Espoused Theory of Action The words we use to convey what we do, or what we would like others to think we do is called espoused theory. The espoused theory of action for that situation is the answer he usually gives when someone is asked how he would behave under certain circumstances. This is the theory of action to which he gives allegiance, and which, upon request, he communicates to others. (Smith, 2001, par. 3)
Theory-in-Use The theory that actually governs his actions is his theory-in-use. They govern actual behaviour and tend to be tacit structures. Their relation to action, 'is like the relation of grammar-in-use to speech'; they contain assumptions about self, others, and environment - these assumptions constitute a microcosm of science in everyday life. (Smith, 2001, par. 4)The theory that actually governs his actions is his theory-in-usetacit structuresthey contain assumptions about self, others, and environment
Perceptions Let’s look at some examples of how our schemata and mental models influence what we actually see. http://college.cengage.com/psychology/berns tein/essentials/2e/students/netlabs.html (click on the hyperlink seeing is beliefing in Chapter 3) http://college.cengage.com/psychology/berns tein/essentials/2e/students/netlabs.html
Perceptions (continued) See the presidential illusionpresidential illusion Can you see through the camouflage?camouflage Can you see the “Old Man” and the “Couple”?“Old Man” and the “Couple
Implications These perceptual illusions demonstrate how powerful what we bring to a situation can be in determining what we see and learn from the situation. They emphasize the importance of developing an research design that strengthens the internal validity of the study. Building a logic model that builds on empirical, analytical, and intuitive information is an important step (Sutherland, 1973).
References Smith, M. K. (2001) 'Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational Learning; the encyclopedia of informal education, Retrieved on 5/22/10 from www.infed.org/thinkers/argyris.htm. www.infed.org/thinkers/argyris.htm Sutherland, J. W. (1973). A general systems philosophy for the social and behavioral sciences. New York, NY.: George Braziller.