Presentation on theme: "Measuring Up: Effective Strategies for Teacher Evaluation"— Presentation transcript:
1Measuring Up: Effective Strategies for Teacher Evaluation Patricia A. Popp, Ph.D.State Coordinator, Project HOPE-VAClinical Associate ProfessorXianxuan Xu, Ph.D.Post-Doctoral Research AssociateSchool of EducationThe College of William and Mary
2Teacher Evaluation in an Era of Accountability Currently, ESEA flexibility has been granted to 34 states and the District of Columbia. As part of the flexibility requirements, the states were required to establish new teacher evaluation systems that factor in student achievement progress for statewide implementation by the end of the school year.All states that received Race to the Top funding are undertaking substantial reforms with teacher evaluation.“The quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers” (Barber & Mourshed, 2008).
3Share of At-Risk Students on PISA (Not reaching PISA baselines): Reading
4Share of At-Risk Students on PISA (Not reaching PISA baselines): Math
5Percentage of Country’s Students in PISA Top Performing Groups: Reading
6Percentage of Country’s Students in PISA Top Performing Groups: Math
17Time in School Year Needed to Achieve the Same Amount of Learning 1/41/23/4125th PercentileTeacher75th PercentileYears NeededIf we place a child in a bottom quartile teacher’s class--an ineffective teacher’s class--and it takes that child a full academic year to learn the knowledge and skills that he or she will learn...if we place that same child in a top quartile teacher’s class--a high performing teacher’s class--we find that that child learns the same knowledge and skills in three-quarters of the time.Leigh, Economics of Education Review (2010)
18Time in School Needed to Achieve the Same Amount of Learning Source: Leigh, A. (n.d.). Estimating teacher effectiveness from two-year changes instudents’ test scores. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from
19Sequence of Effective Teachers LowHigh52-54percentilepoints differenceLook at the difference a series of ineffective teachers can have on a student’s achievement.Sanders & Rivers (1996)
20Sequence of Effective Teachers LowHigh13percentilepoints differenceHighConsider the case where we place a child with a highly effective teacher for three years in a row versus if we place that child with two ineffective teachers and then an effective teacher. That effective teacher will not be able to compensate for the effects from the poor teachers.Sanders & Rivers (1996)
21Revised Teacher Evaluation System in Virginia: An Overview
22Primary Purposes of the Evaluation System Improve student achievement through the quality of instruction by assuring accountability for classroom performanceContribute to the successful achievement of the goals and objectives defined in a school division’s educational plansProvide a basis for instructional improvement through productive teacher appraisal and professional growthShare responsibility for evaluation between the teacher and the evaluation team in a collaborative process that promotes self-growth, instructional effectiveness, and improvement of overall job performance
23A Flawed SystemProblem No. 1: Observation equals evaluation Problem No. 2: Likely to rely on intuition, not evidence, to make judgments about teacher performance Problem No. 3: One size fits all Problem No. 4: Don’t communicate Problem No. 5: Fragmented evaluation process Problem No. 6: Irrelevant evaluation Problem No. 7: One-point rating scales Problem No. 8: No impact evaluation1: In many evaluation systems observation means evaluation. There is no other means by which evaluators gather data for teacher evaluation2: Subject to evaluator bias3. Many evaluation systems do not distinguish between teachers with different levels of experience. Teachers who have 20 years of experience are evaluation in exactly the same way as brand new teachers, with no acknowledgement of the fact that the new teacher may need more frequent feedback4: Some evaluation systems do not have a mechanism to provide feedback to the teachers.5. In many cases, there is a fragmented evaluation process. Teacher induction, support, professional development, and evaluation are not aligned.6. Some evaluation systems do not measure teachers on the things that really matter....”inspector mode of evaluation”When everyone is rated at the top, it does a disservice to everyone.The evaluation system carries not weight. It does not inform PD, does not acknowledge teachers who are doing great things, and it does not identify areas where struggling teachers need support.
24What is the basis of the teachers’ evaluation? Question 1What is the basis of the teachers’ evaluation?
