Presentation on theme: "Livestock Feeding AnS 320 Swine Feeding and Management Lecture 1: April 13 Dr. John F. Patience Department of Animal Science 201H Kildee Hall Phone: 294-5132."— Presentation transcript:
Livestock Feeding AnS 320 Swine Feeding and Management Lecture 1: April 13 Dr. John F. Patience Department of Animal Science 201H Kildee Hall Phone:
Applied Swine Nutrition Research Program
Objectives 1.To establish and maintain effective two-way communication with the pork industry. 2.To implement a research program with a short- to medium-term time line. 3.To fully integrate graduate training at both the M.S. and Ph.D. levels into our research program. 4.To communicate the results of the research program to the pork industry and the academic community.
Our Goal To develop an understanding of high priority nutrition and management issues to create solutions and develop strategies that support greater economic success and improved long term sustainability of the pork industry
Research Themes 1.Energy metabolism o How to best supply energy to the pig o How the pig uses energy for growth 2.Ingredient evaluation o Evaluation of ingredients o Improved approaches to ingredient evaluation 3.Feeding and management o Based on industry input and suggestions
Outline Concepts of life-cycle feeding of swine Feeding and management: Sows Diet formulation issues Feeding management issues Feeding and management: Gestation Example diets Diet formulation issues Feeding management issues Feeding and management: Lactation Example diets Diet formulation issues Feeding management issues
PRODUCTION CONTINUUM Breeding Farrowing Nursery Growout What occurs in one phase of production often affects outcomes in later phases. Or Diagnosing problems in one phase of production often requires consideration of what is happening in earlier phases.
Life cycle feeding objectives 1.To ensure that the feeding of animals in one phase of the production system does not impair production later in life Gestation Lactation Nursery Growout Market
Life cycle feeding objectives 2.By understanding the implications of life-cycle feeding, achieve production objectives at the lowest possible cost
WHAT GETS MEASURED GETS MANAGED OR YOU CANNOT MANAGE WHAT YOU CANNOT MEASURE
The decision-making process Perception of Risk versus Perception of Reward
Accuracy versus Precision Source: Rutherford and Moughan, 2000 High accuracy High precision Low accuracy High precision High accuracy Low precision Low accuracy Low precision
Feeding and Management: Sows
Framework for Developing Feeding Programs Feeding Program Nutrient Supply Nutrient Requirements Profitability Pork Quality Sustainability Functional Properties
Life cycle feeding Gestation feeding affects: Sow condition at farrowing Feed intake during lactation Sows that get too fat in gestation eat less in lactation Piglet birth weight Response is very small Cost of feeding the breeding herd Feeding too much feed or too rich a diet increases feed costs with no benefits, possibly detriments Well-being of the sow Thin sows are easily chilled and more susceptible for illness
Life cycle feeding Lactation feeding affects: Sow condition at weaning Affects subsequent reproduction Litter weaning weights Sows will milk off their back but this is both inefficient and ineffective, compared to feeding the sow correctly Cost of feeding the breeding herd Feeding too much feed or too rich a diet increases feed costs with no benefits, possibly detriments Well-being of the sow Thin sows are easily chilled and more susceptible for illness
Tracking actual sow feed usage: Gestation feed Example: 3,500 sow herd using 1,020 tons of gestation feed over 4 months. Average daily gestation feed disappearance = 1,220 tons X 2,000 lb/ton 3,300 crates X 166 days = 2,440, ,800 = 4.45 lb/sow/day
Tracking actual sow feed usage: Lactation feed: Option 1 Example: 3,500 sow herd with 525 crates farrows 2,950 litters using 325 tons of lactation feed over 4 months Average daily lactation feed disappearance = 325 tons X 2,000 lb/ton 525 crates X 122 days = 650,000 64,050 = 10.1 lb/sow/day [Under-estimates actual usage, due to empty crates, or pre-farrowed sows in crates. Must know this information to use the information effectively.]
Tracking actual sow feed usage: Lactation feed: Option 2 Example: 3,500 sow herd with 525 crates farrows 2,950 litters using 325 tons of lactation feed over 4 months Average daily lactation feed disappearance; ave. lactation 19 d = 325 tons X 2,000 lb/ton 2950 litters X 19 days = 650,000 56,050 = 11.6 lb/sow/day [Over-estimates actual usage, because feed given to sows prior to farrowing is included. Must know this information to use the information effectively.]
