Presentation on theme: "Human Impact on Environment, Conservation, Biodiversity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Human Impact on Environment, Conservation, Biodiversity
2 Ecosystems are constantly changing What is Succession?Ecosystems are constantly changing2. As change occurs, older inhabitants usually die out and new organism move in3. Some changes within an ecosystem are predictableEcological succession occurs in a community over a period of timeStart at 1:05Primary succession- occurs on land where no soil exists.
3 PrimarySuccessionMosses and grasses begin to take root in thin soil layer that formed from decaying lichens…Lichens begin to grow on bare rock. When they die, they leave behind organic matter…Newly exposed rock is barren and lifeless…Tree seedlings and shrubs begin to grow.
4 Secondary succession- occurs when a. disturbance changes an existing Secondary succession- occurs when a disturbance changes an existing community without removing the soil
5 Overview Human affect Environment more than any other species 6 Main Ways of ImpactHuntingAgricultureIndustryUrban DevelopmentWaste ProductionEnergy Use
6 Hunting Early Humans relied on hunting/gathering Modern Hunters Used land and water resources to get foodExtinction of Large AnimalsModern HuntersLaws Protect Endangered AnimalsHelp thin overpopulated organisms – DeerReduce Biodiversity
7 Biodiversity Importance DEF: the variety of life in an area.The greater the variety of species within it, the more robust an ecosystem will be.Orgs are adapted to live together in communities; not always clear how orgs are related, so taking away one species can have a BROAD RANGE OF EFFECTS.The variety of lifeforms on Earth, all inter-connected to each other through food webs, makes our survival possible -- autotrophs, heterotrophs, decomposers all need one anotherBiodiversity provides crucial "ecosystem services"— Ex. clean water, breathable atmosphere, and natural climate control, upon which all species depend.
8 Agriculture Def: Harnessing nature to mass produce food Population Effect?Nomad Town dwellers CivilizationGreen Revolution – Feed billions…at what cost?Eco EffectsOver cultivation of land Erosion of soilLarge water supply demands1800’s Present – Technology DevelopmentIrrigationGenetically modified cropsFertilizers and pesticides – Silent Spring Rachel Carson
9 Industrial Growth & Development Industrial Revolution mid 1800’sEconomy, Conveniences and Productivity advancesMore ‘stuff’ more wasteIncrease use of Tools, Technology, ScienceUse of Fossil Fuels – release CO2 Greenhouse EffectChemical and waste by-products of manufacturing
10 Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming In 1996, the United States was responsible for 23% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions -- more than any other country.CO2 Keeps heat radiation in – blanketCarbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas, responsible for 60 % of global warming
11 The Greatest Hoax ever Perpetrated By Eric Creed GLOBAL WARMING HAS BECOME QUITE THE INDUSTRY. The U.S. alone spends over $4 billion per year on climate change research. That seems like a lot of money to spend on something that is so well settled and agreed upon by all but a few “flat-earthers.” Gore has started giving a disclaimer during his lectures. Gore, and Global Investment Management, LLP (GIM), the London-based private equity firm of which Gore is the founder and Chairman, stand to benefit in untold riches if we invest in the companies he recommends in his lectures. His disclaimers are no different than those of a stock broker or insurance agent. Gore is basically saying, yes, I own stock in these companies, but you should too if you want to save the planet from certain doom. Doom-and-gloom has served Gore well. Like the other two shysters from his administration, he is reported to be worth north of $100 million. If you missed the media’s passing mention last month, Clinton finally released her income tax returns. Turns out she’s worth about $109 million. Civil servants, huh? Servants never had it so good. All the past presidents and vice presidents combined probably don’t have the wealth of the Gores and Clintons. As a side note, Gore closed GIM’s second “green” fund, Climate Solutions Fund, in April at $683 million. The first fund, Global Equity Strategy Fund, has invested $2.2 billion in large companies judged to