25Performance Indicators Performance Appraisal Rubric Enhancing Teacher Quality: QuestioningMain ComponentsPerformance StandardStandard 2: Instructional PlanningThe teacher plans using the Virginia Standards of Learning, the school’s curriculum, effectivestrategies, resources, and data to meet the learning needs of all students.Sample Performance IndicatorsExamples may include, but are not limited to:The teacher:2.1 Uses student learning data to guide planning.2.2 Plans time realistically for pacing, content mastery, and transitions.2.3 Plans for differentiated instruction.2.4 Aligns lesson objectives to the school’s curriculum and student learning needs.2.5 Develops appropriate long- and short-range plans, and adapts plans when needed.Performance IndicatorsPerformance Appraisal RubricExemplaryProficientProficient is the expected level of performance.Developing/Needs ImprovementUnacceptableIn addition to meeting the standard, the teacher actively seeks and uses alternative data and resources and consistently differentiates plans to meet the needs of all students.The teacher plans using the Virginia Standards of Learning, the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students.The teacher inconsistently uses the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data in planning to meet the needs of all students.The teacher does not plan, or plans without adequately using the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data.There are three main components of the Stronge Teacher Evaluation System.Performance standards define the criteria expected when teachers perform their major duties. There are seven performance standards for teachers. When teachers are evaluated, they are evaluated against the performance standards.Next are performance indicators. They provide examples of observable, tangible behavior that indicate the degree to which teachers are meeting each teaching standard. We often call these the “look-fors.” They are the kinds of things one would look for if the teacher was successfully performing the standards. In the Stronge Evaluation System, we do not use the performance indicators as a checklist. In other words, the evaluator should not look at the list of indicators and say “I only saw two of the five indicators, therefore, the teacher must be ineffective.” School districts may modify the indicators if they wish. In addition, they may chose to add indicators to emphasize a particular focus area for the district. Performance ratings are made at the performance standard level, NOT at the performance indicator level.The third main component are the performance appraisal rubrics. We will talk more about them shortly. During the summative evaluation, the evaluator will use a “preponderance of evidence” to judge where the teacher should be rated. Note that the rubric description under the effective level is the exact wording of the performance standard. This is because effective is the expected level of performance.TQR Teacher Quality Resources, LLC (c) 2005
26Performance Standards Professional KnowledgeInstructional PlanningInstructional DeliveryAssessment of and for Student LearningLearning EnvironmentProfessionalismStudent AcademicProgress
27Teacher Performance Standard 1: Professional Knowledge The teacher demonstrates an understanding of the curriculum, subject content, and the developmental needs of students by providing relevant learning experiences.
28Teacher Performance Standard 2: Instructional Planning The teacher plans using the Virginia Standards of Learning, the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students.
29Teacher Performance Standard 3: Instructional Delivery The teacher effectively engages students in learning by using a variety of instructional strategies in order to meet individual learning needs.
30Teacher Performance Standard 4: Assessment of and for Student Learning The teacher systematically gathers, analyzes, and uses all relevant data to measure student academic progress, guide instructional content and delivery methods, and provide timely feedback to both students and parents throughout the school year.
31Teacher Performance Standard 5: Learning EnvironmentThe teacher uses resources, routines, and procedures to provide a respectful, positive, safe, student-centered environment that is conducive to learning.
32Teacher Performance Standard 6: Professionalism The teacher maintains a commitment to professional ethics, communicates effectively, and takes responsibility for and participates in professional growth that results in enhanced student learning.
33Teacher Performance Standard 7: Student Academic Progress The work of the teacher results in acceptable, measurable, and appropriate student academic progress.Note: Performance Standard 7: If a teacher effectively fulfills all previous standards, it is likely that the results of teaching -- as documented in Standard 7: Student Academic Progress -- would be positive.The Virginia teacher evaluation system includes the documentation of student growth as indicated within Standard 7 and recommends that the evidence of progress be reviewed and considered throughout the year.The evaluation system also encourages the use of multiple measures of student academic progress.
34How will teacher performance be documented? Question 2How will teacher performance be documented?The role of a teacher requires a performance evaluation system that acknowledges the complexities of the job.Multiple data sources provide for a comprehensive and authentic “performance portrait” of the teacher’s work.
35Multiple Data Sources Data Source Evaluator Teacher Informal ObservationsFormal ObservationsStudent SurveysPortfolios/Document LogsSelf-EvaluationMeasures of Academic ProgressReviews/approvesSelects/developsMultiple data sources are needed to capture the full range of responsibilities of a teacher.The Code of Virginia requires two sources of data to be used in student achievement: Observations and Measures of Academic ProgressVirginia Department of Education recommends other data sources that can improve the objectivity of teacher evaluation systems. These include student surveys, portfolios/document logs, and self-evaluation.
