3 ObjectivesTo establish and maintain effective two-way communication with the pork industry.To implement a research program with a short- to medium-term time line.To fully integrate graduate training at both the M.S. and Ph.D. levels into our research program.To communicate the results of the research program to the pork industry and the academic community.
4 Our GoalTo develop an understanding of high priority nutrition and management issues to create solutions and develop strategies that support greater economic success and improved long term sustainability of the pork industry
5 Research Themes Energy metabolism Ingredient evaluation How to best supply energy to the pigHow the pig uses energy for growthIngredient evaluationEvaluation of ingredientsImproved approaches to ingredient evaluationFeeding and managementBased on industry input and suggestions
6 Outline Concepts of life-cycle feeding of swine Feeding and management: SowsDiet formulation issuesFeeding management issuesFeeding and management: GestationExample dietsFeeding and management: Lactation
7 PRODUCTION CONTINUUMWhat occurs in one phase of production often affects outcomes in later phases.OrDiagnosing problems in one phase of production often requires consideration of what is happening in earlier phases.BreedingFarrowingNurseryGrowout
8 Life cycle feeding objectives To ensure that the feeding of animals in one phase of the production system does not impair production later in lifeMarketGestationLactationGrowoutNursery
9 Life cycle feeding objectives By understanding the implications of life-cycle feeding, achieve production objectives at the lowest possible cost
10 WHAT YOU CANNOT MEASURE WHAT GETS MEASUREDGETS MANAGEDORYOU CANNOT MANAGEWHAT YOU CANNOT MEASURE
11 The decision-making process Perception of Risk versus Reward
12 Accuracy versus Precision High accuracyHigh precisionLow accuracyHigh precisionHigh accuracyLow precisionLow accuracyLow precisionSource: Rutherford and Moughan, 2000
15 Life cycle feeding Gestation feeding affects: Sow condition at farrowingFeed intake during lactationSows that get too fat in gestation eat less in lactationPiglet birth weightResponse is very smallCost of feeding the breeding herdFeeding too much feed or too rich a diet increases feed costs with no benefits, possibly detrimentsWell-being of the sowThin sows are easily chilled and more susceptible for illness
16 Life cycle feeding Lactation feeding affects: Sow condition at weaning Affects subsequent reproductionLitter weaning weightsSows will “milk off their back” but this is both inefficient and ineffective, compared to feeding the sow correctlyCost of feeding the breeding herdFeeding too much feed or too rich a diet increases feed costs with no benefits, possibly detrimentsWell-being of the sowThin sows are easily chilled and more susceptible for illness
17 Tracking actual sow feed usage: Gestation feed Example: 3,500 sow herd using 1,020 tons of gestation feed over 4 months. Average daily gestation feed disappearance = 1,220 tons X 2,000 lb/ton 3,300 crates X 166 days = 2,440, ,800 = 4.45 lb/sow/day
18 Tracking actual sow feed usage: Lactation feed: Option 1 Example: 3,500 sow herd with 525 crates farrows 2,950 litters using 325 tons of lactation feed over 4 monthsAverage daily lactation feed disappearance= tons X 2,000 lb/ton525 crates X 122 days= 650,00064,050= lb/sow/day[Under-estimates actual usage, due to empty crates, or pre-farrowed sows in crates. Must know this information to use the information effectively.]
19 Tracking actual sow feed usage: Lactation feed: Option 2 Example: 3,500 sow herd with 525 crates farrows 2,950 litters using 325 tons of lactation feed over 4 monthsAverage daily lactation feed disappearance; ave. lactation 19 d= tons X 2,000 lb/ton2950 litters X 19 days= 650,00056,050= lb/sow/day[Over-estimates actual usage, because feed given to sows prior to farrowing is included. Must know this information to use the information effectively.]
