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Measuring Up: Effective Strategies for Teacher Evaluation Patricia A. Popp, Ph.D. State Coordinator, Project HOPE-VA Clinical Associate Professor

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring Up: Effective Strategies for Teacher Evaluation Patricia A. Popp, Ph.D. State Coordinator, Project HOPE-VA Clinical Associate Professor"— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring Up: Effective Strategies for Teacher Evaluation Patricia A. Popp, Ph.D. State Coordinator, Project HOPE-VA Clinical Associate Professor Xianxuan Xu, Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Research Associate School of Education The College of William and Mary

2 Teacher Evaluation in an Era of Accountability Currently, ESEA flexibility has been granted to 34 states and the District of Columbia. As part of the flexibility requirements, the states were required to establish new teacher evaluation systems that factor in student achievement progress for statewide implementation by the end of the school year. All states that received Race to the Top funding are undertaking substantial reforms with teacher evaluation. “The quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers” (Barber & Mourshed, 2008).

3 Share of At-Risk Students on PISA (Not reaching PISA baselines): Reading

4 Share of At-Risk Students on PISA (Not reaching PISA baselines): Math

5 Percentage of Country’s Students in PISA Top Performing Groups: Reading

6 Percentage of Country’s Students in PISA Top Performing Groups: Math

7 What do we do about it?

8 How Long Do Students Attend School? Days in the Academic Year CountryDays in an Academic Year CanadaAverage: 188 Finland187 Singapore200 Shanghai180 South Korea204 United States180

9 How Long Do Students Attend Schools? Minutes in the Day LocationMinutes in a School Day Canada304 Finland240 Shanghai390 Singapore330 South Korea264 United States402

10 How Much Do We Spend? LocationAnnual Expenditures Per Pupil Canada8,045 Finland7,216 ShanghaiN/A SingaporeN/A South Korea6,663 United States10,259

11 Student/Teacher Ratio Country Average Student/Teacher Ratio Canada25 Finland19 Shanghai39 Singapore35 South Korea36 United States24 Source: Available at worldbank.org.

12 Which factor is a strong predictor of student achievement gains? Sources: Wright, Horn, & Sanders, 1997; Hanushek, Kain, & Rivkin, 1998, Class size Classroom heterogeneity School resource differences It’s the teacher.

13

14 Influences on Student Achievement: Explained Variance Source: Hattie, J. Teachers make a difference: What is the research evidence. Retrieved 20Nov08 from

15 Dallas Research: Teacher Quality Dallas, Texas data: students per cohort Comparison of 3 “highly effective” & 3 “ineffective” teachers (Jordan, Mendro, & Weerasinghe, 1997)

16 Dallas Research: Teacher Quality

17 Time in School Year Needed to Achieve the Same Amount of Learning Leigh, Economics of Education Review (2010) 01/41/23/41 25th Percentile Teacher 75th Percentile Teacher Years Needed

18 Source: Leigh, A. (n.d.). Estimating teacher effectiveness from two-year changes in students’ test scores. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from Time in School Needed to Achieve the Same Amount of Learning

19 Sequence of Effective Teachers Low High 52-54percentile points difference Low HighHigh Sanders & Rivers (1996)

20 Sequence of Effective Teachers Low High 13percentile points difference Low HighHigh Sanders & Rivers (1996) High

21 Revised Teacher Evaluation System in Virginia: An Overview

22 Primary Purposes of the Evaluation System Improve student achievement through the quality of instruction by assuring accountability for classroom performance Contribute to the successful achievement of the goals and objectives defined in a school division’s educational plans Provide a basis for instructional improvement through productive teacher appraisal and professional growth Share responsibility for evaluation between the teacher and the evaluation team in a collaborative process that promotes self-growth, instructional effectiveness, and improvement of overall job performance

23 A Flawed System Problem No. 1: Observation equals evaluation Problem No. 2: Likely to rely on intuition, not evidence, to make judgments about teacher performance Problem No. 3: One size fits all Problem No. 4: Don’t communicate Problem No. 5: Fragmented evaluation process Problem No. 6: Irrelevant evaluation Problem No. 7: One-point rating scales Problem No. 8: No impact evaluation

