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© 2007, TSI Incorporated Future Diesel Emission Limits: Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) Update 2008 Channel Partner Sales Meeting
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Overview What is PMP On the road to Euro 5 and Euro 6, Regulations 83 and 49 Recent PMP activities –Consolidation of PN measurement results –JRC Calibration workshop TSI Offering for PMP-measurements Some measurements
© 2007, TSI Incorporated PMP Overview The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) was established in May 2001 –Purpose: to develop a new system for measuring ultrafine particles emitted from light- and heavy-duty vehicles, which could either replace or complement the existing filter-based, gravimetric PM measurements used for type approval Main driver is health effects of ultrafine particles –Diesel exhaust is widely recognized as a major source of ultrafine particles Today >50% of new, European passenger vehicles are diesel-powered CARB signed memorandum of understanding (MOU) with EU JRC for PMP project in Nov. of 2005 and plan to join HD engine testing program
© 2007, TSI Incorporated PMP PN Measurement Source: Figure 14, ECE Regulation 49 (working document) Optional if size- selective inlet is used.
© 2007, TSI Incorporated EU Commission adds PN-Limit to proposed Euro 5/6 26 April 2007 The European Commission has added a particle number limit to its Euro 5/6 proposed emission standards for light-duty vehicles. Particle number emissions from diesel cars would be measured according to the procedure developed by the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP). It is the first introduction of a particle number emission limit in any diesel emission regulation for new engines or vehicles in the world. The revisions were introduced last month to the technical part of the proposed regulation. The proposed number emission limit of 6 × 10 11 particles per km (recently revised spec per Jon Andersson, Golden Engineer of PMP test program) would be applicable to all categories of light-duty diesel vehicles at the Euro 5 (2009.09) and Euro 6 (2014.09). Only solid particles are counted, as volatile material is removed from the sample, according to the PMP procedure. The proposed numerical limit reflects the technical capabilities of diesel engines fitted with wall-flow particulate filters. The limit is very stringentit is believed that wall-flow filter materials with larger pore sizes, such as those being developed for coating with complex catalyst systems for simultaneous NOx and PM emission reduction, may actually fail the proposed standard…. Source: www.dieselnet.comwww.dieselnet.com
© 2007, TSI Incorporated EU Council adopts political part of Euro 5/6 30 May 2007 (updated 2 July 2007) The European Council has adopted the political part of Euro 5 and Euro 6 emission regulations for light-duty vehicles. Euro 5 standards become effective from 2009.09 for new type approvals, and from 2011.01 for all models. Euro 6 standards become effective from 2014.09 for new types, and from 2015.09 for all models. (All of the above dates are one year later for Category N1 Class II and III vehicles and for vehicles meeting special social needs)....A particle number emission limit is to be added of 6 × 10 11 km -1 (PMP method) The Euro 5 PM emission standards require the use of particulate filters on all diesel cars (the use of filters on the current Euro 4 cars is mostly voluntary). The particulate filter requirement will be further strengthened through the stringent particle number limit, which requires highly efficient particulate filter systems…. Source: www.dieselnet.comwww.dieselnet.com
© 2007, TSI Incorporated PMP ILCE-LD Final Report Published 12 June 2007 The European Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) has published Light-duty Inter-laboratory Correlation Exercise (ILCE_LD) Final Report, authored by Jon Andersson and co-authors, which summarizes the results and findings from Phase 3 of the study. ….For PM mass measurement, a modified filter method similar to that currently used in Europe, but incorporating changes broadly based on the US 2007 emission certification testing procedure. For particle number measurement, a new method using a condensation particle counter (CPC), a selected size range (23 nm - 2.5 µm), and sample pre-conditioning at 300°C in an evaporation tube. The procedure has been designed to count solid particles only, and to eliminate volatile particles…. Source: www.dieselnet.comwww.dieselnet.com
© 2007, TSI Incorporated PNC measurement range according to PMP Source: Kittelson, D. B., 1998. Engines and Nano-particles: A Review. J. Aerosol Sci., Vol. 29, No. 5/6, pp. 575-588, 1998. (23 nm to ~ 2.5 – 10 µm) Nucleation mode, formed as exhaust cools (uncontrolled ) Accumulation mode, soot, stable, very reproducible
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Why Thermodilution? Particle number & size in emissions not stable –Particle size distributions undergo significant changes between tailpipe (source) and measurement instrumentation –Tailpipe exhaust is hot, highly concentrated and wet –Coagulation decreases particle number and increases size Dilution stops/prevents coagulation –Nucleation mode particles are formed due to condensation of volatile gaseous compounds Thermal conditioning prevents condensation Careful dilution and thermal conditioning needed!