20 Recommended Nutrient Levels for Lactating Sows and Giltsa Amount/head/day (g)Amount/ton (%)TID Lysine480.87TID Met & Cys260.47TID Tryptophan90.16TID Threonine300.55TID Valine430.78Calcium490.90Available phosphorus24.50.45Salt270.50aAssumes 12 lb/day feed intake of a diet containing 0.87% TID lysine
21 Adj. 21-day litter weaning wt, lb Lactation feed intake, lb/d Dietary TID Lysine Level Based Upon Litter Weaning Weight and Sow Feed IntakeAdj. 21-day litter weaning wt, lbLactation feed intake, lb/dLysine, g/d89101112131415TIDTotal1000.880.780.710.640.5932361101.020.910.820.740.680.6337421201.030.930.840.770.66481301.040.940.860.800.6947531400.960.7652591501.050.970.905765
22 Suggested TID Amino Acid Ratios for Sows GestationLactationLysine100%Methionine28%Met & Cys70%55%Threonine80%62%Tryptophan20%19%Isoleucine60%Valine67%90%
24 Recommended Nutrient Levels for Lactating Sows and Giltsa TRACE MINERALSbAmount/head/day (mg)Amount/ton (g)Copper9015Iodine1.60.27Iron900150Manganese21636SeleniumZincChromium1.090.181aAssumes 12 lb/day feed intake of a diet containing 0.87% TID lysinebTrace minerals and vitamins levels added to the diet
25 Recommended Maximum Concentrations of Toxin in Swine Diets PigDietary ConcentrationDeoxynivalenolppmZearalenoneAflatoxinppbBreeding herd1.02.0100Young20Growing---aFinishing3.0200Young malesOld malesa Concentration not determinedModified from Michigan State University
27 Example Gestation Diets Mixed parity dietYoung parity dietOld parity dietIngredientCorn-soy dietSoy hull dietCorn or milo1,6261,5481,617Soybean meal, 46.5% CP291271202Soy hulls---100Monocalcium phosphate, 21% P323129Limestone2827Salt10Vitamin premix with phytase5Trace mineral premix3Sow add packTotal2,000
28 Example Gestation Diets Mixed parity dietYoung parity dietOld parity dietCalculated analysisCorn-soy dietSoy hull dietTID Lysine, %0.560.550.46Total lysine, %0.65TID Lysine:ME ratio, g/Mcal1.711.44TID Methionine:lysine ratio,%3841TID Met & Cys:lysine ratio, %7885TID Threonine:lysine ratio, %7680TID Tryptophan:lysine ratio, %2322ME, kcal/lb1,4841,451Protein, %13.713.412.1Calcium, %0.90Phosphorus, %0.660.640.61Available phosphorus, %0.390.380.35Available phosphorus equiv, %a0.450.440.42aThe available phosphorus equivalency includes the phosphorus release due to inclusion of phytase in the vitamin premix.
29 Gestation feeding challenges Optimize lifetime sow productivity, as a means of maximizing herd profitabilityOver-feeding sows in gestation reduces feed intake in lactationUnder-feeding sows in gestation impairs reproductive performance and animal well-being (shoulder sores)Avoid mycotoxins; this may be the worst place to feed mycotoxin contaminated feed
30 Gestation feeding targets Body condition score between 3 and 3.5 – for ALL sowsAvoid sows that are too fat or too thinBackfat levels of 0.75” to 0.80” at farrowing (measured at last rib, 2.5” to 3.0” off the midline)Avoid bf less than 0.55” at weaningAdjust feed intake according to body weight and backfatVery thin sows have higher maintenance energy requirements, because they have lower insulation levels and are often more active.