Recommended Nutrient Levels for Lactating Sows and Gilts a NUTRIENT Amount/head/day (g)Amount/ton (%) TID Lysine TID Met & Cys TID Tryptophan90.16 TID Threonine TID Valine Calcium Available phosphorus Salt a Assumes 12 lb/day feed intake of a diet containing 0.87% TID lysine
Dietary TID Lysine Level Based Upon Litter Weaning Weight and Sow Feed Intake Adj. 21-day litter weaning wt, lb Lactation feed intake, lb/dLysine, g/d TIDTotal
Suggested TID Amino Acid Ratios for Sows GestationLactation Lysine100% Methionine28% Met & Cys70%55% Threonine80%62% Tryptophan20%19% Isoleucine60%55% Valine67%90%
Recommended Nutrient Levels for Lactating Sows and Gilts a VITAMINS Amount/head/dayAmount/ton Vitamin A60,000 USP10,000,000 USP Vitamin D7,5000 USP1,250,000 USP Vitamin E360 IU60,000 IU Vitamin K c 24 mg4,000 mg Riboflavin45 mg7,500 mg Niacin270 mg45,000 mg d-Pantothenic acid150 mg25,000 mg Vitamin B mg35 mg Folic acid9 mg1,500 mg Biotin1.2 mg200 mg Choline3,000 mg500,000 mg Pyridoxine27 mg4,500 mg Carnitine270 mg45,000 mg a Assumes 12 lb/day feed intake of a diet containing 0.87% TID lysine c Menadione
Recommended Nutrient Levels for Lactating Sows and Gilts a TRACE MINERALS b Amount/head/day (mg)Amount/ton (g) Copper9015 Iodine Iron Manganese21636 Selenium Zinc Chromium a Assumes 12 lb/day feed intake of a diet containing 0.87% TID lysine b Trace minerals and vitamins levels added to the diet
Recommended Maximum Concentrations of Toxin in Swine Diets Pig Dietary Concentration Deoxynivalenol ppm Zearalenone ppm Aflatoxin ppb Breeding herd Young Growing a Finishing Young males a Old males a a Concentration not determined Modified from Michigan State University
Feeding and Management: Gestation
Example Gestation Diets Mixed parity dietYoung parity diet Old parity diet IngredientCorn-soy dietSoy hull diet Corn or milo1,6261,548 1,617 Soybean meal, 46.5% CP Soy hulls Monocalcium phosphate, 21% P Limestone Salt10 Vitamin premix with phytase5555 Trace mineral premix3333 Sow add pack5555 Total2,000
Example Gestation Diets Mixed parity dietYoung parity diet Old parity diet Calculated analysisCorn-soy dietSoy hull diet TID Lysine, % Total lysine, % TID Lysine:ME ratio, g/Mcal TID Methionine:lysine ratio,%38 41 TID Met & Cys:lysine ratio, %78 85 TID Threonine:lysine ratio, %76 80 TID Tryptophan:lysine ratio, % ME, kcal/lb1,4841,451 Protein, % Calcium, %0.90 Phosphorus, % Available phosphorus, % Available phosphorus equiv, % a a The available phosphorus equivalency includes the phosphorus release due to inclusion of phytase in the vitamin premix.
Gestation feeding challenges 1.Optimize lifetime sow productivity, as a means of maximizing herd profitability 2.Over-feeding sows in gestation reduces feed intake in lactation 3.Under-feeding sows in gestation impairs reproductive performance and animal well-being (shoulder sores) 4.Avoid mycotoxins; this may be the worst place to feed mycotoxin contaminated feed
Gestation feeding targets 1.Body condition score between 3 and 3.5 – for ALL sows Avoid sows that are too fat or too thin 2.Backfat levels of 0.75 to 0.80 at farrowing (measured at last rib, 2.5 to 3.0 off the midline) Avoid bf less than 0.55 at weaning 3.Adjust feed intake according to body weight and backfat 4.Very thin sows have higher maintenance energy requirements, because they have lower insulation levels and are often more active.
