct (draft) men into the Armed Forces expired in Thedraft can only be reinstated after the Military Selective Service Act is amended by Congress.Women are not required to register with the Selective Service System.What does it have to do with me?Section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act states that male U.S. Citizens and male aliensresiding in the U.S., who are between the ages of 18 and 26, are required to register. Menborn on or after January 1, 1960, must register with Selective Service within 30 days of their18th birthday.If you do not know if you should register, or you can not remember if you already haveregistered, call or go toA man registering on-linewith Selective Service
4What if I don’t register? THE LAWWhat if I don’t register?No Federal grants or loansNo Federal job training programsNo Federal employmentNo U.S. citizenship for immigrantsSlide 3 - Penalties - Educational, Job Training, and Federal EmploymentSo what? Big deal. What if I don’t register?Once you reach the age of 26, you can’t register. Men who are not registered with SelectiveService may not qualify for the following: Pell Grants, Supplemental EducationOpportunity Grants, Federal College Work-study, Federal Perkins Loans, Federal FamilyEducation Loans, and Federal Direct Student Loans.Men may also be disqualified for benefits associated with the Workforce Investment Act(WIA).
5What if I don’t register? THE LAWWhat if I don’t register?In most states, no state grants or loansIn many states or cities, no government jobsSlide 4 - Penalties - ContinuedIn addition, men who do not register may not qualify for Federal Employment.Remember:If you do not register you will not be eligible for these benefits. Also, many state and localgovernments require Selective Service compliance for employment or educational funds.
6What if I don’t register? THE LAWWhat if I don’t register?Prosecution by Department of JusticeFine of up to $250,000Prison term of up to 5 years Both fine and prison termA matter of fairnessMen who do not register increase the likelihood of involuntary service for those who do registerSlide 5 - Penalties - Department of JusticeWell, can anything else happen to me if I don’t register and I’m supposed to?Yes! If you fail to comply with the Military Selective Service act you could be prosecutedby the U.S. Department of Justice. Failing to register as required is a felony. Possiblepenalties include:- A fine of up to $250,000- A prison term up to five years- A fine and imprisonmentA Matter of Fairness - What’s the point of all of this?Fairness. Every man who fails to register in not only breaking the law, he is directlyincreasing the likelihood of involuntary service for those who are registered, should thedraft resume. People in the U.S. have rights, but they also have the responsibility ofserving the Nation. Registration is each man’s responsibility.
7The ways a man can register THE LAWThe ways a man can registerBy initiating a registration on-line through the Agency’s web site atBy filling out a Selective Service registration form at any U.S. Post OfficeBy completing a registration reminder postcard which he may receive in the mail shortly before his 18th birthdayBy telephone, if he receives a registration card in the mail from Selective Service with a PIN number allowing telephone registrationSlide 6 - Ways a man can register
8THE LAWAt a High School participating in Selective Service’s Registrar ProgramAt any U.S. Embassy or consular officeBy agreeing to be registered when completing a Federal student financial aid application or when applying for entry into a Federal job training programBy completing the Immigration and Naturalization Service, “Application to Adjust Permanent Status”, Form I-485 or the State Department Visa Application Form OF230Slide 7 - More ways a man can register.
9History of the Selective Service The First Recorded DraftsCompulsory military serviceOrigins: Roman Empire, U.S. - Colonial timesThe First U.S. Draft LawsFirst attempted during the Civil WarIn 1863, a law was enacted providing for an All-Federal ServiceSlide 8 - Origins of compulsory military service.First U.S. Draft Laws - Civil War
10History of the Selective Service The First U.S. Draft LawsCourt upheld constitutionality -government has right to wage war and citizens have an obligation to serveLaw provided 300,000 troops fornine months of serviceSlide 9 - First Draft Laws - LincolnPresident Lincoln needed 300,000 troops for nine months of service. He asked for acertain number from each state. Options for commutation or substitution were permitted.In the South, universal conscription applied after April There, too, a wide range ofexemptions were allowed.A lottery drawingduring the Civil War
11Lottery drawing during World War I History of the Selective ServiceThe First U.S. Draft LawsComprehensive draft law allowedfor conscription for duration of hostilitiesSlide 10 - World War ILottery drawing during World War I
12History of the Selective Service The DraftSelective Training and Service Act of first peacetime draftAbout 10 million men drafted and servedAct expired in 1947, but was reinstated in 1948 due to military manpower shortagesSlide 11 - World War II
13History of the Selective Service The DraftProvided 1.5 million men during the Korean conflictDraft continued through the Vietnam WarProvided over 1.8 million menSlide 12 - The Korean ConflictThe Korean Conflict prompted Congress to make the Selective Service System a permanentagency of the U.S. Government. These laws were responsible for the evolution of thedraft into a permanent part of the military manpower procurement structure.The last man inducted into the Army entered on June 31, 1973.