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Thermal Conditioning Effects T. Kawai, NTSEL (2004)
© 2007, TSI Incorporated EU Commission proposes Euro 6 for on-road, HD-engines 4 January 2008 The European Commission has published a formal proposal for Euro 6 emission standards for on-road, heavy-duty engines. …..The PM emission limit can be met using open or closed filters, said the Commission. Close filters have the benefit of reducing ultra fine particles that are considered most harmful to health. To prevent the possibility that the Euro VI PM mass limit is met using open filters that would enable a high number of ultra fine particles to pass, it is planned to introduce at a later stage a new particle number standard, in addition to the mass based limit. The particle number standard would be introduced once the final results of the UN/ECE Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) become available…. Source: www.dieselnet.comwww.dieselnet.com Note: This statement refers to the HD-ILCE and round robin tests, which have just started.
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Recent PMP Progress GRPE 54 agreed a Roadmap of work to address concerns with ECE/TRANS/WP.29/GRPE/2007/8 (adding particle number measurement to Regulation 83) to allow a revised proposal to be adopted in January 2008 –Roadmap actions: i) to compile additional existing PN results ii) to improve calibration procedures iii) to analyze accumulation of errors/system tolerances iv) to demonstrate calibration procedures Compile existing particle number test data from PMP compliant equipment used outside of the PMP ILCE –Data received from AECC, CARB, JAMA, Sweden, Concawe, UK, Toyota and Volkswagen –PMP compliant measurement systems used were the Horiba SPCS and Matter MD19+TSI PNC –Results were submitted on other measurement systems but no data was available to demonstrate that these systems met PMP solid particle penetration and volatile particle removal efficiency requirements Source:http://www.unece.org/trans/doc/2008/wp29grpe/ECE-TRANS-WP29-GRPE-55-inf29e.pdf
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Source:http://www.unece.org/trans/doc/2008/wp29grpe/ECE-TRANS-WP29-GRPE-55-inf29e.pdf PMP – Consolidation of available PN Data
© 2007, TSI Incorporated PMP – Consolidation of available PN Data, contd Source:http://www.unece.org/trans/doc/2008/wp29grpe/ECE-TRANS-WP29-GRPE-55-inf29e.pdf
© 2007, TSI Incorporated PMP – Improved Calibration Procedures Source:http://www.unece.org/trans/doc/2008/wp29grpe/ECE-TRANS-WP29-GRPE-55-inf29e.pdf The following key revisions to the procedures were agreed by PMP: VPR will be calibrated for particle concentration reduction factor (a combination of particle losses and dilution) which must not be excessively size dependent PNC will be calibrated to reference electrometer level This substantially reduces potential offset between systems by correcting out differences in particle losses and PNC linearity EMPA, METAS, TSI & AEA undertook measurements during August- September 2007 demonstrating the procedures and their repeatability
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Source:http://www.unece.org/trans/doc/2008/wp29grpe/ECE-TRANS-WP29-GRPE-55-inf29e.pdf PNC Linearity Calibration
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Source:http://www.unece.org/trans/doc/2008/wp29grpe/ECE-TRANS-WP29-GRPE-55-inf29e.pdf PNC Linearity Calibration Contd
© 2007, TSI Incorporated JRC PNC Calibration Workshop The material dependence of the PNC calibration was one of the last issues to resolve –…which calibration material to use? Further measurements were made at JRC in December 2007 to investigate the influence of aerosol material on PNC lower detection (cut-off) characteristic
© 2007, TSI Incorporated JRC PNC Calibration Workshop Contd Source:http://www.unece.org/trans/doc/2008/wp29grpe/ECE-TRANS-WP29-GRPE-55-inf29e.pdf
© 2007, TSI Incorporated JRC PNC Calibration Workshop Contd However, it was also found that best possible correction for multiply-charged calibration particles is very important for reliable calibration results TSI uses (and recommends) electrosprayed Emery Oil particles for EECPC calibration –These particles are generated containing only singly- charged particles –No multiple charge correction necessary
© 2007, TSI Incorporated PMP Measurement Offering Model 379020-30 Rotating Disk Thermodiluter with Thermal Conditioner Air Supply Model 3790 Engine Exhaust Condensation Particle Counter (EECPC) Meets all PMP criteria for research and certification
