Can we give systems a focus? Industrial Robots & machines Automotive Electrical Domestic Electrical Generation & Transmission Building Services Plain Old Telephones Cellular Satellite & Remote Sensing Radar Navigation & GPS Future personal communications Remote control Personal Computers Internet Networks Artificial intelligence Television & Video Radio Autonomous Robots Medical Electrical/Electronic Communication Computer
Design concepts New idea? A customer requirement! The boss says so!! To make a profit ?£$ To benefit the World?
What do you want your society to look like 5 years from now? "Now hills and vales no more distinction know, And levell'd nature lies oppress'd below; The most of mortals perish in the flood." Ovid (Dryden's tr.)
Your TV is left on standby for a year 1. How much energy does it use? Assume typical standby current = 15 mA Assume power dissipated = mains voltage x standby current 2. How much coal does it use? Assume calorific value of coal = 36 MJ/Kg Assume energy generation conversion efficiency = 50% (optimisitic)
0.015 x 240 = 3.6 Watts 3.6 Watts x 24 x 365 hours = 31.536 Kilo-Watt hours Hence approximately 32 Units of Electricity 32 kW.hrs = 32x10 3 x3600 Joules = 115 MJ 115 / 36 = 3.2 kg at 100% efficiency Hence at 50% efficiency this requires 6.4 kg of coal!! So what is the cost??
WHAT ARE ENGINEERING ETHICS We, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world, and in accepting a personal obligation to our profession, its members and the communities we serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree: …………………………………….. This is what one professional institute states
WHAT ARE ENGINEERING ETHICS 1. To accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; 2. To avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist; 3. To be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data; 4. To reject bribery in all its forms; 5. To improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences; IEEE ETHICS APPROVED AUGUST 1990
WHAT ARE ENGINEERING ETHICS 6. To maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; 7. To seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others; 8. To treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin; 9.To avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action; 10. To assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics. IEEE ETHICS APPROVED AUGUST 1990
Ranked design criteria: 1. Spectral efficiency (simultaneous conversations/MHz/km 2 ) 2. Subjective voice quality 3. Cost of mobile unit 4. Feasibility of a hand portable unit 5. Cost of base station 6. Ability to support new services 7. Ability to coexist with existing systems ? What about the safety of the people
WHEN IS BIO-ENGINEERING UNETHICAL ? ENGINEERING THE PERSON ? PAIN RELIEF LASER SIGHT CORRECTION PROSTHETIC JOINTS ARTIFICIAL ORGANS NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER ‘MANAGEMENT’ MENTAL DISORDER ‘MANAGEMENT’ ‘ENHANCING’ THE MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE BAR CODING FOR I.D. BAR CODING FOR TAGGING & TRACKING BAR CODING BUSINESS/CREDIT CONTROL OF ‘ANTI-SOCIAL’ BEHAVIOUR SUPER HUMAN ?
ENGINEERING THE PERSON ? WHEN IS BIO-ENGINEERING UNETHICAL ? IMPLANTS IN CURRENT USE SYMBIOTICS
GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS OR GLOBAL POLLUTION ? SOCIETY’S REACTION TIME LOSS OF PRIVACY SOCIAL INTRUSION RUDENESS; LOSS OF SOLITUDE SHARED-ATTENTION DANGERS METROPOLITAN FOCUS CONGESTED SPECTRUM SPECTRAL POLLUTION TOO MANY UNSIGHTLY MASTS HEALTH CONCERNS
GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS OR GLOBAL POLLUTION ? WHERE SHOULD BASE STATION MASTS BE SITED? WHAT SHOULD THEY LOOK LIKE?
TELEDESIC SATELLITES 288 (840) GIVING GLOBAL INTERNET SERVICES 10 12 EQUIVALENT GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS OR GLOBAL POLLUTION ?
Observable debris 1989 GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS OR GLOBAL POLLUTION ? WHAT GOES UP MUST COME DOWN BUT WHEN….WHERE
ACME REGRETS TO INFORM YOU THAT DUE TO THE BANK HOLIDAY THE NEXT PLANNED COLLECTION IS POSTPONED INDEFINITELY ACME JUNK - OUR OPERATIVES ECLIPSE EVERYONE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS OR GLOBAL POLLUTION ?
ENGINEERING THE POWER FOR THE PLANET NUCLEAR FISSION PLENTIFUL SUPPLY INEXPENSIVE PRODUCTION EFFICIENT CONVERSION A MINIMUM OF SITES DEFENCE SPIN OFFS SITE SAFETY SAFETY CRITICAL SYSTEMS WASTE MANAGEMENT DECOMMISSIONING
FRANKLY, I DON’T UNDERSTAND ALL THE FUSS ABOUT THIS NUCLEAR STUFF ENGINEERING THE POWER FOR THE PLANET
RENEWABLE ENERGY… WIND FARMS - ARE THEY CUTE OR UGLY? DOES THIS DEPEND ON WHO & WHERE? ENGINEERING THE POWER FOR THE PLANET LAND BASED SEA BASED
DEFENDING THE REALM PROTECTING DEMOCRACY THROUGH STRONG DEFENCE DEFENDING THE PEOPLE CIVIL SPIN-OFFS…CONCORDE, HELICOPTERS, MOBILES, GPS,
OR..DEALING IN DEATH £££ THEY MADE ME DO IT! DEFENDING THE PEOPLE
THE INFORMATION AGE THE COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION e-MAIL THE WORLD INFORMATION - POWER PEOPLE POWER OVERCOMING PROPAGANDA OPEN GOVERNMENT INFORMATION RICH/POOR INFORMATION OVERLOAD COMPUTER-BASED EDUCATION VIRTUAL LIVES MICROSOFT - GLOBAL DOMINATION UNCENSORED GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS
THE INFORMATION AGE UNCENSORED GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS ARE YOU ADDICTED TO THE INTERNET?
THE INFORMATION AGE UNCENSORED GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD CHILDREN STAY-IN OR GO OUT TO PLAY
UNCENSORED GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS 20 MILLION PEOPLE VISIT SEX SITES EVERY MONTH THE INFORMATION AGE - COMPUTER CUPBOARD PERVERTS 200,000 ADDICTED TO INTERNET PORN
Ani Bod – An animated mannequin that combines sound, an internally projected image of a face and three-way head movement WHO DECIDES WHETHER IT’S ETHICAL OR NOT ? ???
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