31 Gestation feeding program Sows must be limit fed during gestation; otherwise they become too fatDo not feed more than 4 to 5 lb per day for the first 3 weeks after breeding; excess intake lowers fetal survivalFeed 4.0 to 4.5 lb of a corn-soybean meal diet per day, adjusting as required for body conditionIncrease feed allowance by 2 lb during the last 21 days of gestationIncreases gut capacity to support maximum intake in lactationRecognizes that most fetal growth occurs during the final 3 weeks of gestation.Exception if over-fat sows
32 Limit feeding gestating sows Easily accomplished in gestation stallsAutomatic drops MUST be calibrated regularly, to ensure the sow is receiving what you think she should be receiving.More difficult to achieve in group housing systemsKey rule: to successfully feed sows in group housed gestation, remove competition for feed. The greater the competition among sows for feed, the less successful the housing system will be.Options:Electronic sow feedersWalk-in-lock-in feeding stallsTrickle feedersFloor feeding, with multiple drops, spreading out supply of feed throughout the pen. Including dividers within the pen helps
33 Energy and Feed (lb/day) Required to Maintain Body Weight Dietary energy, kcal/lbSow weight, lbME, kcal1,4001,5003504,7413.43.24005,2403.73.54505,7244.13.85006,1954.45506,6544.86007,1035.14.7
34 Energy and Feed (lb/day) Required For Backfat Gain Above Requirement For Maintenance mm (in)Dietary energy, kcalME, kcal1,4001,5000 (0)3420.240.233 (.12)9910.710.666 (.24)1,6491.181.109 (.35)2,3071.651.54
35 Backfat at breeding, mm (in) Feeding Levels (lb/day) For Gestating Sows Based on Backfat and Weight Category at BreedingFlank to flank, inEstimated weight, lbBackfat at breeding, mm (in)9-11( )12-14( )15-17( )> 18(.71)< 36.3> 3255.0(.20)4.4(.17)3.9(.15)3.4(.13)5.5(.22)5.9(.23)5.4(.21)4.9(.19)4.36.4(.25)4.8> 44.06.9(.27)5.85.3Based on a diet containing 1,500 kcal ME/lb (corn-soybean meal).
36 Case studyYou are managing a large sow herd, and your records indicate that sow productivity is a modest 23 pigs per sow per year (p/s/y). You realize that financial success is unlikely unless you elevate this level of productivity to at least 26 p/s/y.Reviewing the PigChamp records, you note the following:Non-productive sow days (NPD) is well above target (63)Weanling to re-breeding interval is acceptable (5.8)Percent bred by 7 days is unacceptable (88)Percent repeats is excessive (12)Numbers born and born alive is unacceptable (11.9/11.0)You are confident that your genetics and breeding management are capable of achieving your sow productivity target. You take a walk through your gestation barn; what would you expect to see and what feeding and feeding management actions would you undertake to correct the problems?
38 Example Lactation Diets TID Lysine, %Ingredient, lb/ton0.800.850.900.951.001.05Corn1,4351,3951,3561,3161,2771,238Soybean meal, 46.5% CP486526566605645685Choice white greasea0-5%Monocalcium Phosphate, 21% P28.52827.5Limestone27Salt10Vitamin premix with phytase5Trace mineral premix3Sow add packTotal2,000a If adding fat, substitute for grain on an equal weight basis
39 Example Lactation Diets Calculated analysisTID Lysine, %0.800.850.900.951.001.05Total Lysine, %0.910.971.021.081.131.19TID Lysine:ME ratio, g/Mcal2.352.492.642.792.933.08TID Methionine:lysine ratio, %3231302928TID Met & Cys:lysine ratio, %656462616059TID Threonine:lysine ratio, %69686766TID Tryptophan:lysine ratio, %22ME, kcal/lb1,547Protein, %17.117.918.719.420.220.9Calcium, %Phosphorus, %0.660.670.680.69Available phosphorus, %0.360.37Available phosphorus equiv, %b0.48bThe available phosphorus equivalency includes the phosphorus release due to inclusion of phytase in the vitamin premix.
