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Technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik informatik 12 Embedded Systems Jian-Jia Chen (slides are based on Peter Marwedel) TU Dortmund,

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Presentation on theme: "Technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik informatik 12 Embedded Systems Jian-Jia Chen (slides are based on Peter Marwedel) TU Dortmund,"— Presentation transcript:

1 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik informatik 12 Embedded Systems Jian-Jia Chen (slides are based on Peter Marwedel) TU Dortmund, Informatik 12 © Springer, 年 10 月 07 日 These slides use Microsoft clip arts. Microsoft copyright restrictions apply.

2 - 2 - technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Motivation for course (1) According to forecasts, future of IT characterized by terms such as  Disappearing computer,  Ubiquitous computing,  Pervasive computing,  Ambient intelligence,  Post-PC era,  Cyber-physical systems. Basic technologies:  Embedded System technologies  Communication technologies © P. Marwedel, 2011

3 - 3 - technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Motivation for Course (2) “Information technology (IT) is on the verge of another revolution. ….. networked systems of embedded computers... have the potential to change radically the way people interact with their environment by linking together a range of devices and sensors that will allow information to be collected, shared, and processed in unprecedented ways.... The use … throughout society could well dwarf previous milestones in the information revolution.” National Research Council Report (US) Embedded Everywhere, 2001: © P. Marwedel, 2011

4 - 4 - technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Motivation for Course (3)  The future is embedded, embedded is the future Graphics: © Microsoft (clip arts)

5 - 5 - technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 What is an embedded system? Graphics: © Microsoft (clip arts)

6 - 6 - technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Embedded Systems & Cyber-Physical Systems “Dortmund“ Definition: [Peter Marwedel] Embedded systems are information processing systems embedded into a larger product Berkeley: [Edward A. Lee]: Embedded software is software integrated with physical processes. The technical problem is managing time and concurrency in computational systems. Cyber-Physical (cy-phy) Systems (CPS) are integrations of computation with physical processes [Edward Lee, 2006]. Cyber-physical system (CPS) = Embedded System (ES) + physical environment

7 - 7 - technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Cyber-physical systems and embedded systems CPS = ES + physical environment Embedded systems ("computers in physical environments") Embedded systems ("small computers") Cyber-physical systems

8 - 8 - technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 What is a Cyber-Physical System? Extreme view: PhysicalCyber Digital Controls Systems, ca Cyber-Physical Systems, ! © Marco Di Natale

9 - 9 - technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Definition according to National Science Foundation (US) Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are engineered systems that are built from and depend upon the synergy of computational and physical components. Emerging CPS will be coordinated, distributed, and connected, and must be robust and responsive. The CPS of tomorrow will need to far exceed the systems of today in capability, adaptability, resiliency, safety, security, and usability. Examples of the many CPS application areas include the smart electric grid, smart transportation, smart buildings, smart medical technologies, next- generation air traffic management, and advanced manufacturing. cps-vo.org

10 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 CPS: Integration of Cyber and Physics Cyber Physics CPS Graphics: © Microsoft (clip arts)

11 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Definition according to akatech The physical world and the virtual world – or cyber-space – are merging; cyber-physical systems are developing. Future cyber-physical systems will contribute to security, efficiency, comfort and health systems as never before, and as a result, they will contribute to solving key challenges of our society, such as the aging population, limited resources, mobility, or energy transition. [Akatech: Cyber-Physical Systems. Driving force for innovation in mobility, health, energy and production, publikationen/stellungnahmen/kooperationen/detail/artikel/cyber- physical-systems-innovationsmotor-fuer-mobilitaet-gesundheit- energie-und-produktion.html]

12 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Extending the motivation: Embedded systems and ubiquitous computing Ubiquitous computing: Information anytime, any- where. Embedded systems provide fundamental technology. Communication Technology Optical networking Network management Distributed applications Service provision UMTS, DECT, Hiperlan, ATM © Graphics: European Commission Embedded Systems Techn. Robots Control systems Feature extraction and recognition Sensors/actuators A/D-converters Pervasive/Ubiquitous computing Distributed systems Embedded web systems Real-timeDependability Quality ofservice

13 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Growing importance of cyber-physical/ embedded systems  49.7% of Americans own smartphones [www.itfacts.biz, March 31, 2012]  …, the market for remote home health monitoring is expected to generate $225 mln revenue in 2011, up from less than $70 mln in 2006, according to Parks Associates. [www.itfacts.biz, Sep. 4th, 2007]  Funding in the 7th European Framework  Funding in Horizon 2020  Creation of the ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking in Europe  Funding of CPS research in the US  Joint education effort of Taiwanese Universities  …. Graphics: © Microsoft (clip arts)

