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Why Don’t We Do a Better Job of Treating Pain?

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1 Why Don’t We Do a Better Job of Treating Pain?
Bryan E. Bledsoe, DO, FACEP Midlothian, TX

2 Introduction Many, if not most, medical conditions cause pain.

3 Introduction Pain is a protective mechanism and occurs whenever any tissues of the body are being damaged.

4 Introduction Pain occurs whenever the cells or tissues are being damaged—whatever the underlying cause.

5 Introduction The reaction to pain may be rapid, as seen when one touches a hot pan.

6 Introduction Or slow, as when one has been seated in the same position for an extended period of time.

7 Introduction It is for this reason that persons with spinal cord injuries are at risk for developing decubitus ulcers.

8 Introduction Because of their injury, they:
Cannot sense pain from the pressure area. Cannot move to eliminate the pressure. Or a combination of both.

9 Introduction One of the oldest roles of medical practitioners is to help alleviate pain.

10 Introduction Analgesia
The relief of pain without a loss of consciousness.

11 Introduction Analgesia can be provided by: Drugs Surgical Procedures
Physical Modalities Other

12 Introduction Analgesia: Eliminate the source of the pain.
Block or attenuate the pathways that transmit pain impulses to the brain. Combination of the two.

13 Introduction Pain elicits a strong emotional response that is often recorded in our memory.

14 Introduction “Lest we be like the cat that sits down on a hot stove-lid. She will never sit down on a hot stove-lid again—and that is well; but also she will never sit down on a cold one anymore.”

15 Problems in Pain Management

16 Problems Pain appears to be under treated: Failure to assess pain.
Failure to quantify pain. Fear of addiction. Legal constraints of utilizing controlled substances. Ignorance

17 Problems UCLA Medical Center Study:
Hispanic patients with isolated long-bone fractures were twice as likely to receive NO pain medication when compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Todd KH, Samaroo N, Hoffman JR. Ethnicity as a risk factor for inadequate emergency department analgesia. JAMA. 1993;269(10):1537-9

18 Problems Grady Memorial Hospital:
Black patients with isolated long-bone fractures were less likely to receive adequate analgesia when compared to their white counterparts. Todd KH, Deaton C, D’Adamo AP, Goe L. Ethnicity and analgesic practice. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(1):11-16

19 Problems Nationwide survey of burn patients:
Only half of burn patients treated in emergency departments received adequate analgesia for their burn pain. Singer AJ, Thode HC Jr. National analgesia prescribing patterns in emergency department patients with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2002;23(6):361-5

20 Problems EMS Study (Pediatrics)
Few pediatric patients receive prehospital analgesia, although most ultimately received ED analgesia. Swor R, McEachin CM, Sequin D. Grall KH. Prehospital pain management in children suffering traumatic injury. Prehospital Emergency Care. 2005;9(1):40-43

21 Prehospital Pain Management is even worse!

22 Prehospital Pain Management
Pain in the prehospital setting is often: Not identified, Under treated, Both. Ricard-Hibon A, Leroy N, Magne M, et al. Evaluation of acute pain in prehospital medicine. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1997;16(8):945-9

23 Prehospital Pain Management
Patients with extremity fractures receive inadequate analgesia. Study of 1,073 patients found only 1.5% received analgesia in the prehospital setting. White LJ, Cooper LJ, Chambers RM, Gradisek RE. Prehospital use of analgesia for suspected extremity fractures. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2000;4(3):205-8

24 Prehospital Pain Management
Prehospital patients with lower-extremity fractures (including hip fractures): Only 18.3% of eligible patients received analgesia. McEachin CC, McDermott JT, Swor R. Few emergency medical services patients with lower extremity fractures receive prehospital analgesia. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2002;6(4):

25 Prehospital Pain Management
Femoral neck fractures are among the most common orthopedic injuries encountered in prehospital care.