36Measures of Academic Progress TeachersPercentage of Evaluation based on Student Growth Percentiles (SGPs)Percentage of Evaluation based on Other Growth MeasuresTeachers of reading and mathematics for whom SGPs are available20Teachers who support instruction in reading and mathematics for whom SGPs are availableNo more than 2020 to 40Teachers who have no direct or indirect role in teaching reading or mathematics in grades where SGPs are availableN/A40The Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria incorporate student academic progress as a significant component of the evaluation while encouraging local flexibility in implementation.These guidelines recommend that student academic progress account for 40 percent of an individual’s summative evaluation.Other student academic progress measures may include student achievement goal setting, which teachers develop student achievement goals based on baseline data at the beginning of the year, monitor student progress and adjust instruction throughout the year, and determine goal attainment at the end of the year.
37Student Achievement Goal Setting Step 3:Create and implement teaching and learning strategiesStep 4: Monitor student progress through ongoing formative assessmentStep 1:Determine needsStep 2:Create specific learning goals based on pre- assessmentStep 5:Determine whether the students achieved the goalStudent achievement goal setting involves a multi-step process. Baseline performance is established by reviewing and analyzing data. Baseline data can be reviewed individually or in a collaborative manner with other teachers. For example, a grade level may review the data.Then, based on baseline data, the teacher decides to focus attention on student improvement. For example, a fourth-grade team determines that their students performed well in mathematics last year, but not in reading. Therefore, they decide to focus the goal on reading. Each teacher creates his or her own goal based on the performance of the students in his or her classroom, but the goal area is decided as a grade level.Then, the teacher sets an attainable goal, meaning that the goal is within reach and yet is not too easy. For example, increasing a percentile ranking on a norm-referenced assessment from 50th percentile to 80th percentile would be quite difficult.The teacher then develops strategies that would support goal attainment. Strategies are critical to the goal setting process as they provide the means to the end, which is increased student achievement or program progress. Strategies will vary from class to class due to differences in age levels, subject areas, etc. Team planning will make strategies similar, but students are not at the same level across classrooms. So the teacher must customize the goal to fit the needs of his/her students.The strategies are then implemented and student/program progress is monitored. At the end of the year, data is analyzed to determine whether the goal was attained.Steps 1 & 2 occur during the first month of the school year or course.
38What are the Purposes of Student Achievement Goal Setting? Focus on student resultsExplicitly connect teaching and learningImprove instructional practices and teacher performanceTool for school improvementStudent achievement goal setting focuses on the students results. It explicitly connects the roles that the teacher plays with student progress, thereby improving instructional practices. Goal setting is also a tool for school improvement. A school may focus on improving achievement in one area and the academic goals developed support the overall school goal.Student achievement goal setting does not replace classroom observation. Classroom observation is a crucial tool in assessing teacher performance.Student achievement goal setting is not the only source used to inform evaluation decisions. It is one source among many, including other valid measures, classroom observation, and document logs.
39How will teacher performance be rated? Question 3How will teacher performance be rated?For an evaluation system to be meaningful, it must provide its users with relevant and timely feedback.To facilitate this, evaluators should conduct both interim and summative evaluations of teachers.Summative evaluation ratings are based on behaviorally-anchored performance rubrics.
40Evaluations Interim Evaluation Summative Evaluation Used to document evidence of meeting standardsDoes NOT include rating of performanceSummative EvaluationComes at end of evaluation cycle- One year for probationary teachers- Three years for continuing contract teachersAssessment of performance quality- Four point rating scale- Performance rubric for every standardSome teacher evaluation systems include an interim review, especially for probationary teachers, in order to provide systematic feedback prior to the completion of a summative evaluation.The multiple data sources discussed in Part 3 are used to compile a Teacher Interim Performance Report that indicates if a teacher has shown evidence of each of the performance standards.The evaluator should share her/his assessment of the teacher’s performance by a given date (for example, the last school day before winter break each year for Probationary teachers)
41Evaluating Performance Enhancing Teacher Quality: QuestioningEvaluating PerformanceCategoryDescriptionDefinitionExemplaryThe teacher maintains performance, accomplishments, and behaviors that consistently and considerably surpass the established standard.Exceptional PerformanceSustains high performance over period of timeBehaviors have strong positive impact on learners and school climateServes as role model to othersProficientThe teacher meets the standard in a manner that is consistent with the school’s mission and goals.Effective PerformanceMeets the requirements contained in job description as expressed in evaluation criteriaBehaviors have positive impact on learners and school climateWilling to learn and apply new skillsDeveloping/Needs ImprovementThe teacher often performs below the established standard or in a manner that is inconsistent with the school’s missions and goals.Below Acceptable PerformanceRequires support in meeting the standardsResults in less than quality work performanceLeads to areas for teacher improvement being jointly identified and planned between teacher and evaluatorWe will use common termsUnacceptableThe teacher consistently performs below the established standards or in a manner that is inconsistent with the school’s missions and goals.Ineffective PerformanceDoes not meet requirements contained in job description as expressed in evaluation criteriaResults in minimal student learningMay result in employee not being recommended for continued employmentTQR Teacher Quality Resources, LLC (c) 2005
42Developing/Needs Improvement Sample Performance Appraisal RubricStandard I: Professional KnowledgeThe teacher demonstrates an understanding of the curriculum, subject content, and the developmental needs of students by providing relevant learning experiences.ExemplaryProficientProficient is the expected level of performance.Developing/Needs ImprovementUnacceptableIn addition to meeting the standard, the teacher consistently demonstrates extensive knowledge of the subject matter and continually enriches the curriculum.The teacher demonstrates an understanding of the curriculum, subject content, and the developmental needs of students by providing relevant learning experiences.The teacher inconsistently demonstrates understanding of the curriculum, content, and student development or lacks fluidity in using the knowledge in practice.The teacher bases instruction on material that is inaccurate or out-of-date and/or inadequately addresses the developmental needs of students.Teachers who are exemplary often serve as role models and/or teacher leaders.Please note: The rating of “proficient” is the expected level of performance. Additionally, the recommended performance rubrics presented here may be modified at the discretion of school division decision makers.
