Presentation on theme: "Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior II MKT 750 Dr. West."— Presentation transcript:
Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior II MKT 750 Dr. West
Agenda ABC Model of Attitudes Hierarchy of Effects ELM FCB Grid The role of consistency Dewar’s Repositioning
The rest of the story… Affect the way a consumer feels about an attitude object (favorable/unfavorable) Behavior the consumer’s intention to do something with regard to the attitude object Cognition refers to the beliefs (know) a consumer has about an attitude object.
Involvement Paradox The more important the product is to the consumer, the less influence advertising has on attitude Remember, behavior is determined by perceived value The less important the product is to consumer, the more impact marketing stimuli (e.g. packaging, jingles) have on behavior
Low-Involvement Learning Passive Process Low motivation to process information Habitual Behavior Classical Conditioning Occurs when an unconditioned stimulus (bell) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (meat powder) Credit cards
Low-Involvement Learning Passive Process Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning Occurs when an individual learns to perform a behavior that produces positive outcomes (reinforcement) and to avoid behaviors that produce negative outcomes (punishment) Frequency marketing, coupons, etc… Remember, extinction!
Elaboration Likelihood Model High Involvement Cognitive Belief and Behavior Processing Responses Attitude Change Change CENTRAL ROUTE AD Attention and ( source, message) Comprehension PERIPHERAL ROUTE Low Involvement Belief Behavior Attitude Processing Change Change Change
Central Route Opinions are sensitive to the strength/quality of information presented Ad providing relevant information or images will lead to more favorable opinions
Peripheral Route A ad (attitude toward the ad) impacts consumers’ opinion/feelings about a product Cues devoid of product-relevant information (peripheral cues) shape consumer behavior
MOTIVES FOR PURCHASING ThinkFeel Insurance Sports Car High Economy Cars Perfume Tires Wine Credit Cards INVOLVEMENT Medications Sun-Tan Lotion Pizza Low Liquid Bleach Beer Razors Soft Drinks Paper Towels Foote Cone & Belding Grid III IIIIV
Foote Cone & Belding Grid Quadrant I: Informational approach emphasizing performance Quadrant II: Emotional appeals linked to self-image Quadrant III: Repetitive appeals (maintain awareness and encourage repeat purchase) Quadrant IV: Apply classical conditioning (develop continuity between a symbol and the product)
Tums claims that its product is recommended by doctors more than other brands. The claim positions Tums as a leading source of calcium.
bebe, a retailer of up-scale clothing uses advertising to convey an image
Mr. Clean’s familiar face is used to introduce this new product
Target uses image advertising to build its brand
The Importance of Emotions How are affect and cognition related? Do thoughts precede emotions or emotions precede thoughts? Independence Hypothesis postulates separate and partially independent systems Highlights the importance of aesthetics and subjective experience
The Role of Consistency: Cognitive Consistency Principle: We value harmony among our thoughts, feelings, and behavior Attitudes are not formed in a vacuum but are evaluated relative to how they fit with related attitudes
The Role of Consistency: Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: When confronted with attitude inconsistency we seek to resolve the dissonance created by changing our attitude or our behavior Example: “I know smoking causes cancer” “I smoke cigarettes” How do smokers resolve this inconsistency?
The Role of Consistency: Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: Explains why consumers’ evaluation of a product tend to increase after purchase, and why they seek support for their decisions. What can marketers do to assist?
The Role of Consistency: Balance Theory: Examines relations among triads of related attitudes Each triad contains a person’s perception an attitude object (Pepsi), and another person (Britney Spears) or object. The perceptions can be either favorable (+) or unfavorable (-) People strive for relational harmony and thus alter their perceptions to create consistency.
The Role of Consistency: Relational Harmony Person 1Person 2 + + - - PepsiBritney Pepsi Britney Person 3Person 4 + - - + PepsiBritney Pepsi Britney
The Role of Consistency: Pepsi chooses Britney Spears as endorser Person 1Person 2 + + - - Pepsi + Britney Pepsi + Britney Person 3Person 4 + - - + Pepsi + Britney Pepsi + Britney
The Role of Consistency: Pepsi chooses Britney Spears as endorser Person 1Person 2 + + - - Pepsi + Britney Pepsi + Britney HARMONY Person 3Person 4 + - - + Pepsi + Britney Pepsi + Britney
The Role of Consistency: Pepsi chooses Britney Spears as endorser Person 1Person 2 + + - - Pepsi + Britney Pepsi + Britney INCONSISTENCY Person 3Person 4 + - - + Pepsi + Britney Pepsi + Britney
The Role of Consistency: Balance Theory: Creating relational harmony Me Pepsi Britney + - + (-)(+)
Opinion Change The need for changing consumers’ product opinions commonly occurs for mature products After years on the market, product image, packaging, or claims may need to be updated
Aunt Jemima introduced a new, thicker light syrup to the market to improve consumers’ opinions of the brand.
Danger of Changing Opinions Making changes to improve opinions of some people, may hurt the opinions of others Changes designed to attract customers must be weighed against their potential for alienating other customers
Danger of Changing Opinions Dewar’s Repositioning Declining consumption beginning in 1978 Problems with perceptions & taste Critical period for product adoption (mid to late 20s) Decision to target youth in the late 1990s