26 Prehospital Pain Management
Hip fractures: Only a modest proportion of these patients receive prehospital analgesia for this painful and debilitating injury. Vassiliadis J, Hitos K, Hill CT. Factors influencing prehospital and emergency department analgesia administration to patients with femoral neck fractures. Emerg Med (Fremantle) :14(3):261-6

27 Prehospital Pain Management
Nothing is more cruel than: Retrieving elderly patient with isolated hip fracture. Tying them to a sheet of plywood or plastic. Wrapping a hard collar around their arthritic neck. Placing them in a 2-ton truck. Driving them to the hospital over rough roads.

28 Prehospital Pain Management
Without adequate analgesia!

29 What is Pain? A sensory or emotional experience or discomfort.
Single, most common medical complaint.

30 Qualities of Pain Organic versus Psychogenic Acute versus Chronic
Malignant versus Benign Continuous versus Episodic

31 Types of Pain Acute pain: Chronic pain:
Pain associate with an acute event Chronic pain: Pain that persists after an acute event is over Pain that last 6 months or more

32 Pathophysiology of Pain

33 Pathophysiology The generation of pain involves interaction between all parts of the nervous system.

34 Pathophysiology Significant strides have been made as to how the body senses and interprets pain over the last 2 decades. Pain-generation pathways more clearly understood. Chronic pain better understood.

35 Pathophysiology Pain is more than a just a feeling or sensation, but linked to the complex psychosocial factors that surround traumatic events. Pain is the brain’s interpretation of the painful stimulus.

36 Pathophysiology Perceiving pain:
Algogenic substances—chemicals released at the site of injury. Nociceptors—Afferent neurons that carry pain messages. Referred pain—pain that is perceived as if it were coming from somewhere else in the body.

37 Pathophysiology Nociception
Derived from the word noxious meaning harmful or damaging to the tissues. Mechanical event that occurs in tissues undergoing cellular injury.

38 Pathophysiology Nociceptive stimulus is detected by free nerve endings in the tissues. Three type of stimuli excite pain receptors: Mechanical Thermal Chemical

39 Pathophysiology Pain fibers are free fibers.

40 Pathophysiology Pain fibers principally located in the superficial layers of the skin. Pain fibers also located in: Periosteum Arterial walls Joint surfaces Falx and tentorium of the cranial vault.

41 Pathophysiology Deep structures: Sparsely supplied with pain fibers
Widespread tissue damage still causes the slow, chronic, aching-type pain.

42 Pathophysiology Visceral Pain: Ischemia Chemical stimuli
Spasm of hollow viscus Over distension of a hollow viscous

43 Pathophysiology Chemicals that excite pain receptors: Bradykinin
Serotonin Histamine Potassium ions Acids Acetylcholine Proteolytic enzymes

44 Pathophysiology Chemicals that enhance the sensitivity of pain endings, but do not necessarily excite them: Prostaglandins Substance P

45 Pathophysiology Types of pain: Fast Pain:
Felt within 0.1 second after painful stimulus Also called: sharp pain, pricking pain, electric pain and acute pain. Felt with needle stick, laceration, burn

46 Pathophysiology Types of pain: Slow Pain:
Felt within 1.0 second or more after painful stimulus Also called: dull pain, aching pain, throbbing pain and chronic pain. Usually associated with tissue destruction

47 Pathophysiology Pain fibers transmit impulse to spinal cord through fast or slow fibers: A-δ (delta) fibers—small myelinated fibers that transmit sharp pain. C fibers—small unmyelinated fibers that transmit dull pain or aching pain.

48 Pathophysiology Pain is often a “double” sensation as fast pain is transmitted by the Aδ fibers while a second or so later it is transmitted by the C fiber pathway.

49 Pathophysiology Pain impulses enter the spinal cord from the dorsal spinal nerve roots. Fibers terminate on neurons in the dorsal horns.

