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Chih-Lin I –1 Wireless Internet Networking (Carriers’ Perspective) Chih-Lin I Wireless & Access Technologies AT&T IP Architecture IAB Wireless Workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "Chih-Lin I –1 Wireless Internet Networking (Carriers’ Perspective) Chih-Lin I Wireless & Access Technologies AT&T IP Architecture IAB Wireless Workshop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chih-Lin I –1 Wireless Internet Networking (Carriers’ Perspective) Chih-Lin I Wireless & Access Technologies AT&T IP Architecture IAB Wireless Workshop Feb Mar. 2, 2000

2 Chih-Lin I –2 The Big Bad Wolf? or The Dumb Dumb? Drive down costs Increase revenue/profit Maintain reliability

3 Chih-Lin I –3 Key Take Aways IP Mobility Architecture Decisions and status Open Issues

4 Chih-Lin I –4 Outline Introduction Mobility Management: PCS v.s. Internet Existing and Emerging Wide Area Wireless Internet Technologies  1G: CDPD  2G: GPRS  3G.IP, etc Future Direction  Seamless Wireless and Wired Mobility  ITU v.s. IETF  Parlay, Jain, OMG

5 Chih-Lin I –5 Multi National Corp. (MNC) Needs Whenever, Wherever, However  Intranet access, private number dialing, web browsing, , voice mail, caller id, call forwarding  Terminal Mobility Number Convergence  LNP, Tariffs v.s. Tech  Service mobility Terminal Convergence  User mobility Fixed & Mobile Convergence

6 Chih-Lin I –6 Future Mobility Services Wireless personal base station integrated with HFC/DSL/FWS infrastructure Virtual Home Environment Advanced Addressing Simultaneous or Sequential Alerting Closed User Group Location Based Services

7 Chih-Lin I –7 User View: Use of Mobile Telephone / Wireless Handset Ability to originate and receive calls from different locations Network View: Mobility Management Ability to maintain location and status information for mobile subscribers Connection-oriented services “Location Register” Mobile Telecommunications

8 Chih-Lin I –8 User View: Use of wireless laptop/handset Ability to originate and receive seamless IP services from different locations Network View: Mobility Management Ability to maintain location information for mobile subscribers Connectionless services Mobile Computing Mobility Agent

9 Chih-Lin I –9 Outline Introduction Mobility Management: PCS v.s. Internet Existing and Emerging Wide Area Wireless Internet Technologies  1G: CDPD  2G: GPRS  3G.IP, etc Future Direction  Seamless Wireless and Wired Mobility  ITU v.s. IETF  Parlay, Jain, OMG

10 Chih-Lin I –10 Mobility Definitions Macro Mobility (i.e. Portability): Users have a home system but can register at visited system to make and receive calls and use their vertical features - Single Number Service Micro Mobility (i.e. Handover/Handoff): Users can roam among systems during a call and the call is handed-off without being dropped

11 Chih-Lin I –11 Home System Visited System Home Location Register- Maintains current customer location and service profile Authentication Center - Authenticates user Visitor Location Register- Maintains temporary information on visiting users. HLR AC VLR PCS Mobility Functional Elements

12 Chih-Lin I –12 IS-41 NRM (Network Reference Model) AC BS EIR HLR ISDN MC Authentication Center Base Station Equipment Identity Register Home Location Register Integrated Services Digital Network Message Center Legend MS MSC PSTN SME VLR Mobile Station Mobile Switching Center Public Switched Telephone Network Short Message Entity Visitor Location Register H MSC HLR A PSTN D EIR AC N E C A i D i U m MS VLR G B SME M MC BS F MSC SME MC M M Q ISDN

13 Chih-Lin I –13 H MSC HLR A PSTN D EIR AuC E C A i D i VLR G B F MSC ISDN U m MS BTSBSC GSM 900/DCS 1800 NRM

14 Chih-Lin I –14 Visited System 1) Handset detects Visited System, handset transmits MIN (Mobile Identification Number, the terminal dialable number) 3) HLR records SS7 address of visited system associated with roaming end user 2) Visited system sends a registration message to the HLR 4) HLR cancels previous registration IS-41 Registration Old VLR HLR/AC VLR

15 Chih-Lin I –15 1 ) Visited system detects handset, handset transmits temporary ID, TMSI, assigned by previous system 3) The VLR sends a registration message to the HLR, the IMSI is used for routing the TCAP message. 2 ) VLR queries previous VLR for user’s (actually the user’s smart card) permanent ID GSM Registration Visited System Old VLR HLR/AC VLR TMSI IMSI Auth. set IMSI

16 Chih-Lin I –16 VLR Home SystemVisited System 1) Call placed to wireless user 2) Home switch queries (SS7 TCAP) HLR for routing number 3) HLR queries VLR for routing number and VLR returns temporary routing number 4) HLR returns number to home switch 5) Home switch routes call HLR: Home Location RegisterVLR: Visitor Location Register AC: Authentication Center 2) 3) 5) calling called HLR/AC IS-41 & GSM Call Delivery