24 Question 1 What is the basis of the teachers’ evaluation?

25 Standard 2: Instructional Planning The teacher plans using the Virginia Standards of Learning, the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data to meet the learning needs of all students. MainComponents Main Components Sample Performance Indicators Examples may include, but are not limited to: The teacher: 2.1 Uses student learning data to guide planning. 2.2 Plans time realistically for pacing, content mastery, and transitions. 2.3 Plans for differentiated instruction. 2.4 Aligns lesson objectives to the school’s curriculum and student learning needs. 2.5 Develops appropriate long- and short-range plans, and adapts plans when needed. ExemplaryProficient Proficient is the expected level of performance. Developing/ Needs Improvement Unacceptable In addition to meeting the standard, the teacher actively seeks and uses alternative data and resources and consistently differentiates plans to meet the needs of all students. The teacher plans using the Virginia Standards of Learning, the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students. The teacher inconsistently uses the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data in planning to meet the needs of all students. The teacher does not plan, or plans without adequately using the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data. Performance Appraisal Rubric Performance Standard Performance Indicators

26 Performance Standards Professional Knowledge Instructional Planning Instructional Delivery Assessment of and for Student Learning Learning Environment Professionalism Student Academic Progress

27 The teacher demonstrates an understanding of the curriculum, subject content, and the developmental needs of students by providing relevant learning experiences. Teacher Performance Standard 1: Professional Knowledge

28 Teacher Performance Standard 2: Instructional Planning The teacher plans using the Virginia Standards of Learning, the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students.

29 Teacher Performance Standard 3: Instructional Delivery The teacher effectively engages students in learning by using a variety of instructional strategies in order to meet individual learning needs.

30 Teacher Performance Standard 4: Assessment of and for Student Learning The teacher systematically gathers, analyzes, and uses all relevant data to measure student academic progress, guide instructional content and delivery methods, and provide timely feedback to both students and parents throughout the school year.

31 Teacher Performance Standard 5: Learning Environment The teacher uses resources, routines, and procedures to provide a respectful, positive, safe, student-centered environment that is conducive to learning.

32 Teacher Performance Standard 6: Professionalism The teacher maintains a commitment to professional ethics, communicates effectively, and takes responsibility for and participates in professional growth that results in enhanced student learning.

33 Teacher Performance Standard 7: Student Academic Progress The work of the teacher results in acceptable, measurable, and appropriate student academic progress.

34 Question 2 How will teacher performance be documented?

35 Multiple Data Sources Data SourceEvaluatorTeacher Informal Observations Formal Observations Student Surveys Portfolios/Document Logs Self-Evaluation Measures of Academic Progress Reviews/approvesSelects/develops

36 Measures of Academic Progress Teachers Percentage of Evaluation based on Student Growth Percentiles (SGPs) Percentage of Evaluation based on Other Growth Measures Teachers of reading and mathematics for whom SGPs are available 20 Teachers who support instruction in reading and mathematics for whom SGPs are available No more than 2020 to 40 Teachers who have no direct or indirect role in teaching reading or mathematics in grades where SGPs are available N/A40

37 Student Achievement Goal Setting Step 1: Determine needs Step 2: Create specific learning goals based on pre- assessment Step 3: Create and implement teaching and learning strategies Step 4: Monitor student progress through ongoing formative assessment Step 5: Determine whether the students achieved the goal

38 What are the Purposes of Student Achievement Goal Setting?  Focus on student results  Explicitly connect teaching and learning  Improve instructional practices and teacher performance  Tool for school improvement

39 Question 3 How will teacher performance be rated?

40 Evaluations Interim Evaluation Used to document evidence of meeting standards Does NOT include rating of performance Summative Evaluation Comes at end of evaluation cycle - One year for probationary teachers - Three years for continuing contract teachers Assessment of performance quality - Four point rating scale - Performance rubric for every standard