14History of the Selective Service The DraftThe draft ended on June 30, 1973Registration ended on March 29, 1975President Carter reinstatedregistration after the Soviet Unioninvaded AfghanistanSlide 13 - End of Draft and Reinstatement of Selective Service System
15An advertisement during the Civil War History of the Selective ServiceThe DraftCivil War: $$ would keep you exemptfrom serving in the NorthOccupations such as pharmacists,journalists, lawyers, and teacherswere exempt from serving in the SouthSlide 14 - Civil War - Money for ExemptionOccupation ExemptionsAn advertisement during the Civil War
16History of the Selective Service The DraftWorld War II - guidelines for draft interpreted in different waysUnequal treatment of registrants in various parts of the country resultedSlide 15 - World War II GuidelinesYoung men being inducted into the military during World War II
17History of the Selective Service The DraftThe Fair System: History - Vietnam War IssuesCollege students deferredPolitical influence resulted in preferential treatmentMinorities and poor drafted disproportionatelySlide 16 - Vietnam War Issues
18Changes to the SystemRestructuring of some categories of deferments, particular student deferments resulting in fewer reasons for excusing a man from service and shorter deferment periodsA lottery based on birth dates began in 1969Changes in the first age group: Men reaching age 20 first, then 21,22, 23, 24, 25, 19, and lastly 18Slide 17 - System Major ReformsThese reforms are in effect today. Students would be deferred until the end of the semester,or the end of the year, if they are seniors in college. Men aged 18 and 19 will be the lastinductees taken if a draft were initiated. For a high school student, he is postponed until hegraduates or reaches the age of 20, or if he is in his last academic year, until he completesit - even if he is 20.
19Selective Service employees conduct a lottery exercise Changes to the SystemThe LotteryUsed for random selectionsTwo drums used - one containing 366 days of the year, the other containing 366 sequence numbersOne birthday and sequence number are drawnSlide 18 - The LotterySelective Service employees conduct a lottery exercise
20Changes to the SystemLocal Boards Made up of U.S. Citizens at least 18 years of age, who are not members of the militaryPurpose: Decide claims for certain classifications that would exempt or defer a young man from serviceExamples include: conscientious objection ministerial student minister of religion hardshipMembers are trained initially in a one-day conference and attend yearly training sessions to maintain their skillsSlide 19 - Local BoardsMany Board Members serve up to 20 years. They are uncompensated volunteers who serve in the communities in which they live. They are required to be fair and unbiased in thedecisions they render.
21Board Members meet to review registrant’s claim Changes to the SystemClassification ProcessRegistrant files paperwork stating nature of claimBoard reviews claim - registrant may appear to describe his circumstancesThe board votes on the claimSlide 20 - Classification ProcessBoard Members meet to review registrant’s claim
22Classification Process Example:Conscientious Objector Changes to the SystemClassification Process Example:Conscientious ObjectorReligious, moral, or ethical beliefs prohibit him from participating in warUsually assigned to non-combat duty or civilian serviceSlide 21 - Conscientious ObjectorQuakers were granted Conscientious ObjectorQuakers and other organized “peace church members” generally would be granted Conscientious Objector status due to their religious beliefs
23Men studying to be ministers can be deferred from service Changes to the SystemClassification Process Example - Ministerial StudentThose studying to be a priest, minister, or rabbiAllowed to stay in school if making satisfactory progressSlide 22 - Ministerial StudentMen studying to be ministers can be deferred from service
24Classification Process Example: Hardship Case Changes to the SystemClassification Process Example: Hardship Caseindividuals who are supporting someone and whose absence would result in unreasonable hardship on this personSlide 23 - Hardship CaseMen whose absence would result in hardship in those who depend on them for support, may be deferred from the draft