43Summative RatingSummative ratings should apply the rating for each of the seven performance expectations, with the most significant weight given to Standard 7 - Student Academic Progress.Weight each of the first six standards equally at 10 percent eachWeight Standard 7 – Student Academic Progress at 40 percentThe rating scale is applied for the summative evaluation of all teachers.The performance rubrics guide evaluators in assessing how well a standard is performed.They are provided to increase reliability among evaluators and to help teachers to focus on ways to enhance their teaching practices.Please note: The rating of “proficient” is the expected level of performance.Additionally, the recommended performance rubrics presented here may be modified at the discretion of school division decision makers.
44Developing/Needs Improvement Lessons LearnedMost practitioners believe new models provide specific measures of teacher effectiveness that are useful for distinguishing effective from less effective teachers.ExemplaryProficientProficient is the expected level of performance.Developing/Needs ImprovementUnacceptableIn addition to meeting the standard, the teacher actively seeks and uses alternative data and resources and consistently differentiates plans to meet the needs of all students.The teacher plans using the state’s standards, the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students.The teacher inconsistently uses the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data in planning to meet the needs of all students.The teacher does not plan, or plans without adequately using the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data.
45Lessons Learned Formal Observation Post-Conference Most practitioners believe that new models have the potential to improve teaching and learning by providing useful feedback that can be used to diagnose and guide teacher improvement.Formal Observation Post-ConferenceTeacher Self-AssessmentStudent Learning ObjectivesStudent Surveys
46Lessons LearnedWith more rigorous assessment to identify problems and recognize excellence, investments in teacher development can be better related to school and division goals for improvement.Strengths and Weaknesses IdentifiedTargeted Professional DevelopmentEvaluation
47Lessons LearnedPractitioners appreciate the value in using multiple data sources to provide evidence of performance standards.ObservationsStudent Learning ObjectivesTeacher Performance StandardsDocumentationLogsStudent Surveys
48Lessons LearnedPractitioners believe that new models set up realistic expectations for teacher performance, and they reflect the most important elements of effective teaching.Professional KnowledgeInstructional DeliveryLearning EnvironmentInstructional PlanningAssessment of/forLearningProfessionalismStudent Progress
49Lessons LearnedThe evaluation framework is valid in terms that the process standard ratings of teacher have a moderate ability to predict the student academic progress. In addition, there is a significant correlation between each of the six process standards and student academic progress.
50Lessons Learned New models can be time-consuming to implement. Practitioners mistrust the validity of student progress models as a measure of student growth.Teachers believe that the nature, quality, and credibility of the evaluation process vary depending on the qualifications of the evaluators.
51Concluding Thoughts on Transforming Teacher Evaluation StateConvene stakeholders across the state to design, implement, and improve evaluation system.Develop validated and reliable evaluation measures.Provide incentives and on-going support to school divisions.Make knowledge of new developments in teacher evaluation part of leadership and teacher preparation programs.Make evaluation count.
52Concluding Thoughts on Transforming Teacher Evaluation (Continued) Schools and School Divisions/DistrictsClear expectations of the WHAT will be evaluated.Clear communication of the evaluative criteria for effective performance.Instruments and procedures for teachers to provide evidence from multiple sources of the HOW of their performance.Increase the use of evaluation results to inform professional development.