41 Evaluating Performance Exemplary The teacher maintains performance, accomplishments, and behaviors that consistently and considerably surpass the established standard. Exceptional Performance Sustains high performance over period of time Behaviors have strong positive impact on learners and school climate Serves as role model to others CategoryDescriptionDefinition Proficient The teacher meets the standard in a manner that is consistent with the school’s mission and goals. Effective Performance Meets the requirements contained in job description as expressed in evaluation criteria Behaviors have positive impact on learners and school climate Willing to learn and apply new skills Developing/ Needs Improvement The teacher often performs below the established standard or in a manner that is inconsistent with the school’s missions and goals. Below Acceptable Performance Requires support in meeting the standards Results in less than quality work performance Leads to areas for teacher improvement being jointly identified and planned between teacher and evaluator Unacceptable The teacher consistently performs below the established standards or in a manner that is inconsistent with the school’s missions and goals. Ineffective Performance Does not meet requirements contained in job description as expressed in evaluation criteria Results in minimal student learning May result in employee not being recommended for continued employment

42 Sample Performance Appraisal Rubric Exemplary Proficient Proficient is the expected level of performance. Developing/Needs Improvement Unacceptable In addition to meeting the standard, the teacher consistently demonstrates extensive knowledge of the subject matter and continually enriches the curriculum. The teacher demonstrates an understanding of the curriculum, subject content, and the developmental needs of students by providing relevant learning experiences. The teacher inconsistently demonstrates understanding of the curriculum, content, and student development or lacks fluidity in using the knowledge in practice. The teacher bases instruction on material that is inaccurate or out- of-date and/or inadequately addresses the developmental needs of students. Standard I: Professional Knowledge The teacher demonstrates an understanding of the curriculum, subject content, and the developmental needs of students by providing relevant learning experiences.

43 Summative ratings should apply the rating for each of the seven performance expectations, with the most significant weight given to Standard 7 - Student Academic Progress. Summative Rating Weight each of the first six standards equally at 10 percent each Weight Standard 7 – Student Academic Progress at 40 percent

44 Lessons Learned  Most practitioners believe new models provide specific measures of teacher effectiveness that are useful for distinguishing effective from less effective teachers. ExemplaryProficient Proficient is the expected level of performance. Developing/Needs Improvement Unacceptable In addition to meeting the standard, the teacher actively seeks and uses alternative data and resources and consistently differentiates plans to meet the needs of all students. The teacher plans using the state’s standards, the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students. The teacher inconsistently uses the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data in planning to meet the needs of all students. The teacher does not plan, or plans without adequately using the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data.

45  Most practitioners believe that new models have the potential to improve teaching and learning by providing useful feedback that can be used to diagnose and guide teacher improvement. Formal Observation Post-Conference Student Learning Objectives Teacher Self-Assessment Student Surveys Lessons Learned

46  With more rigorous assessment to identify problems and recognize excellence, investments in teacher development can be better related to school and division goals for improvement. Evaluation Strengths and Weaknesses Identified Targeted Professional Development

47 Lessons Learned  Practitioners appreciate the value in using multiple data sources to provide evidence of performance standards.

48 Lessons Learned  Practitioners believe that new models set up realistic expectations for teacher performance, and they reflect the most important elements of effective teaching.

49 Lessons Learned  The evaluation framework is valid in terms that the process standard ratings of teacher have a moderate ability to predict the student academic progress. In addition, there is a significant correlation between each of the six process standards and student academic progress.

50 Lessons Learned  New models can be time-consuming to implement.  Practitioners mistrust the validity of student progress models as a measure of student growth.  Teachers believe that the nature, quality, and credibility of the evaluation process vary depending on the qualifications of the evaluators.

51 Concluding Thoughts on Transforming Teacher Evaluation State Convene stakeholders across the state to design, implement, and improve evaluation system. Develop validated and reliable evaluation measures. Provide incentives and on-going support to school divisions. Make knowledge of new developments in teacher evaluation part of leadership and teacher preparation programs. Make evaluation count.

52 Concluding Thoughts on Transforming Teacher Evaluation (Continued) Schools and School Divisions/Districts Clear expectations of the WHAT will be evaluated. Clear communication of the evaluative criteria for effective performance. Instruments and procedures for teachers to provide evidence from multiple sources of the HOW of their performance. Increase the use of evaluation results to inform professional development.


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