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Scheme of Particle Sampling System * Source: PROPOSAL FOR DRAFT SUPPLEMENT 07 TO THE 05 SERIES OF AMENDMENTS TO REGULATION No.83
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Model 3790 EECPC New saturator and condenser design: - Anti-spill, anti-flooding - Water removal - Improved temperature control - Removable saturator - Meets all PMP specifications
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Rotating Disk Thermodiluter with Thermal Conditioner Air Supply Heated Diluter (PND1) Control Unit for Rotating Disk Diluter Control Unit for Secondary Diluter (PND2) Evaporation Tube (ET)
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Rotational Disk Diluter – Working Principle Heated Diluter Head (150 ˚C) Variable Dilution 1:15 to 1:3000 Dilution Air (preheated) Raw Exhaust Peristaltic Pump To Instruments
© 2007, TSI Incorporated NEDC (measured before DPF)
© 2007, TSI Incorporated NEDC (measured after DPF)
© 2007, TSI Incorporated 2008 Engine Emissions Conference Schedule Trade show promotions –Do have some set aside for show advertising ConferenceDatesLocation 5 th International Mobility Conference on Emerging Automotive Technologies (SAE India) January 9-11New Delhi, India Coordinating Research Council (CRC)March 31-April 2San Diego, CA 29 th Vienna Motor SymposiumApril 24-28Vienna, Austria Cambridge Particle MeetingMayCambridge, UK Japan SAE (co-op with Tokyo Dylec)MayJapan ETH ConferenceJuneZürich, Switzerland Diesel Engine & Emissions Research (DEER)AugustTBD FAD Conference (Attend only)NovemberDresden, Germany
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Target Customers Light-duty vehicle manufacturers Engine development companies Manufacturers of exhaust aftertreatment systems Manufacturers of fuel and lubrication Test/Certification authorities Participants of PMP Heavy Duty Inter-Lab Correlation Exercise and HD round robin testing
© 2007, TSI Incorporated CP Assignment PN regulation is only 3 years away! –Customers need to purchase equipment now!! Identify, target and market to prospective customers today! –Target list of customers included in CD
© 2007, TSI Incorporated HORIBA Collaboration agreement with HORIBA –OEM CPC MEXA-1000SPCS –Fully integrated, automated system
© 2007, TSI Incorporated To Market Strategy TSI sells components; customer does integration HORIBA sells an integrated, automated (possibly custom) system Therefore, –If customer wants components, TSI has product offering –If customer wants integrated system, recommend they talk with HORIBA Agreement with HORIBA does not prevent TSI from selling standard products to any customer
© 2007, TSI Incorporated ….last, but not least Dont forget to ask potential (or existing) PMP- customers about… –VPR validation Electrostatic classifier, aerosol generators, CPC –PN calibration Electrospray, electrostatic classifier, aerosol electrometer, accessories) –Soot size distribution and concentration measurements High size resolution & steady state: SMPS Transient test cycle: EEPS
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Model 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer Developed for real-time exhaust emission measurements –Measures size range from 5.6 to 560 nm –Fastest time resolution available! 10 size distributions every second –High size resolution 16 channels per decade (32 channels total) –Wide concentration range > 5 orders of magnitude –Density input for real-time PM mass measurement –4 configurable analog outputs for integration with host computer
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Operating Principle 1 µm cyclone (inlet) removes large particles Unique, two-stage, unipolar diffusion charger –Particles mix with ions to predictable charge level versus particle size Charged particles carried by sheath-flow between HV center electrode and multiple electrometer column Inside-Out DMA Charged particles detected by array of precision electrometers –Use Patented, fast-response, low noise electrometers –Currents measured 10 times per second Data is inverted to obtain size and concentration information Microprocessor-controlled volumetric flow, barometric pressure correction Internal pumps! –Everything in one cabinet
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Why the EEPS? Customers need and use the EEPS to: –Measure transient particle emissions –Determine DPF soot loading –Characterize exhaust aftertreatment devices –Calibrate engine emissions
© 2007, TSI Incorporated NEDC: Comparison of 3 different cars
© 2007, TSI Incorporated Thanks for your attention! Questions?
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