3 THE DBQ 1st essay you’ll see on the AP Euro exam. Essay based on a set of various documents (usually ). Documents may include written or visual primary sources (quotes, letters, speeches, decrees, laws, political cartoons, drawings, maps, photos, etc.)The DBQ counts for approximately half of the essay section or about 1/4 of your entire AP Exam! (twice as important as each of the other two essays – which count about 1/8 each.). The DBQ is “muy importante!”
4 DBQ RUBRIC You can score 9 points on the DBQ. You can score 6 points on the “Basic Core”.In you earn all 6 Basic Core points, you might be able to earn 3 additional “Expanded Core” bonus points.
5 DBQ: THE MISSIONWrite a 5 body paragraph essay – intro/thesis paragraph, 3 body paragraphs based on three groupings of documents and a conclusion paragraph.Group the documents in at least three different ways which help answer the prompt.Write a complex thesis which answers ALL parts of the prompt and includes three ways to prove your argument.Attempt to use all the documents in your essay. Support your thesis with them. Analyze them.Identify bias and the author’s point of view at least 3 times in your essay.
6 THE THESISYour thesis must be a specific and explicit answer to the prompt. It must address ALL parts of the question.If you don’t have a thesis or you have a really bad one it could cost you TWO basic core points!Tends to be the “killer” point for many students who don’t answer ALL parts of the prompt.
7 THESIS Example prompt: “Analyze the various causes of the Thirty Year’s War in Europe during the 17th century.”It is not sufficient to merely state in your thesis, “There were many causes of the Thirty Years War.” You have not given a specific, explicit answer to the question and will lose points on basic core 1 and 4.What WERE the causes??? Be specific!!
8 THESIS A better thesis would be… “Despite the fact that the Thirty Year’s War was fought primarily over religious conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Europe during the 17th century, competition between growing national monarchies and the weakening of the Church’s secular authority in Europe were just as significant to the outbreak of this destructive conflict.”This thesis gives a specific, explicit answer to the prompt and provides three groupings of documents which help support the thesis:Group 1 – Conflict between Catholics & ProtestantsGroup 2 – Growing national monarchiesGroup 3 – Weakening of Church authority
9 THESIS CHECKLIST Think of your thesis in three parts… Answer the question that is asked in one or two CONNECTING sentences (this is your argument).Indicate the groups (3) that you will use to address the question.Remember the “Rule of Three”: three ideas in your thesis which are the three groupings of documents, and at least three documents per grouping!
10 Obviously, you should always write your thesis AFTER you’ve grouped your documents.
11 GROUPING THE DOCUMENTS EXAMPLE:Groups Provided:“Analyze the religious, political, and social reasons for the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century.”Groupings NOT provided:“Analyze the reasons for the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century.”Basic Core #6 - Analyzes the documents by organizing them into at least THREE distinct groupsSome DBQs have ready-made groups; some DBQs will require you to come up with the groupings yourself.There are usually several different ways that you can correctly group the docs.
12 GROUPINGCommon methods of grouping documents include organizing by gender, time, social class, occupation, geography, nationality, culture, similar points of view, or religion.Make sure all of your groupings ANSWER THE PROMPT!Documents may be used in more than one group. You do not need an even number of documents in each group.Always include at least three documents per grouping. It will prevent a failed group if you misinterpret one document.If you get stuck – use PRIMES or SPRIITE as your “safety net” groupings.Be careful of being too formulaic.
13 DBQ Outline Conclusion Group 1 Topic Sentence Group 2 Topic Sentence “Despite the fact that the Thirty Year’s War was fought primarily over religious conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Europe during the 17th century, competition between growing national monarchies and the weakening of the Church’s secular authority in Europe were just as significant to the outbreak of this destructive conflict.”Group 1 Topic SentenceGroup 2 Topic SentenceGroup 3 Topic Sentence3 pieces of Evidence from Docs.3 pieces of Evidence from Docs.3 pieces of Evidence from Docs.Conclusion
14 Using DocumentsEVERY DOCUMENT should be mentioned at least ONE time in your essay.“Demonstrates understanding” means you interpret it correctly (discuss/analyze it).Don’t quote the documents excessively - use the document as evidence to support your argument.To get the grouping point, you NEED AT LEAST THREE DOCUMENTS PER GROUP.
