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Human Impact on Environment, Conservation, Biodiversity.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Impact on Environment, Conservation, Biodiversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Impact on Environment, Conservation, Biodiversity

2 What is Succession? A. Ecosystems are constantly changing 2.As change occurs, older inhabitants usually die out and new organism move in 3.Some changes within an ecosystem are predictable Primary succession- occurs on land where no soil exists. Primary succession- occurs on land where no soil exists. Ecological succession occurs in a community over a period of time Start at 1:05

3 Lichens begin to grow on bare rock. When they die, they leave behind organic matter… Mosses and grasses begin to take root in thin soil layer that formed from decaying lichens… Tree seedlings and shrubs begin to grow. Newly exposed rock is barren and lifeless…

4 Secondary succession- occurs when a disturbance changes an existing community without removing the soil

5 Overview Human affect Environment more than any other species 6 Main Ways of Impact –Hunting –Agriculture –Industry –Urban Development –Waste Production –Energy Use

6 Hunting Early Humans relied on hunting/gathering –Used land and water resources to get food –Extinction of Large Animals Modern Hunters –Laws Protect Endangered Animals –Help thin overpopulated organisms – Deer –Reduce Biodiversity

7 Biodiversity Importance DEF: the variety of life in an area. The greater the variety of species within it, the more robust an ecosystem will be. Orgs are adapted to live together in communities; not always clear how orgs are related, so taking away one species can have a BROAD RANGE OF EFFECTS. The variety of lifeforms on Earth, all inter-connected to each other through food webs, makes our survival possible -- autotrophs, heterotrophs, decomposers all need one another Biodiversity provides crucial "ecosystem services" Ex. clean water, breathable atmosphere, and natural climate control, upon which all species depend.

8 Agriculture Def: Harnessing nature to mass produce food Population Effect? –Nomad Town dwellers Civilization –Green Revolution – Feed billions…at what cost? Eco Effects –Over cultivation of land Erosion of soil –Large water supply demands 1800s Present – Technology Development –Irrigation –Genetically modified crops –Fertilizers and pesticides – Silent Spring Rachel Carson

9 Industrial Growth & Development Industrial Revolution mid 1800s Economy, Conveniences and Productivity advances –More stuff more waste Increase use of Tools, Technology, Science –Use of Fossil Fuels – release CO2 Greenhouse Effect –Chemical and waste by-products of manufacturing

10 Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming In 1996, the United States was responsible for 23% of the worlds carbon dioxide emissions -- more than any other country. CO2 Keeps heat radiation in – blanket Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas, responsible for 60 % of global warming

11 The Greatest Hoax ever Perpetrated By Eric Creed GLOBAL WARMING HAS BECOME QUITE THE INDUSTRY. The U.S. alone spends over $4 billion per year on climate change research. That seems like a lot of money to spend on something that is so well settled and agreed upon by all but a few flat-earthers. Gore has started giving a disclaimer during his lectures. Gore, and Global Investment Management, LLP (GIM), the London-based private equity firm of which Gore is the founder and Chairman, stand to benefit in untold riches if we invest in the companies he recommends in his lectures. His disclaimers are no different than those of a stock broker or insurance agent. Gore is basically saying, yes, I own stock in these companies, but you should too if you want to save the planet from certain doom. Doom-and-gloom has served Gore well. Like the other two shysters from his administration, he is reported to be worth north of $100 million. If you missed the medias passing mention last month, Clinton finally released her income tax returns. Turns out shes worth about $109 million. Civil servants, huh? Servants never had it so good. All the past presidents and vice presidents combined probably dont have the wealth of the Gores and Clintons. As a side note, Gore closed GIMs second green fund, Climate Solutions Fund, in April at $683 million. The first fund, Global Equity Strategy Fund, has invested $2.2 billion in large companies judged to have, from an environmental, social and economic viewpoint, a sustainable business. I wonder, can any of the companies that Gore is investing billions in help him and his Nashville mansion use less than 10 times the amount of energy the average American household uses? But dont worry, hes using compact fluorescents in his house, so its ok to use 10 times as much energy as everyone else. Speaking of Gores waste and gluttony, I wonder how ginormous his carbon footprint was while he was jetting around the world promoting his lie/movie and trying to convince everyone to invest in his companies. It was reported in April that An Inconvenient Truth used computer-generated footage from the movie The Day After Tomorrow to show a crumbling ice shelf. Those are the kinds of deceptions necessary when trying to convince the world of a lie. Just as Nazi Propaganda Chief Joseph Goebbels said, [T]ell a lie enough and it becomes accepted as truth. As well as that has worked for Gore, support for his planet in peril mantra is eroding faster than he claims the ice caps are. In 2007 a British court held that, in order for his lie/movie to be shown to school children, eleven inaccuracies have to be specifically drawn to the attention of the [students]. Among those inaccuracies, the court ruled, was that rises in CO2 lagged behind temperature rises by 800-2,000 years; that despite the movies claim, it is a scientific impossibility for global warming to cause the Gulf Steam to stop flowing; and that, while the movie claims sea levels could rise 23 feet, the evidence showed sea levels are expected to rise 15 inches over the next 100 years.