17 Chih-Lin I –17 Mobile IP MIP allows u sers of portable computers to move from one place to another and yet maintain transparent network access through the wireless link. Existing set of network protocols do not meet these requirements.  Designed for a stationary network topology. ( 24, 16 or 8 bits ) hostid networkid 32 bits Internet address

18 Chih-Lin I –18 R3 Home Foreign CH MH R1 R2 Net 1 Net 2 Net 3 Mobile IP: overview Mobile - IP addresses the problem of providing mobility support to IP hosts  Mobile Host, MH  Correspondent Host, CH  Home network  Home Agent, HA  Home address  Foreign network  Foreign Agent, FA  Foreign address MH

19 Chih-Lin I –19 Basic Mobile IP Agent discovery: advertisement/solicitation MH registration Use of Care-Of-Address (COA) Proxy ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Packet tunneling Triangle routing

20 Chih-Lin I –20 MN FA HACN ** < Agent Advertisement Registration Request Registration Reply MH_IP---> COA Reg. lifetime Mobility binding Source IP, destination IP> Mobile IP - Registration

21 Chih-Lin I –21 Mobile IP - Datagram Delivery HA CN FAMN Packet to MN_IP If HA has an entry, it does proxy ARP and intercepts the datagrm HA encapsulate the packet FA decapsulate the packet

22 Chih-Lin I –22 PCS Mobility Management Connection oriented HLR, VLR are not involved in datagram delivery Authentication is based on the Network Access Identifier such as IMSI Handoff is at the radio system level Does not provide session connectivity above radio system level Not efficient for packet data transmission

23 Chih-Lin I –23 Internet Mobility Management Connectionless HA, FA are involved in datagram deliver  bottleneck at HA and FA Authentication is based on the static IP address Mobile node’s IP address needs to have the same subnet prefix as HA Handoff at IP layer The amount of Mobile IP signaling traffics over the radio link is excessive Delay due to mobile IP signaling may not be appropriate for real-time applications

24 Chih-Lin I –24 Outline Introduction Mobility Management: PCS v.s. Internet Existing and Emerging Wide Area Wireless Internet Technologies  1G: CDPD  2G: GPRS  3G.IP, etc Future Direction  Seamless Wireless and Wired Mobility  ITU v.s. IETF  Parlay, Jain, OMG

25 Chih-Lin I –25 Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) Goals  Use available cellular capacity  Sniffing to find idle channels  Hops among available channels  Voice always higher priority  Share cellular infrastructure  Frequencies  Towers and antennas

26 Chih-Lin I –26 CDPD (con’t) Different radio technologies and protocols  Different network switching equipment Raw bit rates kb/s (GMSK)  Forward error correction  Encryption over radio link

27 Chih-Lin I –27 CDPD Network Architecture Service provider network A Service provider network B External network (e.g. Internet) ESEnd System MESMobile End System ISIntermediate System RRouter MDISMobile Data Intermediate System MDBSMobile Data Base Station MDIS MDBS MES MDBS IS MDIS MDBS ES R R R

28 Chih-Lin I –28 CDPD Pros  Potential widespread coverage  Suitable for bursty data  Broad industry support - standard  May be able to use same handset  Support of Internet and OSI protocols Cons  Delay-not suitable for interactive applications  Effective throughput is lower  Slower than expected growth

29 Chih-Lin I –29 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) New packet data service in GSM Packet wireless access network and IP- based backbone Access to packet data networks (PDN)  Internet  X.25 (NO MORE!)

30 Chih-Lin I –30 GPRS Key Features Packet-mode Flexible time slot allocation (1-8) Radio resources shared dynamically between speech and data services Independent uplink and downlink resource allocation Interworking with IP and X.25 networks

31 Chih-Lin I –31 GPRS High-Level Functions Network access control  registration, admission control, authentication, etc. Packet routing and transfer  address translation, encapsulation, tunneling, etc. Mobility management Logical link management  establishment, maintenance and release Radio resource management Network management: OA&M

32 Chih-Lin I –32 GPRS Logical Architecture Gf D Gi Gn Gb Gc CE Gp Gs Signaling and Data Transfer Interface Signaling Interface MSC/VLR TEMTBSS TE PDN RUm Gr A HLR Other PLMN SGSN GGSN Gd SM-SC SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC GGSN EIR SGSN Gn

33 Chih-Lin I –33 Key Processes Dynamic radio resource management  capacity on demand (PS vs. CS)  flexible time slot assignment for both up-link and down-link GPRS attachment/detachment: MS & SGSN GPRS mobility management  MM Context: ID, state, RA, AAA, etc  Location Update: Cell, RA, LA PDP activation/de-activation: MS & GGSN  PDP Context: QoS, Compression, Address, type, etc

34 Chih-Lin I –34 GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) Forward packets between an external PDN and MU Carry GPRS signaling messages between GSNs Allows multi-protocol packets to be tunneled through the GPRS backbone