15 USE OF DOCUMENTSUse of a document is defined as citing, quoting, paraphrasing, listing, summarizing, mentioning, analyzing, interpreting, or critiquing the documents in any way.For example, “Martin Luther, a German monk and theologian believed that salvation could be achieved “through faith alone” (doc.1).Always include parenthetical citation after you’ve used a document. Why?
16 POV ANALYSISPart of writing an effective DBQ essay is treating the documents as personal interpretations of history and analyzing the point of view of the authors.Students must do this at least three times in their essay. (preferably 5 or more).
17 POV ANALYSIS Consider the following about each author: Title, position, or job (economic motives, political motives, etc.)Male/femaleCountry or religion of the personDate the statement was made (around a war? other historical event?)Consider the type of document and why it was created:Political speech, diary entry, newspaper article, official decree, etc.Pictures, paintings – who paid for it?
18 EXAMPLE DOCUMENTSource: Pope Urban II, at the Council of Clermont, calling for the first Crusade, November, 1095.“Your brethren who live in the Middle East are in urgent need of your help… For, as most of you have heard, the Turks and the Arabs have attacked them and have conquered the territory of the Byzantine Empire… They have occupied more and more of the lands of the Christians…They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the Empire…”
19 A.S.A.P. (Attribute the Source + Analyze POV) Pope Urban II, leader of the Roman Catholic Church during the 11th century, characterized Muslims in the Middle East as destructive and hostile peoples (doc.4).Obviously, as Pope, he would want to portray the Arabs as warlike in order to gain support for a Crusade to liberate and restore Christian title to the “Holy Land”, which would increase his political and religious authority in addition to providing the Church with increased tax revenue from lucrative eastern trade routes.
20 POV ANALYSISAttempt to do POVs for MOST documents (half +1). For example, if there are 10 documents, analyze the POV of at least 6.Do enough correctly and you get into the expanded core!!!!
21 POV ANALYSIS FORMULAS• “It is not surprising that Source X would make this statement because . . .”• “This document is fairly reliable because . . .”• “The author of this document may be biased because . . .”• “Because Document 5 is a diary entry, the author is most likely not seeking to gain publicity or influence opinions.”
22 If you get stuck - remember the word: POINT OF VIEW ANALYSISIf you get stuck - remember the word:OBVIOUSLY!!!
23 Expanded CoreIf you achieve all 6 basic core points, you can earn up to an additional 3 points on your essay through the expanded core.Basic core shows competence. Expanded core demonstrates excellence in writing!
24 EXPANDED COREUp to three points are given based on how well a student accomplishes the examples given for the Expanded Core.Unlike the Basic Core, the Expanded Core can be viewed as somewhat subjective.Concentrate on these four expanded core criteria (easiest way to earn expanded core points):1. Persuasive use of documents as evidence2. Addressing all parts of the question thoroughly3. Analyzing point of view or bias in most of the documents4. Additional groupings or other forms of analysis
25 DBQ REVIEW STEP-BY-STEP! Read and understand the prompt.Quickly tackle the documents to look for categories to form your thesis – make notes or a quick chart.Draft your thesis and note your groups. Make sure your thesis and groupings answer all parts of the prompt.Determine which documents will work for POV analysis. Attempt to write POV analysis statements for MOST documents.Draft your topic sentences. Write your essay!
26 DBQ SECRETS TO SUCCESS!Make sure you know what the question is asking.Look for the point of view of the author of each document.Take into account the social status, educational background, profession or other biographical information of the author of each document.Look very carefully at the date of each document.Look for change over time in the documents.Look for possible solutions in the documents.Remember that the documents are not necessarily facts. Many times the documents simply express an opinion or perception.Respect the documents.Do not make a document say something it doesn't really say.Assume the reader of the exam knows the documents inside and out but cite the documents that you use either with author & number.Do not ramble.Documents are often given in chronological order BUT do not use them in chronological order.Use of all the documents if possible. Don't force the documents to fit, though.The thesis must not be simply a restatement of the question.Use the rule of “3" – 3 ideas in thesis, 3 groupings of documents, at least 3 points of view, etc.Answer the question that is asked and address each part of the question.Remember that there is no one right answer one right way to group documents on the DBQ.Use a grid or chart to organize your information.Use outside historical information to bolster your essay.Do not include information in your essay unless you are sure it is correct.