40 Feed intakeOne of the greatest challenges in feeding the nursing sow is maximizing feed intakeLow feed intake leads to low nutrient intakeLow nutrient intake leads to:Lower weaning weightsLoss of sow body conditionIncreased sow cullingImpaired rebreeding and subsequent litter size
41 Effects of Lactation Feeding Level on Litter and Pig Performance ItemRestrictedAd libitumSEDProbability, P <No. of litters3840---Pigs/litterd 3 (start creep)11.010.90.30.75d 2110.40.93Mortality, %220.127.116.11.76Litter weight, lb39.318.104.22.168125.122.214.171.124Litter BW gain, lbTotal94.7102.93.90.04ADG5.205.640.21NB – Restricted were fed 25% less than ab libitum
42 Lactation feeding program Small amount of feed on day of farrowingHungry sows are restless and more likely to over-lay pigletsSows typically will not eat much feed; farrowing room is very warm and fed deteriorates quicklyDay 1 – 2: Limit fed modestly; do not want to limit feed very muchDays 3+: Keep fresh feed in front of the sows at all times
43 Feeding Strategy for Lactating Sows Number of 4-pound scoops to feed at each feeding from day 0 to 2 of lactationFeedingFeed in feederAMPMEmpty1< 2 lb0.5> 2 lbNumber of 4-pound scoops to feed at each feeding from day 2 to weaningNoon2
44 Factors affecting feed intake - 1 Feed deliveryPigs cannot eat feed that isn’t in front of them! By the 3rd day of lactation, sows should have feed in front of them all of the timeFeeding 3 to 4 times per day is preferred to feeding once or twice.Density of the dietPigs eat more of a low density (low energy) diet, up to the volumetric capacity of their stomachTemperatureHigh temperature discourages feed intake; low temperature encourages feed intakeIf the temperature is too cold, or conditions are drafty and damp, part of the energy consumed by the sow will be needed to maintain thermal homeostasis
45 Factors affecting feed intake - 2 GeneticsSome lines of pigs have a naturally higher appetite. If using a low appetite line of pigs, even greater attention must be directed at maximizing feed intakePalatabilityIt is important to note that the important factor here is what the pig considers palatable, not what the producer “thinks” is palatable.Nutrient balanceImbalances among, for example, amino acids will reduce feed intakeBody condition and reproductive cycle feedingIf sows are overfed in gestation, they will accrue more body fat and this tends to impair feed intake during lactation
46 Factors affecting feed intake - 3 Feeder designLarge feed troughs tend to increase feed intakeWet/dry feeders tend to increase feed intakeAccess to waterWater is particularly critical to a lactating sowA sow weaning 11 piglets at 3 weeks of age weighing 13 lb will be producing an average of 2.5 gallons of milk per day!
47 How much lactation feed is enough? ExamplePiglets are gaining 11.5 lb during 19d nursing periodSow is weaning 10.5 piglets per litterTotal weight gain is lb, or (120.8/19) 6.4 lb/dEstimated energy req’t is 3.6 Mcal DE/lb litter gainDaily energy requirement would be (6.4 X 3.6) 23.0 Mcal DE/d, or 21.9 Mcal ME/dDiet ME content is 1.45 Mcal ME/lbTherefore, sow must eat 15.1 lb feed/dIs this possible?If yes, what actions can producer take to maximize intake?If no, what options are available to 1) the sow, or 2) the producer?
48 Fibre in lactation diets Nursing sows are susceptible to constipationConstipation can be treated by using:FiberWheat midds (±20%)Soybean hulls (±10%)Alfalfa meal (±25%)Sugar beet pulp (7±%)Oats (±20%)(Risk: Use of fibrous ingredients will lower diet energy density and may compromise sow’s ability to consume sufficient energyChemical laxativesMgSO4 (Epsom salts: 30 lb/ton)NaSO4 (Glauber salts: 60 lb/ton)(Risk: Chemical laxatives are harsh; should be used carefully)
49 Lactation feeding quandary In order to maximize sow feed intake, she wants the room kept as cool as possibleIn order to maximize piglet growth and well-being, they want the room to be kept very warmIf the room is kept too cool for the piglets, they will huddle with the sow, increasing the risk of being over-lainIncreased mortality due to overlays is often related to a room temperature that is too coolCompromiseKeep the farrowing room temperature elevated during farrowing and the first 24 to 36 hours post-farrowing, to get the piglets off to a good start.Lower the temperature to 68 to 72⁰F thereafter and provide zone heating for the pigletsFeed intake declines by about 0.2 lb/d per ⁰F above 68⁰F
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