50

51 Pathophysiology Impulses then transmitted to the brain via the lateral spinothalamic tract

52

53 Pathophysiolgy Pain ultimately transmitted to: Thalamus
Medulla oblongata Somatosensory areas of the cerebral cortex.

54

55 Analgesia The brain’s opiate system: Endorphins Enkephalins

56 Referred Pain The sensation of pain in a region that is remote from the tissue causing the pain.

57 Referred Pain Certain referred pain patterns are recognized.

58 Assessment of Pain

59 Assessment of Pain Various factors influence the way in which one experiences pain: Physical Emotional Social Genetic Age Cultural

60 Assessment of Pain Pain, in most instances, is self-reported.
This should be considered along with physical signs and symptoms when assessing pain.

61 Assessment of Pain Factors that affect assessment: Developmental stage
Chronological age Cognitive ability Emotional status Cultural influence

62 Assessment of Pain Self-Report of pain:
Have patient describe how they feel. For infants and children, rely on care givers. Obtain important historical information

63 OPQRST-ASPN System Onset of Problem Provocative / Palliative factors
Quality Region / Radiation Severity Time Associated Symptoms Pertinent Negatives

64 Assessment of Pain Behavioral Observations:
Vocalizations (cry, scream, moan) Facial expressions (frown, grimace) Body posture (fetal position) Motor responses (decreased movement, restlessness)

65 Assessment of Pain Physiological measurements: Skin flushing
Diaphoresis Restlessness Tachycardia Tachypnea Elevated BP

66 Assessment of Pain Physical examination will often give a clear indication of the source of the patient’s pain.

67 Assessment of Pain How do you quantify pain?

68 Infants Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) CRIES: Crying
Requires oxygen to maintain sat > 95% Increased vital signs Expression Level of Sleep

69 Children 1-7 years CHEOPS (Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale): Cry Facial Child verbal Torso Touch Legs

70 Children > 3 years Wong-Baker FACES Scale:

71 Adult Pain “Ten Scale” most common: 11 point scale 0 = No pain
10 = Worst pain imaginable

72 Adult Pain Visual “Ten Scale”:

73 Adult Pain Word / Graphic Scale:

74 Adult Pain Multiple Assessment Tool:

75 Pain Management

76 Pain Management Priorities are priorities! Scene safety BSI
Treat any life-threatening illness of injury Treat pain

77 Pain Management Strategies:
Removing or correcting the source of the pain

78 Pain Management Strategies:
Blocking or attenuating the transmission of pain impulses to the brain

79 Pain Management Strategies: Or, a combination of both

80 Pain Management Non-medication therapies: Recognition and empathy
Distraction Muscle relaxation Position of comfort Temperature regulation Physical therapies Treat underlying cause

81 Pain Management RICE: Rest Ice Compression Elevation

82 Pain Management Medications that relieve pain are called analgesics
Medication therapies: Peripherally-acting agents Centrally-acting agents

83 Pain Management Peripherally-acting agents
Considerable reaction locally to cellular and tissue damage: Pain Swelling Inflammation

84 Pain Management

85 Pain Management Peripherally-acting agents: Corticosteroids
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) Local Anesthesia

86 Pain Management Peripherally-acting agents: Methylprednisolone
Acetaminophen Ibuprofen Aspirin

87 Pain Management NSAIDs Effective for pain and inflammation
Good side-effect profile Second generation NSAIDs have better side-effect profiles Inhibit prostaglandins and other mediators of pain and inflammation

88 Ketorolac (Toradol) Only injectable NSAID in the US
Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties.

89 Ketorolac (Toradol) Used for moderate-severe pain
Orthopedic and soft-tissue injuries Popular for ureteral colic. Often used in conjunction with centrally-acting agents such as morphine.