14 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Growing importance of cyber-physical & embedded systems (2) .. but embedded chips form the backbone of the electronics driven world in which we live... they are part of almost everything that runs on electricity [Ryan, EEDesign, 1995]  Foundation for the “post PC era“  CPS & ES hardly discussed in other courses  CPS & ES important for TU Dortmund  CPS & ES important for many industries  Scope: sets context for specialized courses Importance of education

15 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik informatik 12 Application areas and examples Graphics: © Alexandra Nolte, Gesine Marwedel, 2003

16 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Application area automotive electronics: clearly cyber-physical  Multiple networks  Multiple networked processors Functions by embedded processing:  ABS: Anti-lock braking systems  ESP: Electronic stability control  Airbags  Efficient automatic gearboxes  Theft prevention with smart keys  Blind-angle alert systems ... etc... © P. Marwedel, 2011 [Based on slide by J.Engblom]

17 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Application area avionics: also cyber-physical  Flight control systems,  anti-collision systems,  pilot information systems,  power supply system,  flap control system,  entertainment system,  … Dependability is of outmost importance. © P. Marwedel, 2011

18 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 More application areas:  railroad  water ways Dependability is of outmost importance. ©Photos: P. Marwedel

19 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Forestry machines: cyber-physical © Jakob Engblom Networked computer system  Controlling arms & tools  Navigating the forest  Recording the trees harvested  Crucial to efficient work

20 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Logistics Applications of embedded/cyber-physical system technology to logistics:  Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology provides easy identification of each and every object, worldwide.  Mobile communication allows unprecedented interaction.  The need of meeting real-time constraints and scheduling are linking embedded systems and logistics.  The same is true of energy minimization issues

21 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Internet of Things Internet of things and services Energy Harvesting, 400lx Solar cell Energy storage Telegrams without re- charging ePaper-Grafik-Display 256bit Crypto processor 32 Bit μProcessor <=25 MHz, 512kRAM Innovationspartner: Würth Industrie Services GmbH Debrunner Koenig Management AG © Fraunhofer IML, Dortmund

22 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Fabrication Production resources are self- configuring and distributed social machines Industry 4.0 © Fraunhofer IML, Dortmund

23 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Structural safety Sensors + data analysis Taipeh 101 Bridge at Vancouver Kilauea, Hawaii Möhne lake dam ©Photos: P. Marwedel

24 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Smart Home  Zero energy building, generates as much energy as it consumes  Provides safety and security  Supports owners  Provides maximum comfort  ambient assisted living © P. Marwedel

25 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Smart Medicine  Diagnosis  Support of therapy Surgery Aids, e.g. Artificial eye: -Camera attached to glasses; computer worn at belt; output directly connected to the brain, was at [www.dobelle.com] -Translation into sound; claiming much better resolution, com/etumble.html  evaluation  risk analysis  Information about patients

26 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 switch power station control station sensors and local control Decentralized Control centralized control long distance communication Local Process control Centralized control and monitoring Smart Grid © DFG-Forschergruppe 1511, TU Dortmund, Wietfeld, Rehtanz et al.

27 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Integration of Physics and Cyber in Physical Experiments © CERN, 2010

28 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Smart Beer Glass 8-bit processor Capacitive sensor for fluid level Inductive coil for RF ID activation & power CPU and reading coil in the table. Reports the level of fluid in the glass, alerts servers when close to empty Contact less transmission of power and readings © Jakob Engblom Integrates several technologies:  Radio transmissions  Sensor technology  Magnetic inductance for power  Computer used for calibration Impossible without the computer Meaningless without the electronics

29 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 More application areas  Telecommunication  Consumer electronics  Robotics  Public safety  Military systems Mostly cyber-physical © Graphics: P. Marwedel, 2011

30 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Connecting previously isolated systems © Design: P. MarwedelComponents: Microsoft

31 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik informatik 12 Educational concept Graphics: © Alexandra Nolte, Gesine Marwedel, 2003

32 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Broad set of topics 1.Introduction 2.Specification and modeling 3.CPS/ES hardware 4.CPS/ES system software 5.Evaluation 6.Mapping of applications to execution platforms 7.Optimizations 8.Test