Gestation feeding program 1.Sows must be limit fed during gestation; otherwise they become too fat 2.Do not feed more than 4 to 5 lb per day for the first 3 weeks after breeding; excess intake lowers fetal survival 3.Feed 4.0 to 4.5 lb of a corn-soybean meal diet per day, adjusting as required for body condition 4.Increase feed allowance by 2 lb during the last 21 days of gestation Increases gut capacity to support maximum intake in lactation Recognizes that most fetal growth occurs during the final 3 weeks of gestation. Exception if over-fat sows
Limit feeding gestating sows Easily accomplished in gestation stalls Automatic drops MUST be calibrated regularly, to ensure the sow is receiving what you think she should be receiving. More difficult to achieve in group housing systems Key rule: to successfully feed sows in group housed gestation, remove competition for feed. The greater the competition among sows for feed, the less successful the housing system will be. Options: Electronic sow feeders Walk-in-lock-in feeding stalls Trickle feeders Floor feeding, with multiple drops, spreading out supply of feed throughout the pen. Including dividers within the pen helps
Energy and Feed (lb/day) Required to Maintain Body Weight Dietary energy, kcal/lb Sow weight, lbME, kcal1,4001, , , , , , ,
Energy and Feed (lb/day) Required For Backfat Gain Above Requirement For Maintenance Backfat gain, mm (in) Dietary energy, kcal ME, kcal1,4001,500 0 (0) (.12) (.24)1, (.35)2,
Feeding Levels (lb/day) For Gestating Sows Based on Backfat and Weight Category at Breeding Flank to flank, in Estimated weight, lb Backfat at breeding, mm (in) 9-11 ( ) ( ) ( ) > 18 (.71) < 36.3> (.20) 4.4 (.17) 3.9 (.15) 3.4 (.13) (.22) 5.0 (.20) 4.4 (.17) 3.9 (.15) (.23) 5.4 (.21) 4.9 (.19) 4.3 (.17) (.25) 5.9 (.23) 5.4 (.21) 4.8 (.20) > (.27) 6.4 (.25) 5.8 (.23) 5.3 (.21) Based on a diet containing 1,500 kcal ME/lb (corn-soybean meal).
Case study You are managing a large sow herd, and your records indicate that sow productivity is a modest 23 pigs per sow per year (p/s/y). You realize that financial success is unlikely unless you elevate this level of productivity to at least 26 p/s/y. Reviewing the PigChamp records, you note the following: 1.Non-productive sow days (NPD) is well above target (63) 2.Weanling to re-breeding interval is acceptable (5.8) 3.Percent bred by 7 days is unacceptable (88) 4.Percent repeats is excessive (12) 5.Numbers born and born alive is unacceptable (11.9/11.0) You are confident that your genetics and breeding management are capable of achieving your sow productivity target. You take a walk through your gestation barn; what would you expect to see and what feeding and feeding management actions would you undertake to correct the problems?
Feeding and Management: Lactation
Example Lactation Diets TID Lysine, % Ingredient, lb/ton Corn1,4351,3951,3561,3161,2771,238 Soybean meal, 46.5% CP Choice white grease a 0-5% Monocalcium Phosphate, 21% P Limestone Salt10 Vitamin premix with phytase Trace mineral premix Sow add pack Total2,000 a If adding fat, substitute for grain on an equal weight basis
Example Lactation Diets Calculated analysis TID Lysine, % Total Lysine, % TID Lysine:ME ratio, g/Mcal TID Methionine:lysine ratio, % TID Met & Cys:lysine ratio, % TID Threonine:lysine ratio, % TID Tryptophan:lysine ratio, %22 ME, kcal/lb1,547 Protein, % Calcium, %0.90 Phosphorus, % Available phosphorus, % Available phosphorus equiv, % b 0.48 b The available phosphorus equivalency includes the phosphorus release due to inclusion of phytase in the vitamin premix.