90 Ketorolac (Toradol) Onset of action: < 30 minutes IV
Peak effects: minutes Duration: 4-6 hours Typical IV dose: 30 mg

91 Pain Management Centrally-acting agents: Opiates
Anesthetic gasses used in analgesic quantities Atypical agents (ketamine)

92 Opiates Mainstay of analgesic practice
Originally derived from the opium poppy plant Many now synthetically manufactured

93 Opiate Receptors Μu (μ ) receptors Kappa (κ) receptors
Delta (δ) receptors Actions: Inhibit pain Cause sedation Respiratory depression Cardiovascular depression

94 Opiates Actions: Act on CNS and organs containing smooth muscle
Analgesia without loss of consciousness

95 Opiates Effects: Analgesia Suppresses cough reflex
Respiratory depression Mental clouding Mood changes Euphoria Dysphoria Nausea and vomiting

96 Opiates Effects: Meiosis
Decreased gastric, biliary and pancreatic secretions Reduce gastric motility Delay digestion of food in the small bowel Decreases peristalsis in the colon (constipation)

97 Opiates Effects: Certain opiates (morphine) cause an increase in biliary tract pressure Certain opiates (morphine) cause peripheral vasodiation Histamine release (red eyes, pruritis, flushing)

98 Opiates Morphine

99 Morphine Named after Greek god Morpheus—god of sleep and dreams

100 Morphine Occurs naturally in the poppy plant
Among the most frequently used opiates in emergency medicine Used for moderate to severe pain Vasodilator for CHF and pulmonary edema

101 Morphine Onset of action: < 5 minutes IV Peak effects: 20 minutes
Duration: 7 hours Typical IV dose: mg

102 Opiates Meperidine (Demerol)

103 Meperidine Synthetic opiate—chemically unrelated to morphine
1/10 as potent as morphine Tends to cause more histamine release than morphine and thus more side-effects

104 Meperidine Causes more euphoria than other agents
Now removed from many EDs and EMS services due to abuse and the availability of better drugs

105 Meperidine Onset of action: < 5 minutes IV
Peak effects: < 30 minutes Duration: 2 hours Typical IV dose: mg

106 Opiates Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)

107 Hydromorphone Synthetic opiate Effective for moderate to severe pain
8-10 times more potent than morphine Reportedly produces less nausea and vomiting than morphine

108 Hydromorphone Onset of action: < 5 minutes IV
Peak effects: minutes Duration: 4-5 hours Typical V dose: 1-4 mg

109 Opiates Fentanyl (Sublimaze)

110 Fentanyl Synthetic opiate—chemically unrelated to morphine
Initially an anesthetic induction agent Short-acting Pharmacological effects similar to that of morphine Better side-effect profile because of short duration of action.

111 Fentanyl Less histamine release than morphine
Sivilotti ML, Ducharme J. Randomized, double-blind study on sedatives and hemodynamics during rapid-sequence intubation in the emergency department: The SHRED Study. Ann Emerg Med. 1998;31(3):125-6.

112 Fentanyl Now routinely used in emergency medicine and, to a lesser degree, in EMS Chudnofsky CR, Wright SW, Dronen SC, et al. The safety of fentanyl in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1989;18(6):

113 Fentanyl Used in multiple trauma patients because of hemodynamic profile. Walsh M, Smith GA, Yount RA, et al. Continuous intravenous infusion for sedation and analgesia of the multiple trauma patient. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20(8):913-5.

114 Fentanyl Proven effective in the prehospital (air medical) treatment of pediatric trauma patients. No untoward effects during 5 years of prehospital use Devellis P, Thomas SH, Wedel SK, et al. Prehospital fentanyl analgesia in air-transported pediatric trauma patients. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1998;14(5):321-3.

115 Fentanyl Onset of action: Immediate IV Peak effects: 3-5 minutes
Duration: minutes Typical IV dose: μgs

116 Opiates Synthetic opiate agonists / antagonists Nalbuphine Butorphanol

117 Synthetic Mixed Opiates
Sub-class of opiates with both agonistic and antagonistic property Activate some opiate receptors while blocking others Reportedly decreases the likelihood of abuse and respiratory depression Not controlled in many states

118 Synthetic Mixed Opiates
Nalbuphine (Nubain)

119 Nalbuphine Most common mixed agent used in prehospital care
Antagonistic properties decrease the potential for abuse.