have, from an environmental, social and economic viewpoint, a “sustainable” business. I wonder, can any of the companies that Gore is investing billions in help him and his Nashville mansion use less than 10 times the amount of energy the average American household uses? But don’t worry, he’s using compact fluorescents in his house, so it’s ok to use 10 times as much energy as everyone else. Speaking of Gore’s waste and gluttony, I wonder how ginormous his carbon footprint was while he was jetting around the world promoting his lie/movie and trying to convince everyone to invest in his companies. It was reported in April that An Inconvenient Truth used computer-generated footage from the movie The Day After Tomorrow to show a crumbling ice shelf. Those are the kinds of deceptions necessary when trying to convince the world of a lie. Just as Nazi Propaganda Chief Joseph Goebbels said, “[T]ell a lie enough and it becomes accepted as truth.” As well as that has worked for Gore, support for his “planet in peril” mantra is eroding faster than he claims the ice caps are. In 2007 a British court held that, in order for his lie/movie to be shown to school children, “eleven inaccuracies have to be specifically drawn to the attention of the [students].” Among those inaccuracies, the court ruled, was that rises in CO2 lagged behind temperature rises by 800-2,000 years; that despite the movie’s claim, it is a scientific impossibility for global warming to cause the Gulf Steam to stop flowing; and that, while the movie claims sea levels could rise 23 feet, the evidence showed sea levels are expected to rise 15 inches over the next 100 years.
12 Urban Growth and Development Physical Changing of EcosystemsSoil, Flora and Fauna ConcreteSuburban Sprawl – Commuters to Urban AreasIncreases Drive time to work, etcIncreases Air PollutionDecreasesBiodiversityOxygen ProductionIncreasesWater Run OffPollution – Air, Water, SoilHabitat Destruction, Degradation and FragmentationHeat
13 Air pollution breathing problems irritation of membranes Burning of fossil fuels is biggest sourceNOx, SOx, O3 = SmogOzone layer is being broken down by CFC’s (carbofluorocarbons) – found in refrigerators and air conditioners as coolants; this allows radiation to reach earth, causing genetic defects and cancer
14 Figure 55.5 Fragmentation of a forest ecosystem
15 Biotic and Abiotic Issues of Fragmentation -some organisms need large areas to gather foodEx. LionsEx. Zebra-no migratory routes to re-establish populations lost due to natural disastersAbiotic:-climate can change-can cause EDGE EFFECT(different conditions along the boundaries of an ecosystem)
16 Habitat Degradation Damage to habitat by pollution Three types of pollution: air, water, land
17 Introduction of Exotic Species New orgs introduced into an ecosystem; do not have any natural predators and is little competition with other orgs, so native species are at riskExotics may take over niches of native species and eventually replace the native species completely
18 Waste ProductionAverage American Produces 60 tons of garbage in a lifetimeWhere does waste go?Landfills – BiodegradeLiquid Waste Treatment Plants – Clean and reuseHazardous waste – buried in barrels or bioremidatedMore of today’s waste is NON BiodegradableCan compost for fertilizer – bacteria and fungi breakdown yard waste for fertilizer
19 Energy Use Fossil Fuels, Hydroelectric, Nuclear, Hydrogen Americans use ¼ world’s fossil fuelsEnergy – all types – produces wastesFossil Fuels CO2, particles, sulfur, NOHydroelectric Water Pollution, BiodiversityNuclear RadiationHydrogen H20, most produced using fossil fuels
20 Water PollutionDegrades aquatic habitats in streams, lakes, and oceansExcess fertilizers and animal waste get into streams and cause algal bloomsCoral reefs are destroyed when silt covers the living coral and they can’t photosynthesize or get to foodDetergents, heavy metals, and industrial chemicals in runoff cause sickness and death in aquatic orgsAbandoned drift nets trap dolphins, whales, fish, sea turtlesAcid precipitation is responsible for deterioration of forests and lakes, also damages plant tissues and interferes with plant growth.(sulfur dioxide from coal-burning factories and nitrogen oxides from exhausts combine with water vapor to form acid droplets of water vapor)Use of pesticides such as DDT – gets into water
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