Feed intake One of the greatest challenges in feeding the nursing sow is maximizing feed intake Low feed intake leads to low nutrient intake Low nutrient intake leads to: Lower weaning weights Loss of sow body condition Increased sow culling Impaired rebreeding and subsequent litter size
Effects of Lactation Feeding Level on Litter and Pig Performance Lactation Feeding ItemRestrictedAd libitumSEDProbability, P < No. of litters Pigs/litter d 3 (start creep) d Mortality, % Litter weight, lb d 3 (start creep) d Litter BW gain, lb Total ADG NB – Restricted were fed 25% less than ab libitum
Lactation feeding program Small amount of feed on day of farrowing Hungry sows are restless and more likely to over-lay piglets Sows typically will not eat much feed; farrowing room is very warm and fed deteriorates quickly Day 1 – 2: Limit fed modestly; do not want to limit feed very much Days 3+: Keep fresh feed in front of the sows at all times
Feeding Strategy for Lactating Sows Number of 4-pound scoops to feed at each feeding from day 0 to 2 of lactation Feeding Feed in feederAMPM Empty11 < 2 lb00.5 > 2 lb00 Number of 4-pound scoops to feed at each feeding from day 2 to weaning Feeding Feed in feederAMNoonPM Empty222 < 2 lb111 > 2 lb001
Factors affecting feed intake - 1 Feed delivery Pigs cannot eat feed that isnt in front of them! By the 3 rd day of lactation, sows should have feed in front of them all of the time Feeding 3 to 4 times per day is preferred to feeding once or twice. Density of the diet Pigs eat more of a low density (low energy) diet, up to the volumetric capacity of their stomach Temperature High temperature discourages feed intake; low temperature encourages feed intake If the temperature is too cold, or conditions are drafty and damp, part of the energy consumed by the sow will be needed to maintain thermal homeostasis
Factors affecting feed intake - 2 Genetics Some lines of pigs have a naturally higher appetite. If using a low appetite line of pigs, even greater attention must be directed at maximizing feed intake Palatability It is important to note that the important factor here is what the pig considers palatable, not what the producer thinks is palatable. Nutrient balance Imbalances among, for example, amino acids will reduce feed intake Body condition and reproductive cycle feeding If sows are overfed in gestation, they will accrue more body fat and this tends to impair feed intake during lactation
Factors affecting feed intake - 3 Feeder design Large feed troughs tend to increase feed intake Wet/dry feeders tend to increase feed intake Access to water Water is particularly critical to a lactating sow A sow weaning 11 piglets at 3 weeks of age weighing 13 lb will be producing an average of 2.5 gallons of milk per day!
How much lactation feed is enough? Example Piglets are gaining 11.5 lb during 19d nursing period Sow is weaning 10.5 piglets per litter Total weight gain is lb, or (120.8/19) 6.4 lb/d Estimated energy reqt is 3.6 Mcal DE/lb litter gain Daily energy requirement would be (6.4 X 3.6) 23.0 Mcal DE/d, or 21.9 Mcal ME/d Diet ME content is 1.45 Mcal ME/lb Therefore, sow must eat 15.1 lb feed/d Is this possible? If yes, what actions can producer take to maximize intake? If no, what options are available to 1) the sow, or 2) the producer?
Fibre in lactation diets Nursing sows are susceptible to constipation Constipation can be treated by using: Fiber Wheat midds (±20%) Soybean hulls (±10%) Alfalfa meal (±25%) Sugar beet pulp (7±%) Oats (±20%) (Risk: Use of fibrous ingredients will lower diet energy density and may compromise sows ability to consume sufficient energy Chemical laxatives MgSO4 (Epsom salts: 30 lb/ton) NaSO4 (Glauber salts: 60 lb/ton) (Risk: Chemical laxatives are harsh; should be used carefully)
Lactation feeding quandary In order to maximize sow feed intake, she wants the room kept as cool as possible In order to maximize piglet growth and well-being, they want the room to be kept very warm If the room is kept too cool for the piglets, they will huddle with the sow, increasing the risk of being over-lain Increased mortality due to overlays is often related to a room temperature that is too cool Compromise Keep the farrowing room temperature elevated during farrowing and the first 24 to 36 hours post-farrowing, to get the piglets off to a good start. Lower the temperature to 68 to 72F thereafter and provide zone heating for the piglets Feed intake declines by about 0.2 lb/d per F above 68F
Further reading Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4