120 Nalbuphine Initial studies indicated it was an effective alternative to morphine. Chambers JA, Guly HR. Prehospital intravenous nalbuphine administered by paramedics. Resuscitation. 1994; Stene JK, Stofberg L, MacDonald G, et al. Nalbuphine analgesia in the prehospital setting. Am J Emerg Med. 1988;6(6):634-9.

121 Nalbuphine Subsequent studies seem to suggest not as effective as once thought. English study found it offered poor pain control to a high proportion of patients in the prehospital setting. Wollard M, Jones T, Vetter N. Hitting them where it hurts? Low dose nalbuphine therapy. Emerg Med J 2002;19:

122 Nalbuphine Because of antagonistic properties, prehospital nalbuphine usage appears to be responsible for increased opiate requirements once patients arrive in the ED. Houlihan KPG, Mitchell RG, Flapan AD, et al. Excessive morphine requirements after prehospital nalbuphine analgesia. J Accid Emerg Med 1999;16:29-31

123 Nalbuphine Also appears to interfere with general anesthesia and maintenance. Robinson N, Burrow N. Excessive morphine requirements after pre-hospital nalbuphine analgesia. J Accid Emerg Med. 1999;16:123-7.

124 Nalbuphine Probably should have a limited role in emergency medicine and EMS.

125 Nalbuphine Onset of action: 2-3 minutes IV
Peak effects: < 30 minutes Duration of effect: 3-6 hours Typical IV dose: 5-20 mg

126 Synthetic Mixed Opiates
Butorphanol (Stadol)

127 Butorphanol Used by a few EMS systems Similar properties to nalbuphine
Role in EMS has not been widely studied Probably should have a limited role in EMS

128 Butorphanol Thought to be non-addictive.
Stadol NS resulted in significant addictions

129 Butorphanol Onset of action: < 1 minute IV
Peak effects: 3-5 minutes Duration: 2-4 hours Typical IV dose: mg

130 Gasses Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Anesthetic at high concentrations
Analgesic at low concentrations Initially used in dentistry and obstetrics Introduced into EMS in the 1970s. Effective in treating virtually all types of pain.

131 Nitrous Oxide Supplied as two-cylinder device (Nitronox) that feeds gases into a blender at 50:50 concentration Self-administered through modified demand valve.

132 Nitrous Oxide Proven effective in numerous types of pain encountered in the prehospital setting. Stewart RD, Paris PM, Stoy WA, Cannon G. Patient-controlled inhalation analgesia in prehospital care: a study of side-effects and feasibility. Crit Care Med. 1983;11(11):851-5. Pons PT. Nitrous oxide analgesia. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1988;6(4):777-82,

133 Nitrous Oxide Effective for painful procedures such as transcutaneous pacing. Kaplan RM, Heller MB, McPherson J, Paris PM. An evaluation of nitrous oxide analgesia during transcutaneous pacing. Prehosp Disaster Med. 1990;5(2):145-9.

134 Nitrous Oxide NAEMSP has issued a detailed position statement regarding it’s use. National Association of EMS Physicians. Use of nitrous oxide:oxygen mixtures in prehospital emergency care. Prehosp Disaster Med. 1990;5(3):273-4.

135 Nitrous Oxide Probably underutilized for several reasons: Cost
Bulky delivery system Storage issues Lack of understanding regarding efficacy

136 Myths of Pain Management

137 Myths of Pain Management
MYTH #1: If I give my patient narcotics, they will not be competent enough to consent for surgery later.

138 Myths of Pain Management
Myth # 1: FALSE Concern about rendering patient incompetent is unfounded. Withholding analgesia can be looked upon as a form of “coercion” to sign consent for surgery. Gabbay DS, Dickenson ET. Refusal of base station physicians to authorize narcotic analgesia. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2001;3(5):293-5.