35 Chih-Lin I –35 GTP Path Protocol GTP Path Protocol GSN Signaling Plane GTP Path Protocol GTP Path Protocol GSN Transmission Plane IP/X.25 PDU Path Protocol - UDP/IP Path Protocol - TCP, UDP/IP GTP Protocol Stack

36 Chih-Lin I –36 Outline Introduction Mobility Management: PCS v.s. Internet Existing and Emerging Wide Area Wireless Internet Technologies  1G: CDPD  2G: GPRS Future Direction  3G.IP, etc  Seamless Wireless and Wired Mobility  ITU v.s. IETF  Parlay, Jain, OMG

37 Chih-Lin I –37 Wireless Internet Services High bit rate transmission over wireless channel  IMT-2000 related air interfaces Maximum spectrum utilization efficiency Packet transmission control protocol  MAC, admission control Voice and data integration  Wireless VoIP Wireless QoS for IP services

38 Chih-Lin I –38 Seamless Mobility World Wireless and Wired/Fixed Fixed BB access  Cable  DSL  FWS  etc A/B/C Internet, Intranet, HomeLAN, PersonalNet Core Capability, not “product”!

39 Chih-Lin I –39 3G.IP Supporter of IP centric networking  Reference Network Architecture Evolved from GPRS Formed May Operators  AT&T Wireless, BT, TIM/CSELT, Rogers Cantel, Telnor, T-Mobil, Telia, SBC, Bell South, Japan Telecom 7 Suppliers  Ericsson, Nokia, Lucent, Nortel, Motorola, Siemens, Alcatel Pre-standards work to drive next round of standardization

40 Chih-Lin I –40 Gf Gn Gc Signalling and Data Transfer Interface Signalling Interface Multimedia IP Network PSTN/ Legacy/ External Mm Mg Mc Cx Mw MGW MGCF MRF CSCF R E-HLR 3G-SGSN3G-GGSN EIR Terminal D-QoS Terminal eg H.323 GK MSC/VLR PCU R Um MTTE BTS MT Gb Gs R Um MTTE BTS RNC GSM/EDGE RAN Uu R UTRAN TEMT Iu-ps’ Gr 3GPP Release 2000 Gi Mr HLR 136 BS Multimedia call/session control over IP Enhancement to radio network Iu-ps

41 Chih-Lin I –41 Edge Router MGW Applications & Services SCE/SEE Directory/TSM MS SGW CC SGW Multimedia IP Network SGSN GGSN EIR BCS BTS BSS IP Backbone Other PLMN PSTN/Legacy /External Legacy Mobil Signlaing Network GGSN HSS R-SGW CSCF MRF MGW MGCFT-SGW SCP CMMTA CMTS ER Cable Network 3G.IP Instantiation IP Arch Components 3G.IP Components

42 Chih-Lin I –42 MTA Cable CMTS SG SCP DP G/W PBX Directory Server TSM ASB Usage Logger GK Other IP Domain PSTN MGC MG AT&T IP Backbone PSTN Other IP Domain SGSN BCS BTS GGSN HSS CSCF T-SGW MGCF MGW EIR Cable Access Instantiation 3G.IP Components

43 Chih-Lin I –43 Virtual Home Environment (VHS) EG GGSN RNC SGSN/VLR Dir/MW TE EG HLR GPRS IP BB Access

44 Chih-Lin I –44 VHE Issues Product/Service/Operation/Technology Arch  3G.IP & Integrated BB Access (Cable, DSL, FWS)  Single look ‘n feel multimedia session Call Control  Protocol selection: SIP v.s. H.323  C.C. location: Home v.s. Foreign  Service logic, Feature trigger location: Basic, Supplementary  (Inter-carrier) Home Control of Roamer: Adaptation Connectivity Management  QoS: Diffserv, RSVP, MPLS  Routing: Tunnel concatnation; GTP, MIPv4, MIPv6

45 Chih-Lin I –45 VHE Issues (Conti.) Directory (HSS/HLR, HA/LD)  User profile (location, service, AAA parameters)  Dispatcher v.s. Meta directory Trust in foreign network (Proxy?)  Common Security Infrastructure  Single sign-on for access, Layered security measure for applications  User experience, Inter-access coherence?  Firewall, VPN, VNC? Local Resources  Discovery, Assignment  SLP?

46 Chih-Lin I –46 One Network EG RNC EG TE EG Applications/Dir/MW IP with Mobility BB Access

47 Chih-Lin I –47 One Network Issues Micro and Macro Mobility  Mobile IP has no “fast” handoff Network topology without GGSN and SGSN  IP straight to RNC IETF mobility proposals  Hierarchical Mobile IP, Cellular IP, Hawaii, Taro, HMMP  Interactions of “mobility tunnel” and “security tunnel”, etc

48 Chih-Lin I –48 IP Mobility Architecture ! End-to-end IP-based architecture?  Every nodes in the network is IP capable Evolving from GPRS? Mobile IP++ for seamless wireless and wireline mobility management?


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