12 Urban Growth and Development Physical Changing of Ecosystems Soil, Flora and Fauna Concrete Suburban Sprawl – Commuters to Urban Areas –Increases Drive time to work, etc –Increases Air Pollution Decreases –Biodiversity –Oxygen Production Increases –Water Run Off –Pollution – Air, Water, Soil –Habitat Destruction, Degradation and Fragmentation –Heat

13 Air pollution breathing problems irritation of membranes Burning of fossil fuels is biggest source NOx, SOx, O3 = Smog Ozone layer is being broken down by CFCs (carbofluorocarbons) – found in refrigerators and air conditioners as coolants; this allows radiation to reach earth, causing genetic defects and cancer

14 Figure 55.5 Fragmentation of a forest ecosystem

15 Biotic and Abiotic Issues of Fragmentation Biotic: -some organisms need large areas to gather food Ex. Lions Ex. Zebra -no migratory routes to re- establish populations lost due to natural disasters Abiotic: -climate can change -can cause EDGE EFFECT (different conditions along the boundaries of an ecosystem)

16 Habitat Degradation Damage to habitat by pollution Three types of pollution: air, water, land

17 Introduction of Exotic Species New orgs introduced into an ecosystem; do not have any natural predators and is little competition with other orgs, so native species are at risk Exotics may take over niches of native species and eventually replace the native species completely

18 Waste Production Average American Produces 60 tons of garbage in a lifetime Where does waste go? –Landfills – Biodegrade –Liquid Waste Treatment Plants – Clean and reuse –Hazardous waste – buried in barrels or bioremidated More of todays waste is NON Biodegradable Can compost for fertilizer – bacteria and fungi breakdown yard waste for fertilizer

19 Energy Use Fossil Fuels, Hydroelectric, Nuclear, Hydrogen Americans use ¼ worlds fossil fuels Energy – all types – produces wastes –Fossil Fuels CO2, particles, sulfur, NO –Hydroelectric Water Pollution, Biodiversity –Nuclear Radiation –Hydrogen H20, most produced using fossil fuels

20 Water Pollution Degrades aquatic habitats in streams, lakes, and oceans Excess fertilizers and animal waste get into streams and cause algal blooms Coral reefs are destroyed when silt covers the living coral and they cant photosynthesize or get to food Detergents, heavy metals, and industrial chemicals in runoff cause sickness and death in aquatic orgs Abandoned drift nets trap dolphins, whales, fish, sea turtles Acid precipitation is responsible for deterioration of forests and lakes, also damages plant tissues and interferes with plant growth. (sulfur dioxide from coal-burning factories and nitrogen oxides from exhausts combine with water vapor to form acid droplets of water vapor) Use of pesticides such as DDT – gets into water

21 Oil spill

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