139 Myths of Pain Management
MYTH #2: If I give my patient narcotics for abdominal pain, it will change the physical examination findings, making diagnosis difficult.

140 Myths of Pain Management
Myth # 2: False The dogma of withholding analgesia for fear that it will alter an abdominal examination stems from the 1921 book by Dr. Zachary Cope entitled Early Diagnosis of the Acute Abdomen that stated, “If morphine be given, it is possible for a patient to die happy in the belief that he is on the road to recovery, and in some cases the medical attendant may for a time be induced to share the elusive hope.”

141 Myths of Pain Management
Myth # 2: False Several researchers have examined this question: Patients with abdominal pain randomly assigned to receive either IV morphine or saline. Patients were assessed before and after the morphine or saline was administered, and then assessed later by a surgeon if indicated. The presence of peritoneal signs did not change in the group that received morphine and the accuracy of diagnosis did not differ between the two groups of patients as well as between the emergency physicians and the surgeons. In fact, there was also a trend that the examination may be more reliable after treatment with morphine. Pace S, Burke TF. Intravenous morphine for early pain relief in patients with acute abdominal pain. Acad. Emerg. Med. 1996;3:1086–1092

142 Myths of Pain Management
Myth # 2: False 108 children with abdominal pain. 52 morphine 56 placebo (saline) Groups well matched. Morphine effectively reduces the intensity of [ain and does not seem to impede the diagnosis of appendicitis. Green R. et al. Early analgesia for children with acute abdominal pain. Pediatrics. 2005;116:

143 Myths of Pain Management
MYTH #3: If I give my patient narcotics, they will develop respiratory arrest.

144 Myths of Pain Management
Myth # 3: False Respiratory depressant effects often offset by sympathetic stimulation in the pain patient. Different than from respiratory depression in pain-free opiate addicts. Key is to use correct analgesic dose

145 Myths of Pain Management
MYTH #4: If I give my patient narcotics, they will abuse narcotics

146 Myths of Pain Management
Myth # 4: False Because a few patients malinger and drug-seek is no reason to withhold from legitimate pain patients. Addicts need analgesia on occasion too. Most people who become addicted to pain killers have underlying addictive tendencies.

147 Myths of Pain Management
Myth # 4: False In a 5-year review, the medical use of opiates increased while the incidence of opiate abuse actually decreased. Joranson DE, Ryan KM, Gilson AM, Dahl JL. Trends in medical use and abuse of opioid analgesics. JAMA. 2000;283(13):

148 Future Trends in Prehospital Pain Management

149 Future Trends Methoxyflurane Inhalers Intranasal fentanyl
Alfentanil (Alfenta) Tramadol (Ultram) Entonox Non-Pharmacological interventions

150 Methoxyflurane Inhalation anesthetic with potent analgesic properties at low doses. Highly-volatile liquid

151 Methoxyflurane Came to attention of US EMS people after reality-based series Survivor

152 Methoxyflurane Widely used throughout Australia in EMS and in Defence forces.

153 Methoxyflurane Methoxyflurane has a fruity smell that is well-tolerated by patients Administered via a methoxyflurane (Penthrane or Penthrox) inhaler

154 Methoxyflurane

155 Methoxyflurane 3 mL of methoxyflurane are placed onto the wick of the inhaler Device gently shaken and any excess wiped off Inhaler given to patient to self administer Supplemental oxygen can be provided.

156 Methoxyflurane Pain relief usually begins in 8-10 breaths
Lasts for minutes Allows time for IV access and morphine Should be used in well ventilated area.

