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1 SMALL DIFFERENCES, HUGE MISTAKES. 2 “Linguistic contamination”: linguistic interference, cross- linguistic interference.

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Presentation on theme: "1 SMALL DIFFERENCES, HUGE MISTAKES. 2 “Linguistic contamination”: linguistic interference, cross- linguistic interference."— Presentation transcript:


2 2 “Linguistic contamination”: linguistic interference, cross- linguistic interference

3 3 Contamination: a) positive b) negative

4 4 a) positive contamination ‘en absoluto’ (Argentina) ‘itinerary’ (Bath)

5 5 b) negative contamination grammar: ‘Have a car in front of the school.’; ‘I have 15 years old.’; ‘I live here for 5 years.’; ‘It depends of the weather.’ ‘Eles jogam não bom’ (Si spielen nicht gut.).

6 6 b) negative contamination accent: ‘Excuse me, I’m looking for...’ (frowning)

7 7 b) negative contamination

8 8 intonation: ‘Bye”

9 9 b) negative contamination ‘knack’: kangaroo story

10 10 b) negative contamination vocabulary: ‘The car skidded on the piste [course for skiing] (icy road, wet asphalt)

11 11 b) negative contamination Ladrão: thief, rogue, plunderer, burglar, highwayman, stick-up man, bail-up man, marauder, raider, footpad, pillager, buccaneer, brigand, bandit, freebooter, depredator, despoiler, forager, thug, pickpocket, robber, swindler, mugger… Thief: ladrão, batedor de carteira, punguista, larápio. trombadinha, amigo do alheio, assaltante, bandido...

12 12 What are the commonest English words?

13 13 The top 40 Nouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs time his being not people their did now years her see then way its make also man other get only life my go just day your know well work new take even world such think still part our made back

14 14 The other 80: Articles: a, an, the Pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, mine, some, any, who, why, when, where, how, me, them, him, her, us, yours Verbs: is, are, do, have, was, were, come, say, will, can, could, must Conjunctions: after, before, and, but, or, as, because, if, while, so, than Adverbs: here, there, again, almost, quite, today, tomorrow, yesterday, yes, no Prepositions: at, in, on, off, over, up, down, to, under, with, for, of, out Adjectives: this, that, all, every, last, much, many, next, very, enough

15 15 everything: Joel Santana’s sharp speech You tube: sharp speech

16 16 Examples of ‘contaminations’ a) portunhol: Tevez, Valdívia, Luxemburgo b) Spanglish (a 2004 movie, directed por James L. Brooks, with Adam Sandler, Tea Leoni)

17 17 Examples of ‘contaminations’ c) Engrish (Japanese English)

18 18 Examples of ‘contaminations’ d) Franglais: Chief Inspector Jacques Clouseau (Peter Sellers, Steve Martin): J’agree (d’accord) e) German English: Kranken transport (Jörg)

19 19 Examples of ‘contaminations’ f) Brazil: Du iu Spikingrish?

20 20 A universal language Have you ever considered a world with people talking the same language? Probably it is really difficult for someone to think about it, due to the fact that we have million of languages and dialects nowadays. However it is worth to dicuss about it. In the first place th idea confuses us, but with a more carefull look we can make out the advantages of this statement. First of all imagine yourself in to china, dream talking to these people with the odd eyes and the difficult language. You would learn about the cultures you want with more ease. Just fancy that! Moreover you would be able to encounter and communicate with more people, and who knows? You may make more friends and whoever finds a friend, finds a treasure. Last but not least you will stop spending your money and time to schools in order to learn a new language. On the other hand there are many disadvantages of having only one language existing. For instance everyone would be the same as none of our planet''s country would be different from the other. Furthermore our culture would disappear in the course of time so there would be no interest for learning each other or travellin to another country. Well the fact that everyone could be speaking the same language attracts the most of us. However this is very difficult to achieve nowadays, but even if something like this happens, many thigs will be changed.

21 21 A universal language: The future of English: Latin?

22 22 Small differences, huge mistakes 1. one Portuguese word, two English words:

23 23 Small differences, huge mistakes 1. one Portuguese word, two English words

24 24 One Portuguese word, two English words Happy anniversary At eleven at last, when we got into town We arrived at the show, but the curtain was down I suggested a bite. No, no you wanted to walk You had no appetite and no desire to talk So we strolled for an hour, and the evening was sweet And I bought you a flower, from a man in the street And we kissed on the sidewalk, without reason or rhyme And we knew that our love is stronger than time Happy anniversary, happy anniversary, happy anniversary.

25 25 2. Portuguese idioms, translated literally into English

26 26 2. Portuguese idioms, translated literally into English

27 27 3. Similar words:

28 28 4. Verbs followed by different direct objects:

29 29 5. Words that came into English with different meanings:

30 30 6. Confusing verbs:

31 31 7. False cognates:

32 32 8. Words with the same meaning, but belonging to different grammar categories:

33 33 9. Words that change their meaning according to their prefixes or suffixes:


35 35 ANSWERS 2. beat1. anniversary 3. novel2. birthday 5. raise4. lunch 6. win12. aunt 7. knight 8. milk 9.steal 10. ant 11. exhaustive

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