33 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Concept of CPS & ES Education at Dortmund  Integrated as a specialization into CS curriculum Pro- gramming algorithmscomputer organization Math education EE fundamentals first course on embedded & CP systems lab control systems DSPmachine vision real-time systems project applications Lego, µC graduate level thesis undergraduate OS & networks middle- ware Lab + courses for minor degree

34 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Structure of the CS curriculum at Dortmund - 3 year bachelor program - Term 1Computer organization Programming & semantics Math education 2Circuits & communication OSAlgorithms 3HW labNetworksSW lab 4Databases… 5Embedded systems fundamentals Software engineering … 6Bachelor project + Thesis …… All dependences met

35 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Structure of the CS curriculum at Dortmund year diploma program - Term 1Computer organization Programming & semantics Math education 2Circuits & communication OSAlgorithms 3HW labNetworksSW lab 4Databases… 5Embedded systems fundamentals Software engineering … 6Advanced topic in ES …… 7Project group…… 8…… 9Thesis All dependences met

36 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Scope avoids problems with narrow perspectives reported by ARTIST “The lack of maturity of the domain results in a large variety of industrial practices, often due to cultural habits” “curricula … concentrate on one technique and do not present a sufficiently wide perspective.” “As a result, industry has difficulty finding adequately trained engineers, fully aware of design choices.” Source: ARTIST network of excellence: Guidelines for a Graduate Curriculum on Embedded Software and Systems, 2003:

37 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Scope consistent with ARTIST guidelines "The development of ES cannot ignore the underlying HW characteristics. Timing, memory usage, power consumption, and physical failures are important." "It seems that fundamental bases are really difficult to acquire during continuous training if they haven’t been initially learned, and we must focus on them." © Graphics: P. Marwedel, 2012

38 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Textbook(s) Several editions/translations:  1st edition English Original hardcover version Reprint, soft cover, 2006 German, 2007 Chinese, 2006 Macedonian, 2010  2nd edition, with CPS English, Dec. 2010/Jan Translated Chinese edition, 2013 Peter Marwedel Peter Marwedel Peter Marwedel © Graphics: Springer, Science Publishers, Ad Verbum Peter Marwedel Peter Marwedel Peter Marwedel

39 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Slides  Slides are available at the course web site dortmund.de/daes/de/lehre/lehrveranstaltungen/winter semester /es-1415.htmlhttp://ls12-www.cs.tu- dortmund.de/daes/de/lehre/lehrveranstaltungen/winter semester /es-1415.html Master format: (mostly) Powerpoint (2010 –new-); Derived format: PDF Course announcements

40 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Schedule (1) DateBookTopicLecturerSlides Oct. 7thPreface,1.1-2Intro, definitions, area, characteristics Chen Oct. 8th Design flows, MoCChen Oct. 14th Early phases, statechartsNeugebauer Oct. 21st timed automata, synchronous languages Kleinsorge Oct. 22nd SDL, data flow, SDF, Kahn process netw. Chen Oct. 28th Petri nets, Discrete event model Chen Oct. 29th2.8, 2.10Imperative model, comparison of MoCs Chen Nov. 4th Sensors & samplingChen

41 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Schedule (2) DateBookTopicLecturerSlides Nov.5th Execution platformsChen Nov.12nd Execution platformsChen Nov. 13th Communication, sampling theorem Chen Nov. 19th4.1System SW, RTOSChen Nov. 20th Aperiodic SchedulingChen Nov. 26th Periodic SchedulingChen Nov. 27th4.1Priority InheritanceChen Dec. 2nd Evaluation, Pareto optimality, Integer Linear Programming Kleinsorge Dec. 3rd WCETKleinsorge

42 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Schedule (3) DateBookTopicLecturerSlides Dec. 9th5.2.3Real-Time CalculusChen Dec. 10th Energy and power models, thermal models Chen Dec. 16th Dependability/simulatio n Neugebauer Jan. 6th6.3.2Hardware/Software Partitioning Chen Jan. 7th6.4MappingChen Jan. 13thReal-Time Communication Chen Jan. 14th7.1, 7.2Optimization IChen Jan. 20th7.3Optimization IIChen Jan. 21st7.4Optimization III: Low- Power Design Chen

43 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Schedule (4) DateBookTopicLecturerSlides Jan. 22nd TBD Chen Jan. 28th8 Test Chen

44 technische universität dortmund fakultät für informatik  JJ Chen and P.Marwedel, Informatik 12, 2014 Summary  A look at the future of IT  Definition: embedded & cyber-physical (cy-phy) systems  Growing importance of embedded & cy-phy systems  Application areas & examples  Curriculum


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