157 Methoxyflurane Why don’t we have it?
Methoxyflurane limited to animal use in US. Reported liver and kidney toxicity (in anesthetic doses—not analgesic doses) US manufacturer quit making Metofane Commonwealth of Australia considers the drug safe for analgesic usage

158 Intranasal Fentanyl Australian study has shown intranasal fentanyl safe and effective in treating trauma pain in children between 3-12 years of age. Children 3-7: 20 μg IN Children 8-12: 40 μg IN Additional 20 μg doses q 5 minutes

159 Intranasal Fentanyl Allowed for early and significant reduction in pain. Shows great promise for emergency medicine and EMS Borland ML, Jacobs I, Geelhoed G. Intranasal fentanyl reduces acute pain in children in the emergency department: a safety and efficacy study. Emerg Med (Fremantle). 2002;14(3):275-80

160 Alfentanil (Alfenta) Chemical analogue of fentanyl (shorter acting)
Less side-effects than morphine

161 Alfentanil (Alfenta) Faster, more effective pain relief when compared to morphine. No hemodynamic or respiratory side-effects occurred. Silfvast T, Saarnivaara. Comparison of alfentanil and morphine in the prehospital treatment of patients with acute ischaemic-type chest pain. Eur J Emerg Med. 2001;8(4):275-8.

162 Tramadol Synthetic analogue of codeine.
Has weak opioid agonistic properties. Slight abuse potential Non-controlled

163 Tramadol Parenteral form not yet available in US
1/10 as potent as morphine Onset of action: 1-5 minutes IV Peak effects: minutes Duration: 4.5 hours Typical IV dose: 100 mg

164 Tramadol Analgesia and side-effects similar to morphine.
Concluded tramadol is an effective alternative to morphine in the prehospital setting. Vergnion M, Desgesves S, Garcey L, Magotteaux V. Tramadol, an Alternative to Morphine for Treating Posttraumatic Pain in the Prehospital Situation. Anest Analg. 2001;92:

165 Entonox Single-cylinder pre-mixed 50:50 nitrous oxide oxygen mixture.
Available everywhere but the US. Gasses tend to separate ~ 26° F (but remix with inversion of cylinder) Cheaper, less bulky,

166 Entonox

167 Entonox Study compared 2-cylinder to 1-cylinder system.
Nitronox safer in cold weather No significant clinical differences overall McKinnon KD. Prehospital analgesia with nitrous oxide/oxygen. Can Med Assoc J. 1981;125:

168 Entonox Entonox preferred over Nitronox by prehospital personnel involved in study.

169 Non-Pharmacological Interesting Austrian study for victims of minor trauma using acupressure. Patients randomly assigned to receive acupressure at “true points,” at “sham points” or “no acupressure.” Different values measured before and after treatment.

170 Acupressure At the end of transport, patients who received acupressure at “true points” had less pain, less anxiety, a slower heart rate, and greater satisfaction with the care provided. They concluded that acupressure is an effective and easy-to-learn treatment of pain in prehospital care. Kober A, ScheckT, Greher M et al. Prehospital analgesia with acupressure in victims of minor trauma: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial. Anest Analg. 2002;95(3):723-7.

171 Summary How can we improve prehospital pain control?
All personnel should assess for the presence and severity of pain. Use objective pain measures Medical directors need to become more aggressive in pain management

172 Summary Move prehospital pain management decisions for most conditions from on-line medical control to standing orders. Time to morphine administration decreased by 2.3 minutes when this change made. Fullerton-Gleason L, Crandall C, Sklar DP. Prehospital administration of morphine for isolated extremity injuries: a change in protocol reduces time to medication. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2002;6(4):411-6

173 Summary Liberalization of prehospital pain protocols resulted in increased usage with no apparent safety or misuse issues. Pointer JA, Harlan K. Impact of liberalization of protocols for the use of morphine sulfate in an urban EMS system. Prehospital Emergency Care. 2005;9(4):

174 Summary Field personnel, EMS physicians, administrators, and representatives from receiving hospitals should organize a comprehensive plan to assure that we are providing adequate analgesia in the prehospital setting. EMS is a compassionate profession and compassion begins with the relief of pain and suffering

175


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